(8.1) Gōngsūn Zàn 公孫瓚 [Bóguī 伯珪]

Liú Yú 劉虞 [Bó’ān 伯安]

Gōngsūn Zàn appellation Bóguī was a Liáoxī Lìngzhī man. He became in the prefecture a Scribe Assistant Below the Gate. He had an imposing appearance and great voice. Administrator Hóu was impressed with him, gave his daughter as wife to him, (1) and sent him to visit Zhuō prefecture’s Lú Zhí to study the classics.

公孫瓚字伯珪,遼西令支人也。為郡門下書佐。有姿儀,大音聲,侯太守器之,以女妻焉,〔一〕遣詣涿郡盧植讀經。

  • (1) Diǎnlüè states:  Zàn by nature was skilled in rhetoric. Whenever he discussed matters he was not superficial, and always made several different points, never forgetting or making a mistake. The Administrator was impressed with his ability.

〔一〕 典略曰:瓚性辯慧,每白事不肯梢入,常總說數曹事,無有忘誤,太守奇其才。

Later he became a prefectural official. When Administrator Liú was in trouble and summoned to visit the Minister of Justice, Zàn drove the chariot, and personally attended to him. When Liú was exiled to Rìnán, Zàn prepared grain and meat, and north of Máng [hill] offered sacrifices to his ancestors, raising the libation cup and saying: “Previously I was a son, but now I am a servant, and will soon go to Rìnán. Rìnán has unhealthy air, and perhaps I may not return, so I bid farewell to my ancestors.” He again bowed fervently and rose, and at the time of those watching there were none who did not sob. Liú on the road was pardoned and returned.

後復為郡吏。劉太守坐事徵詣廷尉,瓚為御車,身執徒養。及劉徙日南,瓚具米肉,於北芒上祭先人,舉觴祝曰:「昔為人子,今為人臣,當詣日南。日南瘴氣,或恐不還,與先人辭於此。」再拜慷慨而起,時見者莫不歔欷。劉道得赦還。

Zàn was nominated as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate and became a Cadet, and was sent out as Liáodōng Dependent State’s Chief Clerk. Once he went with several tens of cavalry to patrol Sāi, and encountered several hundred Xiānbēi riders. Zàn therefore retreated to an empty precinct, and said to his following cavalry: “Now if we do not charge through them, then we will all be killed.” Zàn then himself grasped a lance, attached a blade on both ends, and charged and stabbed through the Hú, killing and wounding several tens, but also losing half his riders, and so they escaped. The Xiānbēi were intimidated and afterward did not dare again enter Sāi. He was promoted to Zhuō Magistrate.

瓚以孝廉為郎,除遼東屬國長史。嘗從數十騎出行塞,見鮮卑數百騎,瓚乃退入空亭中,約其從騎曰:「今不衝之,則死盡矣。」瓚乃自持矛,兩頭施刃,馳出刺胡,殺傷數十人,亦亡其從騎半,遂得免。鮮卑懲艾,後不敢復入塞。遷為涿令。

During Guānghé [178-184], Liángzhōu rebels rose up. Elite riders from Yōuzhōu were sent, 3000 men, and Zàn was provisionally made acting commander as they went, and so led them there. The army arrived at Jìzhōng. Zhāng Chún of Yúyáng enticed Liáoxī’s Wūhuán Qiūlìjū and others to rebel, plunder Jìzhōng. He styled himself a General, (2) robbed fromt he officials and people and attacked the various cities of Yòuběipíng and Liáoxī Dependent State, and wherever he arrived was left in ruins.

光和中,涼州賊起,發幽州突騎三千人,假瓚都督行事傳,使將之。軍到薊中,漁陽張純誘遼西烏丸丘力居等叛,劫略薊中,自號將軍,〔二〕略吏民攻右北平、遼西屬國諸城,所至殘破。

  • (2) Jiǔzhōu Chūnqiū states: Chún declared himself General Completing Heaven and King of Āndìng.

〔二〕 九州春秋曰:純自號彌天將軍、安定王。

Zàn took command, pursued and attacked Chún with achievements, and was promoted to Cavalry Commandant. The Dependent State Wūhuán King of Tānzhì led his tribe to surrender to Zàn. [Gōngsūn Zàn] was promoted to Internal Cadet-General, given fief as a capital precinct Marquis, advanced to camp in the Dependent State, and fought with the barbarians for five to six years. Qiūlìjū and the others plundered Qīng, Xú, Yōu, Jì, four provinces, doing great harm and  Zàn was unable to resist them.

瓚將所領,追討純等有功,遷騎都尉。屬國烏丸貪至王率種人詣瓚降。遷中郎將,封都亭侯,進屯屬國,與胡相攻擊五六年。丘力居等鈔略青、徐、幽、冀,四州被其害,瓚不能禦。


The Court commented that the Minister of the Imperial Clan Liú [Yú] Bó’ān of Dōnghǎi was virtuous and righteous and in the past had been Inspector of Yōuzhōu, was known for his kindness and honesty, the foreign tribes were attached to him, and if he was sent to defend and comfort, the matter could be settled without toiling with armies, and therefore Liú Yú was appointed Governor of Yōuzhōu. (1)

