For complete beginners to the time period, it is recommended to read introductions to the material first to gain appropriate context:

This is a Translation Project of the Sanguozhi 三國志 Record of Three States, the canonical Chinese Standard History of the Three States era [220-265], from Classical Chinese 文言 to English. The ultimate goal of this project is to eventually produce a translation of the full history. Rough Drafts of translations of excerpts are posted here and made freely available online as proofs of concept. Drafts may be corrected, edited, and/or removed at any time. All translations and drafts are copyright, and are not to be reproduced for commercial purposes. Please do not copy these translations to other websites (this is partially to spare us the embarrassment of seeing any mistakes in our drafts propagate).

We cannot guarantee perfect accuracy in translations in these drafts. Errors are possible. Submissions of corrections or alternative translations are welcome.


If you would like to support this translation project, you may donate to help alleviate web hosting costs. While donations of all sizes are welcome, be warned that Paypal keeps $0.30 + 2.9% of every donation. Donations are not tax deductible.

We also run a Patreon page. However, be aware that due to the fees involved, you will generally get more “value” donating through PayPal; Patreon ends up keeping a bigger cut.

All proceeds from donations go directly to paying for web hosting.

Alternatively, consider purchasing our self-published books.


The Three States Records project is managed by Yáng Zhèngyuán of Ven Research, a subsidiary of the Ven Institute. Our current sister projects include:

(Last updated 2020 July 15)