(11.7) Bǐng Yuán 邴原 [Gēnjǔ 根矩]

Zhāng Tài 張泰 [Bóyáng 伯陽], Páng Dí 龐迪, Zhāng Gé 張閣 [Zǐtái 子臺]

Bǐng Yuán appellation Gēnjǔ was a Běihǎi Zhūxū man. When young he with Guǎn Níng together for conduct were esteemed and praised, the provincial offices recruitment orders he all did not accept. The Huángjīn [“Yellow Scarves”] rose, Yuán led his family and dependents into the sea, living in Yù island’s mountains. At the time Kǒng Róng became Běihǎi Chancellor, nominated Yuán as Yǒudào [“having the way”] candidate, Yuán because the Huángjīn were flourishing therefore went to Liáodōng, with his same prefecture’s Liú Zhèng both having valor and strategy and dominating air. Liáodōng Administrator Gōngsūn Dù feared and hated and wished to kill him [Liú Zhèng], completely arresting and seizing his families, [Liú] Zhèng was able to escape. [Gōngsūn] Dù announced to the various counties: “Any that dares hide [Liú] Zhèng will share the same punishment.” [Liú] Zhèng was distressed and went to take refuge with Yuán, (1) Yuán hid him for over a moon, at the time Dōnglái’s Tàishǐ Cí was about to return [from Liáodōng to the central plains], Yuán took advantage to have [Liú] Zhèng go with him. Shortly afterward he said to [Gōngsūn] Dù: “General you in former days wished to kill Liú Zhèng, because to you he was a threat. Now Zhèng has already left, is your thread not eliminated?” [Gōngsūn] Dù said: “Agreed.” Yuán said: “Your fear of [Liú] Zhèng was due to his intelligence. Now Zhèng that has already escaped, his intelligence will be used, why still keep Zhèng’s family? It is not as good as releasing them, to not double his complaints.” [Gōngsūn] Dù thus sent them away. Yuán also provided for sending off [Liú] Zhèng’s family, and all were able to return to their former prefecture. [When] Yuán was in Liáodōng within one year those that joined Yuán’s residence were several hundred families, traveling scholars and the sounds of lectures did not cease.


  • (1) Wèishì Chūnqiū states: [Liú] Zhèng in taking refuge said: “The destitute bird enters your bosom.” Yuán said: “How do you know this bosom can be entered?”

  〔一〕 魏氏春秋曰:政投原曰:「窮鳥入懷。」原曰:「安知斯懷之可入邪?」

Later he was able to return [to the central plains], Tàizǔ recruited him as an Excellency of Works’ Official. Yuán’s daughter early died, at the time Tàizǔ’s beloved son [Cáo Chōng] Cāngshū also died, Tàizǔ wished to request shared burial, Yuán declined saying: “Shared burial is against the rites. The reason that I Yuán am tolerated by your enlightened excellency, the reason your enlightened excellency accepts me Yuán, is that I am amble to uphold admonishment canons and not change. If I listened to your enlightened excellency’s command, then I would be a mediocrity, and what would your enlightened excellency do?” Tàizǔ thus stopped, transferred offices to Chancellor’s Campaign Affairs. (1) Cuī Yǎn was East Department Official, his records said: “Campaign Affairs Bǐng Yuán, Consultant Cadet Zhāng Fàn, both maintain virtue and are pure in restraint, ambition and conduct loyal and proper, pure quiet sufficient to sharpen custom, chaste firmness sufficient to administer affairs, what is called dragon feather and phoenix wing, the state’s important treasure. Nominating and employing them, then the not benevolent are distant.” Succeeded Liáng Mào as Five Offices General Chief Clerk, he closed his gates and maintained himself, and if it was not a public affair he did not go out. [When] Tàizǔ campaigned against Wú, Yuán accompanied the journey and died. (2)


  • (1) Xiàn-dì Qǐjū zhù states: Jiàn’ān Fifteenth Year [210], first installed Campaign Affairs of two people, [Bǐng] Yuán with Píngyuán’s Wáng Liè both were selected to fill it.