朝議以宗正東海劉伯安既有德義,昔為幽州刺史,恩信流著,戎狄附之,若使鎮撫,可不勞眾而定,乃以劉虞為幽州牧。〔一〕

  • (1) Wúshū states: [Liú] Yú was a descendant of Dōnghǎi Gōng-wáng “Respectful King”. He encountered a period of decline and chaos, and also was from estranged from the ruler of the time. He was appointed in the county as Household Officier Scribe, and for his ability in government and personal devotion to duty was summoned to become a commandery official, nominated as Filial and Incorrupt to become a Cadet, was promoted to reach Inspector of Yōuzhōu, transferred to Chancellor of Gānlíng and greatly won the hearts of the eastern foreign tribes. Afterward due to illness he returned home, always kept himself subdued, shared in the joys and sorrows of the village groups, had none to match his level but did not act any different because of his reputation and rank, and the local village all took him as an exemplar. Whenever the local village had a law dispute, they did not go to the officials, but instead went to Yú to decide it. Yú used reason to decide sentences, and all great and small respectfully obeyed, and were not resentful. Once there was someone who lost an ox, that in body size and fur color resembled Yú’s ox, and so believed it was his ox, and Yú without dispute gave it to him. Later the owner found his original ox, and then apologized for his mistake. At the time Gānlíng was again disordered, and the officials and people thought that if Yú came to govern and again became Chancellor of Gānlíng, then Gānlíng would be greatly settled. He was summoned and appointed Director of the Secretariat, Minister of Attendants, was treated with the same Courtesy as to the Excellencies, and further became Minister of the Imperial Clan.
  • Yīngxióngjì states: Yú became Magistrate of Bópíng, governed uprightly and promoted justice, was noble and lofty but simple and honest. Within the borders there were no robbers, and natural disasters did not occur. At the time the neighboring county had the disasters of locusts, but when they reached the Bópíng border, they flew past and did not enter.
  • Wèishū states: Yú was at Yōuzhōu, was peaceful and frugal, and used righteousness and courtesy to enlighten the people. In the time of Líng-dì the Southern Palace was damaged, so when officials were sent to fill posts in the provinces and commanderies, all were required to provide money to assist in repairing the Palace, some paying ten million, some twenty million. The wealthy used their private fortunes, or else took money from the people to provide it. The poor and honest had no way to pay, and some killed themselves. Líng-dì because Yú was poor but upright specially permitted him not to pay money.

〔一〕 吳書曰:虞,東海恭王之後也。遭世衰亂,又與時主疏遠,仕縣為戶曹吏。以能治身奉職,召為郡吏,以孝廉為郎,累遷至幽州刺史,轉甘陵相,甚得東土戎狄之心。後以疾歸家,常降身隱約,與邑黨州閭同樂共卹,等齊有無,不以名位自殊,鄉曲咸共宗之。時鄉曲有所訴訟,不以詣吏,自投虞平之;虞以情理為之論判,皆大小敬從,不以為恨。嘗有失牛者,骨體毛色,與虞牛相似,因以為是,虞便推與之;後主自得本牛,乃還謝罪。會甘陵復亂,吏民思虞治行,復以為甘陵相,甘陵大治。徵拜尚書令、光祿勳,以公族有禮,更為宗正。英雄記曰:虞為博平令,治正推平,高尚純樸,境內無盜賊,災害不生。時鄰縣接壤,蝗蟲為害,至博平界,飛過不入。魏書曰:虞在幽州,清靜儉約,以禮義化民。靈帝時,南宮災,吏遷補州郡者,皆責助治宮錢,或一千萬,或二千萬,富者以私財辨,或發民錢以備之,貧而清慎者,無以充調,或至自殺。靈帝以虞清貧,特不使出錢。

[Liú] Yú arrived, sent emissaries among the Hú, informed them of the potential advantages and disadvantages, and asked that they send [Zhāng] Chún’s head. Qiūlìjū and the others heard that Yú had arrived, were pleased, and each sent messengers to surrender. Zàn feared that Yú would have achievement [above his own], and therefore secretly sent people to kill the Hú envoys at the border. The Hú learned of this, and so changed their route to visit Yú. Yú withdrew the garrisoned soldiers, but left Zàn with command of 10,000 infantry and cavalry stationed at Yòuběipíng. [Zhāng] Chún therefore abandoned his wives and children and fled to the Xiānbēi, but was killed by his retainer Wáng Zhèng, who sent the head to Yú. Zhèng was given fief as a full Marquis. [Liú] Yú for his achievement was appointed Grand Commandant and given fief as Marquis of Xiāngbēn. (2)

虞到,遣使至胡中,告以利害,責使送純首。丘力居等聞虞至,喜,各遣譯自歸。瓚害虞有功,乃陰使人徼殺胡使。胡知其情,閒行詣虞。虞上罷諸屯兵,但留瓚將步騎萬人屯右北平。純乃棄妻子,逃入鮮卑,為其客王政所殺,送首詣虞。封政為列侯。虞以功即拜太尉,封襄賁侯。〔二〕

  • (2) Yīngxióngjì states: Yú declined to be Grand Commandant, and instead recommended Minister of the Guard Zhào Mó, Governor of Yìzhōu Liú Yān, Governor of Yùzhōu Huáng Wǎn, and Administrator of Nányáng Yáng Xù, and all were appointed Excellencies.

〔二〕 英雄記曰:虞讓太尉,因薦衛尉趙謨、益州牧劉焉、豫州牧黃琬、南陽太守羊續,並任為公。

At the time Dǒng Zhuó arrived at Luòyáng [189], and promoted [Liú] Yú to Marshal-in-Chief, and Zàn to General Exerting Martiality with fief as Marquis of Jì.