  〔一〕 獻帝起居注曰:建安十五年,初置徵事二人,原與平原王烈俱以選補。

  • (2) Yuán Biézhuàn states: Yuán at eleven lost his father, the family was poor, early orphaned. Neighboring was a book house, Yuán passed its side and wept. The teacher asked him: “Why does the boy grieve?” Yuán said: “The orphaned are easily injured, the poor easily emotional. Those with books certainly all have fathers and elder brothers. One, I envy that they are not orphaned; two, I envy that they obtain learning, my heart is sorrowful thus and for that I shed tears.” The teacher also pitied Yuán’s words and for him sobbed and said: “If you desire books it can be.” Replied saying: “I have no money.” The teacher said: “If the boy has ambition, I will instruct you without seeking money.” Therefore he learned books. Within one winter, he could recite the Xiàojīng and Lúnyǔ. From among the children, he stood out as special. When grown, he was as gold and jade in his conduct. He desired to distantly travel for study, visited Ānqiū’s Sūn Sōng. [Sūn] Sōng declined saying: “Your hometown’s sir Zhèng, do you know of him?” Yuán replied: “Yes.” Sōng said: “Sir Zhèng has studied and read the ancient to present, widely read with strong knowledge, reaching deep and conveying the distant, truly a teaching model for scholars.  You then abandoned that, treading shoes a thousand lǐ, what is called treating Zhèng as the east house’s Qiū [a reference to the story of Kǒng Qiū’s western neighbor not knowing of him]. You seem to not know and yet say yes, why?” Yuán said: “Professor your words truly can be said to be bitter drugs and good needles. However yet it does not understand your servant’s humble interests. People each have their ambitions, their plans are not the same, therefore then there are those that climb mountains to collect jade, and those that enter the sea to collect pearls, how can it be said that those who climb mountains do not know the depth of the sea or those that enter the sea do not know the height of mountains? Sir you say your servant takes Zhèng as the east house’s Qiū, sir are you taking your servant as the west house’s fool?” [Sūn] Sōng apologized, and also said: “Of Yǎn and Yù’s scholars, I know of many, but never one like you; I will write a letter of introduction.” Yuán valued his intentions, with difficulty took leave of him, carrying the letter and departing. Yuán’s heart believed: ‘in seeking teachers and beginning study, those of high ambitions succeed, it is not by befriending completed; what use is a letter?’ Thus he hid the letter at home and went. Yuán’s formerly could drink alcohol, after his journey, in eight to nine years, alcohol did not touch his mouth. Alone he walked carrying backpack of books, bitterly using his bodily strength, reaching Chénliú then he took as teacher Hán Zǐzhù, Yǐngchuān then schooling from Chén Zhònggōng, Rǔnán then engaging with Fàn Mèngbó, Zhuō prefecture then close with Lú Zǐgàn. On his departure, his teachers and friends because Yuán did not drink alcohol gathered rice and meat to send off Yuán. Yuán said: “Originally I could drink alcohol, but because it damages thinking and cripples enterprise, therefore I cut it off. Now about to distantly depart, because I see this farewell dinner, I can drink for one party.” Therefore they together sat and drank alcohol, to end of day not intoxicated. Returning home he returned the letter to Sūn Sōng, explaining his intentions in not sending the letter. Later he was by the prefecture summoned, installed as Merit Officer Registrar. At the time Lǔ state’s Kǒng Róng was at the prefecture, instructing that selecting calculators should appoint the talents of excellencies and ministers, and so used Zhèng Xuán as a Calculations Official, Péng Qiú as Calculations Scribe, Yuán as Calculations Aide. Róng had someone he favored, always extensively sighing of him. Later he as angry at him, wished to kill him, and the court officials all pleaded. At the time this person also was seated, and knocked head [bowing] to the point of bleeding, but Róng’s intentions were not resolved. Yuán alone did not plead. Róng said to Yuán: “Everyone all pleads but why do you alone not?” Yuán replied saying: “Your enlightened administratorship toward this person originally was not indifferent, always saying by the year’s end you would recommend him, this is what is called ‘my one son.’ Like this, the court officials in receiving favor have never once had one ahead of him, but now you then wish to kill him. Your enlightened administratorship in favoring him, then pulled and placed him as a son, in hating him then pushes and wishes to endanger his body. I Yuán am foolish, and do not know why you favor him? Why you hate him?” Róng said: “He was born in a humble family, I became his brother, selecting out and employing him; he now turns back on kind treatment. If good then advance them, if bad then punish them; this surely is a leader’s way. Formerly Yīng Zhòngyuǎn was Tàishān Administrator, nominated a Filial and Incorrupt candidate, and within ten days and a moon yet killed him. For a leader of men, in generosity and indifference what constancy is to be had?” Yuán replied saying: “Zhòngyuǎn nominating a Filial and Incorrupt and killing him, what righteousness was there? A Filial and Incorrupt candidate is the state’s eminent selection. If nominating him was right, them killing him was wrong. If killing him was right, then nominating him was wrong. The Shī says: ‘Those sorts of people, do not follow their kindness,’ probably to ridicule this. The says: ‘Favoring them desiring their life, hating them desiring their death. Both desiring their life and desiring their death is confusion.’ Zhòngyuǎn’s confusion was extreme. Why does your enlightened administratorship seek that?” Rǒng then greatly laughed and said: “I was only joking!” Yuán also said: “A noble man in their words, it comes from the body and is applied to the people. Speech and conduct are a noble man’s pivot trigger. How can there be a wish to kill someone that can be a joke?” Róng had no reply. At the time the Hàn Court was in decline, governance by bribery achieved, Yuán then led his family to enter into the Yù island mountains. The prefecture nominated him as Having the Way candidate, Róng’s letter explained to Yuán saying: “You cultivate character and protect chastity, pure emptiness upholding the high, dangerous country you do not enter, for a long time hidden in happy lands. The Ruling House has many troubles, to the west moved to Hàojīng. The sagely Court labors modestly, categorizing and consulting the eminent. I reach to seek determination, the talley orders earnest and sorrowful. The state about to fall, the widows do not worry about weaving, the family about to perish, Tíyíng made her journey. These are common women, yet maintain this righteousness. Truly looking out to you Gēnjǔ, benevolence is your appointment, reaching hands to save the drowning, rousing the people from troubles. Then if one can quietly reside and rest, not bothering to look to us, calling one a noble man, can it be like this? Gēnjǔ, Gēnjǔ, you can come.” Yuán therefore arrived at Liáodōng. Liáodōng had many tigers, Yuán’s village group alone had no tiger troubles. Yuán once walked and found lost money, collected and tied it to a tree branch, this money was both not taken, but the tied up money increased. Asking the reason, the answers said it was a divine tree. Yuán hated that because of him it became an obscene sacrifice, and so explained it, and therefore those in the borough then restrained their money for [proper] sacrificial offerings. Later Yuán wished to return to his hometown, stopping at Sānshān. Kǒng Róng’s letter said: “Suí Huì was at Qín, Jiǎ Jì at Dí, consultation and admiration are not places, sighs increase longings. Recently I learned you have come by, near at Sānshān. Does the Shī not say: ‘Coming back form Hào, our journey ever lasting.’ Now I send Five Offices officials to present inquiries and notices for the labors of men of boats and oars, of the disasters and fortunes, moving and quiet announcing reassurances. The chaos has not yet finished, the stalwart obstructing troops like chess pieces contend for dominance.” Yuán therefore then returned back. After over ten years, later he then escaped back. He was on the southern journey already for several days, when [Gōngsūn] Dù suddenly became aware. [Gōngsūn] Dù knew that Yuán could not be again pursued, and therefore said: “Sir Bǐng is what is called a white crane in the clouds, not what a net for quails can capture. Also I myself sent him, do not again seek him.” Therefore he escaped danger. From when he returned to his home country, Yuán therefore lectured on the and Yuè, recited the Shī and Shū, his gate disciples were several hundred, following on the roads several tens. At the time Zhèng Xuán was widely learned and extensively heard, annotating and explaining the canon, and therefore classicist scholars gathered around him. Yuán also himself was lofty and pure, nourishing ambition and living simply, his mouth without inappropriate speech, body without inappropriate conduct, therefore outstanding and great scholars turned to him. At the time within the seas in Pure Commentary said that Qīng province had the scholarship of Bǐng and Zhèng. Wèi Tàizǔ became Excellency of Works, recruited Yuán as East Pavilion Libationer. Tàizǔ led a northern campaign against the three prefectures Chányú, returned and stationed at Chāngguó, feasting the scholar officials. Intoxicated, Tàizǔ said: “I’ve returned, those maintaining Yè will certainly come welcome, today and tomorrow morning, I judge all will have arrived. Those that will not come, will only be Libationer Bǐng. His speech was not finished, when Yuán first arrived. Those below the gate announced the visitor, Tàizǔ was greatly surprised and pleased, picking up shoes and rising, distantly going out to welcome Yuán saying: “Worthies truly are difficult to fathom and judge! I said you would not be able to come, and yet distantly you’ve condescended to, truly in accord to the hungering emptiness of my heart.” The visitation finished and he went out, in the army the scholar officials that visited Yuán were several hundred people. Tàizǔ wondered and asked them, at the time Xún [Yù] Wénruò was seated, and replied: “You only need ask Bǐng Yuán.” Tàizǔ said: “This sir’s name is heavy, that it also overturns the scholar officials’ hearts?” Wénruò said: “This is an exceptional man of the whole era, the vital elegance of scholars, your excellency should use utmost courtesy to treat him.” Tàizǔ said: “Assuredly this is my original intention.” From this afterward, me met with admiration of increasing weight. Yuán though was in the military offices, he always due to illness rested in his borough, to the end not attending to affairs, and also rarely met anyone. Hénèi’s Zhāng Fàn was a famed excellency’s son, his ambition and conduct was in accord with Yuán, and was extremely close and respectful. Order said: “Bǐng Yuán’s fame is high and virtue great, pure regulation profound in custom, outstanding as a lone peak, and will not be employed by me. I hear Zhāng Zǐpō wishes to learn from him. I fear those that will seek him are many, those that can follow him are few.” The Wèi Heir-Apparent became Five Offices Internal Cadet General, Heaven’s Under turned in admiration, his guest retainers like clouds, but Yuán alone upheld the way and maintained constancy, and if it was not a public affair he did not rashly act. Tàizǔ secretly sent someone to follow and ask him, Yuán said: “I hear a state endangered does not serve the senior ministers, the ruler leaving does not attend to the successor son, this is the canon standard.” Therefore then transferred to Five Offices Chief Scribe, the Order said: “My son is young and not talented, and I fear he is difficult to correct, greedily I wish to impose on you, to rectify and encourage him. Though I say it benefits the worthy, can I not be ashamed?” The Heir-Apparent was feasting, the crowd of guests a hundred and several tens of people, the Heir-Apparent held a debate saying: “If your lord and your father each had a serous illness, and you had a drug of one pill, that could save one person, would you save your lord or your father?” Everyone was divided, some saying father and some saying lord. At the time Yuán was seated, and would not participate in this discussion. The Heir-Apparent consulted Yuán, Yuán angrily replied: “Father.” The Heir-Apparent also did not again bother him.