會董卓至洛陽,遷虞大司馬,瓚奮武將軍,封薊侯。


East of the Passes Righteous Troops rose up [190], and [Dǒng] Zhuó therefore seized the Emperor and moved west. He summoned [Liú] Yú to be Grand Tutor, but the roads were cut off and the letter of order did not arrive.

關東義兵起,卓遂劫帝西遷,徵虞為太傅,道路隔塞,信命不得至。

Yuán Shào and Hán Fù discussed matters, believing: “As they have a Child Emperor controlled by a treacherous minister, the empire Under Heaven has none to turn their hearts to. [Liú] Yú is of the Imperial Clan and has reputation, and the people look to him.” Therefore they nominated Yú to become Emperor. An envoy was sent to Yú, but Yú to the end would not accept. Shào and the others again asked that Yú claim authority over the Secretariat affairs, in order to manage ranks and grant fiefs and titles, but Yú again would not listen, but he did make alliance with Shào and the rest. (1)

袁紹、韓馥議,以為少帝制於姦臣,天下無所歸心。虞,宗室知名,民之望也,遂推虞為帝。遣使詣虞,虞終不肯受。紹等復勸虞領尚書事,承制封拜,虞又不聽,然猶與紹等連和。〔一〕

  • (1) Jiǔzhōu Chūnqiū states: [Yuán] Shào and [Hán] Fù sent former Administrator of Lèlàng Zhāng Qí of Gānlíng to present the proposal to Yú, to ask that he take Imperial Title. Yú sternly scolded [Zhāng] Qí: “How dare you speak such talk! The loyal and filial way cannot be left. I have received the state’s favor, but the realm Under Heaven is in chaos, and I cannot devote myself to remove the state’s troubles, but I look to the righteous heroes of the provinces and commanderies to use all their strength to face the west and rescue the young ruler. Yet now you absurdly make treasonous plans, and wish to disgrace this loyal servant!”
  • Wúshū states: [Hán] Fù wrote a letter to Yuán Shù, saying: “The Emperor is not a son of Xiào-Líng. We wish to follow the example of [the Marquis of] Jiàng and Guàn [Yīng] punishing a child ruler to welcome and enthrone the King of Dài. [Liú] Yú is praised for merit and virtue in government, our civilization has no other, and now among the branches of the ruling house, there are none that can compare to him.” It also said: “In the past Guāng-Wǔ [25-57] was five generations removed from Dìng-wáng [a son of Jǐng-dì, -155-141] and as Marshal-in-Chief commanded the [Yellow] River’s north. Gěng Yǎn and Féng Yì advised him to take Imperial Title, and in the end he succeeded Gēngshǐ [23-25]. Now Lord Liú [Yú] in his descent from Gōng-wáng [a son of Guāng-Wǔ] is also five generations, and he as Marshal-in-Chief commands as Governor of Yōuzhōu. This is the same as with Guāng-Wǔ.” At the time four stars met at jīwěi [constellation], and [Hán] Fù made a prophecy that said a divine man would soon be at Yān’s border. It was also reported that a Jìyīn man, Wáng Dìng [‘the King is decided’] found a Jade seal that had written on it: “Yú will be Heaven’s Son.” It was also reported two suns were sighted at Dài prefecture, and it was said Yú would succeed to the Throne. [Yuán] Shào also wrote a separate letter to report this to [Yuán] Shù. At the time Shù already secretly had a treacherous heart, and believed it disadvantages if the state had a mature ruler, and therefore outside he used righteous principles to answer and oppose it. [Yuán] Shào also sent someone to secretly inform Yú, but Yú because the state had its rightful ruler and because this was not what subjects should say, firmly refused and would not accept. Therefore he threatened to flee to the Xiōngnú to live in isolation, and [Yuán] Shào and the rest therefore stopped. Yú therefore loyally sent tribute [to the Court] and became even more respectful and solemn. All the foreign Qiāng and Hú had tribute to them but the roads were cut off, and all were delivered and went to the capital.

〔一〕 九州春秋曰:紹、馥使故樂浪太守甘陵張岐齎議詣虞,使即尊號。虞厲聲呵岐曰:「卿敢出此言乎!忠孝之道,既不能濟。孤受國恩,天下擾亂,未能竭命以除國恥,望諸州郡烈義之士戮力西面,援迎幼主,而乃妄造逆謀,欲塗污忠臣邪!」吳書曰:馥以書與袁術,云帝非孝靈子,欲依絳、灌誅廢少主,迎立代王故事;稱虞功德治行,華夏少二,當今公室枝屬,皆莫能及。又云:「昔光武去定王五世,以大司馬領河北,耿弇、馮異勸即尊號,卒代更始。今劉公自恭王枝別,其數亦五,以大司馬領幽州牧,此其與光武同。」是時有四星會于箕尾,馥稱讖云神人將在燕分。又言濟陰男子王定得玉印,文曰「虞為天子」。又見兩日出于代郡,謂虞當代立。紹又別書報術。是時術陰有不臣之心,不利國家有長主,外託公義以答拒之。紹亦使人私報虞,虞以國有正統,非人臣所宜言,固辭不許;乃欲圖奔匈奴以自絕,紹等乃止。虞於是奉職脩貢,愈益恭肅;諸外國羌、胡有所貢獻,道路不通,皆為傳送,致之京師。

[Liú] Yú’s son Hé was a Attendant Internal and at Cháng’ān. Heaven’s Son wished to return east, and sent Hé to disguise and escape [Dǒng] Zhuó, secretly go through Wǔ Pass to visit Yú, to order him to lead troops to come welcome [the Emperor back east].

虞子和為侍中,在長安。天子思東歸,使和偽逃卓,潛出武關詣虞,令將兵來迎。

[Liú] Hé on the road encountered Yuán Shù, informing him of Heaven’s Son’s intention. Shù wished to gain reinforcements from Yú, and detained Hé and would not send him, and claiming to gather troops to go west ordered Hé to write a letter to Yú. Yú obtained Hé’s letter, and therefore sent several thousand cavalry to join Hé. Zàn knew that Shù had ulterior motives, did not wish to send troops, and stopped Yú, but Yú would not listen. Zàn was afraid Shù would hear and be angered by this, and also sent his younger cousin [Gōngsūn] Yuè to lead a thousand cavalry to join Shù to make alliance, while secretly advising Shù to keep Hé and take over his troops. Because of this, Yú and Zàn had a rift. Hé escaped Shù and came north, but was again detained by [Yuán] Shào.

和道經袁術,為說天子意。術利虞為援,留和不遣,許兵至俱西,令和為書與虞。虞得和書,乃遣數千騎詣和。瓚知術有異志,不欲遣兵,止虞,虞不可。瓚懼術聞而怨之,亦遣其從弟越將千騎詣術以自結,而陰教術執和,奪其兵。由是虞、瓚益有隙。和逃術來北,復為紹所留。


At the time, [Yuán] Shù had sent Sūn Jiān to garrison Yángchéng to oppose [Dǒng] Zhuó, and [Yuán] Shào had sent Zhōu Áng to seize his headquarters. Shù sent [Gōngsūn] Yuè to join Jiān in attacking Áng, was unsuccessful, and Yuè was struck by a stray arrow and died. [Gōngsūn] Zàn angrily said: “My younger brother’s death was because of Shào.” Therefore he set out his army to camp at Pánhé and was about to take revenge on Shào.

是時,術遣孫堅屯陽城拒卓,紹使周昂奪其處。術遣越與堅攻昂,不勝,越為流矢所中死。瓚怒曰:「余弟死,禍起于紹。」遂出軍屯磐河,將以報紹。

Shào was afraid, and gave from his own girdle the seals and ribbons of Administrator of Bóhǎi to Zàn’s younger cousin [Gōngsūn] Fàn, sent him to that prefecture, hoping to restore alliance. [Gōngsūn] Fàn then led Bóhǎi’s troops to join Zàn, defeating the Yellow Headscarves of Qīng and Xú [provinces]. Their troops were flourishing, and the army advanced to Jiè Bridge. (1)

紹懼,以所佩勃海太守印綬授瓚從弟範,遣之郡,欲以結援。範遂以勃海兵助瓚,破青、徐黃巾,兵益盛;進軍界橋。〔一〕

  • (1) Diǎnlüè record’s Zàn’s memorial listing Shào’s crimes: “I your servant have heard that it was since the August [Fú] Xī that there first were rulers and servants and superior and subordinate. Cultivation was used to guide the people, and punishments were used to forbid evil. Now Acting General of Chariots and Cavalry Yuán Shào was entrusted with leadership but plunders and steals nobility, is by nature violent and rebellious, and his actions are coarse and obscene. Previously he was Colonel-Director of Retainers, and at the time the State was in mourning [for Líng-dì]. The Dowager-Empress took charge and the Hé family assisted the government, but Shào turned to evil flattery and could not raise the upright, and so ordered Dīng Yuán to burn down Mèngjīn and summoned Dǒng Zhuó, creating the source of the chaos. This was Shào’s first crime. [Dǒng] Zhuó both entered Luò[yáng] and seized the ruler, but Shào could not by authority or deceit rescue his lord or his father, and instead abandoned his post and duties, bursting forth and fleeing, shaming and disgracing the Mandate, and so turned his back on his superior and lacked loyalty. This was Shào’s second crime. Shào became Administrator of Bóhǎi, secretly raised weapons and horses, and was about to attack Dǒng Zhuó, but did not inform his father and elder brother, and so the Grand Tutor’s [Yuán Kuí] whole family and Minister Charioteer [Yuán Jī] parent and children were in one morning all killed, and so lacked benevolence and lacked filial piety. This was Shào’s third crime. When Shào raised troops, he tarried for two years, did not sympathize with the state’s troubles, expanded his own domain, and therefore took provisions and supplies without hurrying, killed wealthy households to seize their money. The people cried and sighed, and none did not protest in pain. This was Shào’s fourth crime. With Hán Fù he created a false Throne, faked command and Imperial Order, carved gold and jade seals, sent down a written letter in a black bag that was presented and examined and found to say: ‘A written Imperial Order bestows one fief with the Seal of Marquis of Kàng village.’ In the past during the chaos of the Xīn House [that attempted to usurp Hàn] such false actions gradually became treated as real, and now Shào in this bestowal is just like that. This was Shào’s fifth crime. Shào ordered Cuī Jùyè to watch the sun and stars, to bestow treasures and bribes, gather together to eat and drink, set dates for meetings, and attack and plunder prefectures and counties. Is this how a great minister should behave? This was Shào’s sixth crime. Shào with former Tiger-Fang Commandant Liú Xūn together led troops. Xūn still was useful, and had also subdued Zhāng Yáng, but due to petty anger he unjustly harmed Xūn, trusting false slander, killing those with achievement. This was Shào’s seventh crime. Shào also sent up former Administrator of Shànggǔ Gāo Yān, former Chancellor of Gānlíng Yáo Gòng, and unreasonably fined them money. The money was not enough, so both men were killed. This was Shào’s eighth crime. By the righteous way of the Chūnqiū, the son is honored based on the mother. Shào’s mother was a slave girl, so Shào truly is lowly and cannot be a successor. By righteousness it is unsuitable. Therefore by seizing grand and important appointment, he shamed and defouled the royal nobility, and disgraced the Yuán ancestors. This was Shào’s ninth crime. Furthermore Administrator of Chángshā Sūn Jiān previously took office as Inspector of Yùzhōu, drove away Dǒng Zhuó, swept clean the [Imperial] Tombs and Temples, and his achievements had none greater. Shào ordered Zhōu Áng to steal and occupy his place, cutoff Jiān’s provisions, causing him to be unable to go further and enabling [Dǒng] Zhuó to escape execution. This was Shào’s tenth crime. I your servant also received every letter of General of the Rear Yuán Shù, and say that Shào is not of the same sort as Shù. Shào’s crimes are such that all the bamboo of the southern hills are not enough to record them. In the past when the government of the Jī [ruling family of the] Zhōu became weak, the way of the King was delayed, Heaven’s Son moved the capital, and all the lords turned away and rebelled. Therefore Huán of Qí established the Oath of Kētíng, Wén of Jìn held the meeting of treading earth, cut down Jīng-Chǔ all the way to Jīngmáo and punished Cáo and Wèi to demonstrate what was without courtesy. Though I your servant am limited and confused, and my reputation cannot match the ancient worthies, I have received the Court’s favor, and so received important appointment, have duties in wielding the Battle-Ax, and obediently cut down the criminal, and will at once with all the officers and the provincial and commandery troops attack Shào and the rest. If this matter is successful, the criminal will be captured, and the people will continue to learn the loyalty and honesty of Huán and Wén, battle will take form, and front to rear will continue on.” Therefore he raised troops to do battle with Shào, and Shào was unsuccessful.