  〔二〕 原別傳曰:原十一而喪父,家貧,早孤。鄰有書舍,原過其旁而泣。師問曰:「童子何悲?」原曰:「孤者易傷,貧者易感。夫書者,必皆具有父兄者,一則羨其不孤,二則羨其得學,心中惻然而為涕零也。」師亦哀原之言而為之泣曰:「欲書可耳!」答曰:「無錢資。」師曰:「童子苟有志,我徒相教,不求資也。」於是遂就書。一冬之間,誦孝經、論語。自在童齔之中,嶷然有異。及長,金玉其行。欲遠游學,詣安丘孫崧。崧辭曰:「君鄉里鄭君,君知之乎?」原答曰:「然。」崧曰:「鄭君學覽古今,博聞彊識,鉤深致遠,誠學者之師模也。君乃舍之,躡屣千里,所謂以鄭為東家丘者也。君似不知而曰然者,何?」原曰:「先生之說,誠可謂苦藥良鍼矣;然猶未達僕之微趣也。人各有志,所規不同,故乃有登山而採玉者,有入海而採珠者,豈可謂登山者不知海之深,入海者不知山之高哉!君謂僕以鄭為東家丘,君以僕為西家愚夫邪?」崧辭謝焉。又曰:「兗、豫之士,吾多所識,未有若君者;當以書相分。」原重其意,難辭之,持書而別。原心以為求師啟學,志高者通,非若交游待分而成也。書何為哉?乃藏書於家而行。原舊能飲酒,自行之後,八九年間,酒不向口。單步負笈,苦身持力,至陳留則師韓子助,潁川則宗陳仲弓,汝南則交范孟博,涿郡則親盧子幹。臨別,師友以原不飲酒,會米肉送原。原曰:「本能飲酒,但以荒思廢業,故斷之耳。今當遠別,因見貺餞,可一飲讌。」於是共坐飲酒,終日不醉。歸以書還孫崧,解不致書之意。後為郡所召,署功曹主簿。時魯國孔融在郡,教選計當任公卿之才,乃以鄭玄為計掾,彭璆為計吏,原為計佐。融有所愛一人,常盛嗟歎之。後恚望,欲殺之,朝吏皆請。時其人亦在坐,叩頭流血,而融意不解。原獨不為請。融謂原曰:「眾皆請而君何獨不?」原對曰:「明府於某,本不薄也,常言歲終當舉之,此所謂『吾一子』也。如是,朝吏受恩未有在某前者矣,而今乃欲殺之。明府愛之,則引而方之於子,憎之,則推之欲危其身。原愚,不知明府以何愛之?以何惡之?」融曰:「某生于微門,吾成就其兄弟,拔擢而用之;某今孤負恩施。夫善則進之,惡則誅之,固君道也。往者應仲遠為泰山太守,舉一孝廉,旬月之閒而殺之。夫君人者,厚薄何常之有!」原對曰:「仲遠舉孝廉,殺之,其義焉在?夫孝廉,國之俊選也。舉之若是,則殺之非也;若殺之是,則舉之非也。詩云:『彼己之子,不遂其媾。』蓋譏之也。語云:『愛之欲其生,惡之欲其死。既欲其生,又欲其死,是惑也。』仲遠之惑甚矣。明府奚取焉?」融乃大笑曰:「吾直戲耳!」原又曰:「君子於其言,出乎身,加乎民;言行,君子之樞機也。安有欲殺人而可以為戲者哉?」融無以答。是時漢朝陵遲,政以賄成,原乃將家人入鬱洲山中。郡舉有道,融書喻原曰:「脩性保貞,清虛守高,危邦不入,久潛樂土。王室多難,西遷鎬京。聖朝勞謙,疇咨雋乂。我徂求定,策命懇惻。國之將隕,嫠不恤緯,家之將亡,緹縈跋涉,彼匹婦也,猶執此義。實望根矩,仁為己任,授手援溺,振民於難。乃或晏晏居息,莫我肯顧,謂之君子,固如此乎!根矩,根矩,可以來矣!」原遂到遼東。遼東多虎,原之邑落獨無虎患。原嘗行而得遺錢,拾以繫樹枝,此錢既不見取,而繫錢者愈多。問其故,答者謂之神樹。原惡其由己而成淫祀,乃辨之,於是里中遂斂其錢以為社供。後原欲歸鄉里,止於三山。孔融書曰:「隨會在秦,賈季在翟,諮仰靡所,歎息增懷。頃知來至,近在三山。詩不云乎,『來歸自鎬,我行永久』。今遣五官掾,奉問榜人舟楫之勞,禍福動靜告慰。亂階未已,阻兵之雄,若棋弈爭梟。」原於是遂復反還。積十餘年,後乃遁還。南行已數日,而度甫覺。度知原之不可復追也,因曰:「邴君所謂雲中白鶴,非鶉鷃之網所能羅矣。又吾自遣之,勿復求也。」遂免危難。自反國土,原於是講述禮樂,吟咏詩書,門徒數百,服道數十。時鄭玄博學洽聞,註解典籍,故儒雅之士集焉。原亦自以高遠清白,頤志澹泊,口無擇言,身無擇行,故英偉之士向焉。是時海內清議,云青州有邴、鄭之學。魏太祖為司空,辟原署東閤祭酒。太祖北伐三郡單于,還住昌國,燕士大夫。酒酣,太祖曰:「孤反,鄴守諸君必將來迎,今日明旦,度皆至矣。其不來者,獨有邴祭酒耳!」言訖未久,而原先至。門下通謁,太祖大驚喜,攬履而起,遠出迎原曰:「賢者誠難測度!孤謂君將不能來,而遠自屈,誠副饑虛之心。」謁訖而出,軍中士大夫詣原者數百人。太祖怪而問之,時荀文若在坐,對曰:「獨可省問邴原耳!」太祖曰:「此君名重,乃亦傾士大夫心?」文若曰:「此一世異人,士之精藻,公宜盡禮以待之。」太祖曰:「固孤之宿心也。」自是之後,見敬益重。原雖在軍歷署,常以病疾,高枕里巷,終不當事,又希會見。河內張範,名公之子也,其志行有與原符,甚相親敬。令曰:「邴原名高德大,清規邈世,魁然而峙,不為孤用。聞張子頗欲學之,吾恐造之者富,隨之者貧也。」魏太子為五官中郎將,天下向慕,賓客如雲,而原獨守道持常,自非公事不妄舉動。太祖微使人從容問之,原曰:「吾聞國危不事冢宰,君去不奉世子,此典制也。」於是乃轉五官長史,令曰:「子弱不才,懼其難正,貪欲相屈,以匡勵之。雖云利賢,能不恧恧!」太子燕會,眾賓百數十人,太子建議曰:「君父各有篤疾,有藥一丸,可救一人,當救君邪,父邪?」眾人紛紜,或父或君。時原在坐,不與此論。太子諮之于原,原悖然對曰:「父也。」太子亦不復難之。