〔一〕 典略載瓚表紹罪狀曰:「臣聞皇、羲以來,始有君臣上下之事,張化以導民,刑罰以禁暴。今行車騎將軍袁紹,託其先軌,寇竊人爵,既性暴亂,厥行淫穢。昔為司隸校尉,會值國家喪禍之際,太后承攝,何氏輔政,紹專為邪媚,不能舉直,至令丁原焚燒孟津,招來董卓,造為亂根,紹罪一也。卓既入雒而主見質,紹不能權譎以濟君父,而棄置節傳,迸竄逃亡,忝辱爵命,背上不忠,紹罪二也。紹為勃海太守,默選戎馬,當攻董卓,不告父兄,至使太傅門戶,太僕母子,一旦而斃,不仁不孝,紹罪三也。紹既興兵,涉歷二年,不卹國難,廣自封殖,乃多以資糧專為不急,割剝富室,收考責錢,百姓吁嗟,莫不痛怨,紹罪四也。韓馥之迫,竊其虛位,矯命詔恩,刻金印玉璽,每下文書,皁囊施檢,文曰『詔書一封,邟鄉侯印』。邟,口浪反。昔新室之亂,漸以即真,今紹所施,擬而方之,紹罪五也。紹令崔巨業候視星日,財貨賂遺,與共飲食,克期會合,攻鈔郡縣,此豈大臣所當宜為?紹罪六也。紹與故虎牙都尉劉勳首共造兵,勳仍有效,又降伏張楊,而以小忿枉害于勳,信用讒慝,殺害有功,紹罪七也。紹又上故上谷太守高焉、故甘陵相姚貢,橫責其錢,錢不備畢,二人并命,紹罪八也。春秋之義,子以母貴。紹母親為婢使,紹實微賤,不可以為人後,以義不宜,乃據豐隆之重任,忝污王爵,損辱袁宗,紹罪九也。又長沙太守孫堅,前領豫州刺史,驅走董卓,掃除陵廟,其功莫大;紹令周昂盜居其位,斷絕堅糧,令不得入,使卓不被誅,紹罪十也。臣又每得後將軍袁術書,云紹非術類也。紹之罪戾,雖南山之竹不能載。昔姬周政弱,王道陵遲,天子遷都,諸侯背叛,於是齊桓立柯亭之盟,晉文為踐土之會,伐荊楚以致菁茅,誅曹、衛以彰無禮。臣雖闒茸,名非先賢,蒙被朝恩,當此重任,職在鈇鉞,奉辭伐罪,輒與諸將州郡兵討紹等。若事克捷,罪人斯得,庶續桓、文忠誠之效,攻戰形狀,前後續上。」遂舉兵與紹對戰,紹不勝。

[Gōngsūn Zàn] appointed Yán Gāng to Jìzhōu [as Inspector], Tián Kǎi to Qīngzhōu, Shàn Jīng to Yǎnzhōu, and also installed appointees to all the prefectures and counties. [Yuán] Shào led his army to Guǎngchuān, ordered his General Qū Yì to lead the vanguard and battle with Zàn, capturing [Yán] Gāng alive. Zàn’s army was defeated and fled to Bóhǎi, and with [Gōngsūn] Fàn returned to Jì. Southeast of the main city he built a small city to be close to [Liú] Yú, and gradually they were on bad terms.

以嚴綱為冀州,田楷為青州,單經為兗州,置諸郡縣。紹軍廣川,令將麴義先登與瓚戰,生禽綱。瓚軍敗走勃海,與範俱還薊,於大城東南築小城,與虞相近,稍相恨望。


[Liú] Yú feared that Zàn would rebel, so he raised troops to attack Zàn. Yú was defeated by Zàn and fled to Jūyōng. Zàn attacked and overcame Jūyōng, capturing Yú alive, and took Yú back to Jì. At the time [Dǒng] Zhuó had died, and Heaven’s Son had sent an envoy Duàn Xùn to increase Yú’s fief and given him command over six provinces, and to promote Zàn to General of the Front with fief as Marquis of Yì. Zàn falsely accused Yú of seeking to claim Imperial title, and coerced [Duàn] Xùn to behead Yú. (1)

虞懼瓚為變,遂舉兵襲瓚。虞為瓚所敗,出奔居庸。瓚攻拔居庸,生獲虞,執虞還薊。會卓死,天子遣使者段訓增虞邑,督六州;瓚遷前將軍,封易侯。瓚誣虞欲稱尊號,脅訓斬虞。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Previously, Liú Yú peacefully gathered the foreign tribes, but Zàn because the Hú and Yì were difficult to resist would not accept them and attacked them, [believing that] if they now gave gifts then [the barbarians] would think lightly of Hàn, and this would only have fame for a time and was not a plan for the long term. Therefore the gifts Yú intended to give were immediately seized by Zàn. Yú several times invited him to meet, but he claimed illness and would not go. When [Gōngsūn Zàn was] defeated in battle [by Yuán Shào],  Yú wished to attack him, and informed his East Department Official, a Yòuběipíng man, Wèi Yōu. Yōu said: “Now the realm Under Heaven awaits a lord to serve, so one cannot be without planning officials and fighting men. Zàn has especially great ability in civil and military affairs, and though he has some small faults, you should tolerate him.” Therefore he stopped. After a year, Yōu died of illness. Yú again discussed things with his officials, and secretly ordered the army to attack Zàn. Zàn’s personal guard and retainers were scattered outside, so they were afraid they would be destroyed, and dug through the city’s east gate in order to flee. Yú’s troops had no organization, were not experienced in battle, and further he cared for civilian houses and ordered that they were not to be burned. Therefore Zàn set a fire, and then used elite troops to break through. Yú’s army was greatly scattered, and he fled to Jūyōng city. Zàn captured him and his family retainers and returned, killing the provincial government officials, and all the well-attired good scholars were nearly wiped out.
  • Diǎnlüè states: Zàn placed Yú beneath the sun in the market place and said: “If he is meant to be Heaven’s Son, then Heaven will send down rain to save him.” At the time it was the hot peak of summer, with clear skies and no rain, so he thereupon killed Yú.
  • Yīngxióngjì states: Yú was about to be killed, so Chancellor of Chángshān Sūn Jǐn, officials Zhāng Yì, Zhāng Zàn, and others out of loyalty and righteous indignation set out, went to join Yú, cursed Zàn with harsh words, and afterward died together [with Liú Yú].

〔一〕 魏氏春秋曰:初,劉虞和輯戎狄,瓚以胡夷難禦,當因不賓而討之,今加財賞,必益輕漢,效一時之名,非久長深慮。故虞所賞賜,瓚輒鈔奪。虞數請會,稱疾不往。至是戰敗,虞欲討之,告東曹掾右北平人魏攸。攸曰:「今天下引領,以公為歸,謀臣爪牙,不可無也。瓚,文武才力足恃,雖有小惡,固宜容忍。」乃止。後一年,攸病死。虞又與官屬議,密令眾襲瓚。瓚部曲放散在外,自懼敗,掘東城門欲走。虞兵無部伍,不習戰,又愛民屋,敕令勿燒。故瓚得放火,因以精銳衝突。虞眾大潰,奔居庸城。瓚攻及家屬以還,殺害州府,衣冠善士殆盡。典略曰:瓚曝虞于市而祝曰:「若應為天子者,天當降雨救之。」時盛暑,竟日不雨,遂殺虞。英雄記曰:虞之見殺,故常山相孫瑾、掾張逸、張瓚等忠義憤發,相與就虞,罵瓚極口,然後同死。

Zàn memorialized [Duàn] Xùn as Inspector of Yōuzhōu. Zàn then became arrogant, remembering offenses and forgetting kindnesses, and many were harmed by him. (2)

瓚上訓為幽州刺史。瓚遂驕矜,記過忘善,多所賊害。〔二〕

  • (2) Yīngxióngjì states: Zàn gathered up inside and out all the well-attired [scholar-gentry] students that had exceptional ability, and all were sent and exiled in poor and destitute territory. Someone asked him the reason, and he answered: “Now these well-attired [scholar-gentry] students and wealthy and noble scholars all believe they deserve office, and do not appreciate my greatness.” Those who received favor were arrogant and unrestrained, and many were common fellows, like the former fortune-teller Liú Wěitái, silk trader Lǐ Yízǐ, and merchant Yuè Hédāng, and others. Those three men and he swore an oath of brotherhood. [Gōngsūn Zàn] called himself the eldest, and the three men were the second, third, and fourth. Their wealth all reached hundreds of millions, and some had their daughters taken to wed his sons, always citing past people like Qǔ Zhōu and Guàn Yīng as examples.