Afterward Minister Herald Jùlù’s Zhāng Tài, Hénán Intendant’s Fúfēng’s Páng Dí as pure worthies were praised, (1) Yǒngníng Minister Charioteer Dōng prefecture’s Zhāng Gé for simple character was famed. (2)


  • (1) Xún Chuò’s Jìzhōu jì states: Jùlù’s Zhāng Pí appellation Shàohǔ. His grandfather Tài appellation Bóyáng had fame in Wèi. Father Miǎo appellation Shūliáo was Liáodōng Administrator. Wrote the famed Zìrán Hǎoxué lùn in Jī Kāng’s . As a man he was liberal and deep and had distant thinking, vast and extensive, so that of those who sought it none could measure. In office served Two Palaces, at Yuánkāng’s beginning became Chéngyáng Administrator, had not yet gone and died.

  〔一〕 荀綽冀州記曰:鉅鹿張貔,字邵虎。祖父泰,字伯陽,有名於魏。父邈,字叔遼,遼東太守。著名自然好學論,在嵇康集。為人弘深有遠識,恢恢然,使求之者莫之能測也。宦歷二(官)〔宮〕,元康初為城陽太守,未行而卒。

  • (2) Dù Shù’s written Jiājiè appraises [Zhāng] Gé stating: “Zhāng Zǐtái, on looking at him he resembles a lowly simple man, however in his heart he does not know between Heaven and Earth what is beautiful, what is enjoyable, his kindheartedness is such that it seems to be with yīn and yáng joined in virtue. To be a man like this, naturally one cannot be wealthy or noble, however where can suffering and misfortune come? The world has high and bright ones like Zǐtái, all have many admirers, but embodying it not so much.”

  〔二〕 杜恕著家戒稱閣曰:「張子臺,視之似鄙樸人,然其心中不知天地閒何者為美,何者為好,敦然似如與陰陽合德者。作人如此,自可不富貴,然而患禍當何從而來?世有高亮如子臺者,皆多力慕,體之不如也。」

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