〔二〕 英雄記曰:瓚統內外,衣冠子弟有材秀者,必抑使困在窮苦之地。或問其故,答曰:「今取衣冠家子弟及善士富貴之,皆自以為職當得之,不謝人善也。」所寵遇驕恣者,類多庸兒,若故卜數師劉緯臺、販繒李移子、賈人樂何當等三人,與之定兄弟之誓,自號為伯,謂三人者為仲叔季,富皆巨億,或取其女以配己子,常稱古者曲周、灌嬰之屬以譬也。

[Liú] Yú’s Attending Officials, Yúyáng’s Xiānyú Fǔ, Qí Zhōu, Cavalry Commandant Xiānyú Yín, and others led the provincial troops, seeking to take revenge on Zàn. As Yān state’s Yán Róu was known for kindness and honesty, they all nominated him as Major of the Wūwán. [Yán] Róu led the Wūwán and Xiānbēi and obtained several tens of thousands of barbarian and Hàn men, fought with Zàn’s appointed Administrator of Yúyáng Zōu Dān at Lùběi, greatly defeated him, and beheaded [Zōu] Dān. Yuán Shào also sent Qū Yì and [Liú] Yú’s son [Liú] Hé to lead troops and join [Xiānyú] Fǔ to together attack Zàn. Zàn’s army was repeatedly defeated, and he therefore retreated to Yìjīng and firmly defended. (3)

虞從事漁陽鮮于輔、齊周、騎都尉鮮于銀等,率州兵欲報瓚,以燕國閻柔素有恩信,共推柔為烏丸司馬。柔招誘烏丸、鮮卑,得胡、漢數萬人,與瓚所置漁陽太守鄒丹戰于潞北,大破之,斬丹。袁紹又遣麴義及虞子和,將兵與輔合擊瓚。瓚軍數敗,乃走還易京固守。〔三〕

  • (3) Yīngxióngjì states: Before this there was a children’s rhyme that said: “Yān reaches south, Zhào stretches north. In the center no bigger than a grindstone, only there can one escape the world.” Zàn believed this meant Yì, and therefore built a fortress to defend. Among Zàn’s separate officers there were those besieged by the enemy that asked for refuge. He answered: “If I rescue one, then afterward the officers will rely on rescue and not use their strength in battle. Now if I do not rescue them, then afterward they will remember to rely on themselves.” Therefore when Yuán Shào first came north and attacked, Zàn’s southern border separate camps realized they could not resist alone, and also knew they would not see reinforcements, and therefore they killed their own officers [to surrender], or else were destroyed by Shào’s troops, and therefore Shào’s army easily reached [Gōngsūn Zàn’s] Gates.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes that of the words of the children’s rhyme none were not all examined. As it is recorded, it appears to lack melody. The song’s words were to lead Zàn to the end to first defend Yì and have no long-term strategy. But Zàn because he had broken the strength of the Yellow Headscarves had grown ambitious and spread his plans, and so installed Inspectors of three provinces and plotted to destroy the Yuán clan, and because of this he was destroyed.

〔三〕 英雄記曰:先是有童謠曰:「燕南垂,趙北際,中央不合大如礪,惟有此中可避世。」瓚以易當之,乃築京固守。瓚別將有為敵所圍,義不救也。其言曰:「救一人,使後將恃救不力戰;今不救此,後將當念在自勉。」是以袁紹始北擊之時,瓚南界上別營自度守則不能自固,又知必不見救,是以或自殺其將帥,或為紹兵所破,遂令紹軍徑至其門。臣松之以為童謠之言,無不皆驗;至如此記,似若無徵。謠言之作,蓋令瓚終始保易,無事遠略。而瓚因破黃巾之威,意志張遠,遂置三州刺史,圖滅袁氏,所以致敗也。

He built ten encircling moats, and between each moat he built a fortress, each five to six zhàng [~12-14m] high, with a tower atop. In the center-most moat he built a citadel, ten zhàng [~23m] high, and himself resided there, storing three million hú of grain. (4)

為圍塹十重,於塹裏築京,皆高五六丈,為樓其上;中塹為京,特高十丈,自居焉,積穀三百萬斛。〔四〕

  • (4) Yīngxióngjì states: Zàn deployed all his officers each in towers, and so there were a thousand fortifications.  Zàn built a steel gate, and resided atop that tower, dismissing his attendants, having his maidservants and concubines at his side, and [communicating by] pulling up [with pulleys] letters and documents.

〔四〕 英雄記曰:瓚諸將家家各作高樓,樓以千計。瓚作鐵門,居樓上,屏去左右,婢妾侍側,汲上文書。

Zàn said: “In the past it was said that the affairs of the world Under Heaven were settled by [military] banners, and now considering things, I cannot resolve things, so it is better to rest the troops, and focus on agriculture and livestock. By military principles, hundred-fold fortifications are not attacked. Now I have thousand-fold fortifications. When this grain is eaten up, then one can again consider the affairs of the world Under Heaven again.” He wished to defeat Shào in this way. Shào sent Generals to attack him, but for successive years could not overcome him. (5)

瓚曰:「昔謂天下事可指麾而定,今日視之,非我所決,不如休兵,力田畜穀。兵法,百樓不攻。今吾樓櫓千重,食盡此穀,足知天下之事矣。」欲以此弊紹。紹遣將攻之,連年不能拔。〔五〕

  • (5) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Yuán Shào wrote Zàn a letter that said: “I and you sir previously had alliance and old agreement to go forth by the oath to suppress the chaos, correcting the mistakes of Yí and Shū and distinguishing red from green, said our army strengths were on the same path, following the examples of Qí and Jìn, and therefore discarded seals and ribbons, used the north to lead the south, divided rich spoils in order to obediently do our duty. Is this not a clear explanation of my bare feelings? How could you abandon the hero’s high righteousness and seek to leave a legacy of destruction, stopping and turning and with easily change intentions and send soldiers and horses [led by Gōngsūn Yuè] to plunder and violate Yùzhōu [support Sūn Jiān against Zhōu Áng]? When I first heard armored soldiers were to the south, I personally went to overlook the battle lines, fearing that arrows would suddenly fly forth and violent blades clash, and so by valuing your misfortunes, I acknowledged my faults and therefore sent a letter of earnest sorrow, hoping to mend my ways. But you sir were exceedingly fierce and reckless, boasted of your power, said even Heaven could be conquered and the greatest heroes be destroyed, and indeed ordered your younger brother [Gōngsūn Yuè] to die at the end of a blade point. These words are true and that is all, but you sir refused to realize what was the true source of the disaster, ignored your heart and your guilty self, and wished to flaunt your boundless fury, violating obedience to cross the ford, hiding behind accusations to harm the people, in order to attack me. Therefore you galloped your horses and fired your bowstrings, occupying my territory, cruelly harming the people, and leaving behind white bones. I would not be taken, and led the campaign at Jiè Bridge. At the time your army’s spirits thundered and shook, your horses like lightning set out. My servants and troops gathered together with plans not prepared, and the difference in our strength and our numbers were obvious, but by the assistance of Heaven, a small battle became a great victory, and so you fled and turned away, and so your camps and buildings and grain were taken. Was this not the clear demonstration of Heaven’s authority and good fortune of having courtesy? But your ambition was not yet broken, and so you again gathered your remnant forces, commanded my defected traitors and so burned down Bóhǎi. I again would not be captured, and set up my army along the river. Light troops were sent ahead, the main army had not yet crossed, but you sir were absolutely terrified and your army scattered, without a beating of drums you were defeated, your troops in utter disorder, and both leader and subjects together fled. This again was due to you sir, and not my fault. From then afterward, misfortune and calamity became greater and deeper, and I leading my army could not bear my anger, and so with bodies piled high like a fortress, heads and skulls littered the wilderness, feeling sorrow for the blameless, never did not sigh and weep. Later I received your letter, its words and meaning were humble and subdued, and it spoke of changing your ways. I was very pleased to return to our former friendship and moreover pitied the countless people gone, and so at once summoned back my troops and returned south, agreeing to the letter. It was not even a full period of time when urgent dispatches came from the north, even before I had arrived back. My heart was bitter and lamenting at having been so deceived. One who would be commander of the Three Armies and take appointment as full General should control his anger as bitter frost, be happy as in times of rain, hide away their likes and hatreds, and calmly face things. But you sir are little in virtue, when strong or weak change schemes, when in urgency bow humbly but when not in urgency flee and escape, so that there is no resolution, your words have no integrity, and so caused my strong troops to become as hard as this! You killed both old and young, and the lands of Yōu[zhōu] were indignant and angry, and so the masses rebelled and your friends abandoned you, leaving you isolated with no allies. Further the Wūwán and Huìmò were all in the same province as you sir, but I treated them with special custom, and each exerted their speed and anger, and fought as my vanguard, while the Eastern and Western Xiānbēi led their followers to join me. This was not that my virtue had roused them, but that you sir had driven them away to come here. One in a desolate and dangerous age, who resides in danger of weapons and spears, who inside violated Oath of Alliance and outside lost the hearts of the foreign tribes, raised troops in the provincial soil and brought disaster and misery, when seeking to establish dominance should it not be difficult? I advanced by the western mountains and sent troops to pacify, while Qū Yì dealt with the remainder, and so they feared punishment and to save their lives therefore came to join my great army, so your divided troops were squandered, and those troops now serve as my front, and so your banners and flags taken at Jiè bridge are at the front to meet you as an enemy. When I first heard you sir had carved a golden seal with purple ribbon to make yourself supreme commander, I said because of this I was roused to action, to avenge the disgrace of the Alliance, and therefore in battle was eager, raised high banners and flags, enough to block out light like shadows, but to the end you had no response, so your troops were wiped out, and all pitied this. One who has the fury to pacify the realm Under Heaven hopes to have long-lasting achievement, authority to resist armies, lead and raise weapons and horses, leave no rebel unpunished, no avenger uncaptured, authority and pity together lost, how can one establish reputation? Now the old capital is again subdued, Heaven has nothing to say in repair, criminals perish, the loyal bring change, our civilization is reverent, watching for solemn action, so I restrain my weapons and spears, and let go my oxen and horses, but you sir alone guard your trifling territory, holding to your army, and by your evil reputation quickly weaken, so without virtue can you last long? To be strong without resources to support it is not a good plan. You should forget your regrets and remove your suspicions, and restore good relations with me. If you these words are false, may the August Sky hear of it.” Zàn did not answer, and instead increased his military preparations. He said to Guān Jìng: “Now in all directions tigers fight, but none can sit below my city walls and resist for a year to the next. How can Yuán Běnchū match me?”

〔五〕 漢晉春秋曰:袁紹與瓚書曰:「孤與足下,既有前盟舊要,申以討亂之誓,愛過夷、叔,分著丹青,謂為旅力同軌,足踵齊、晉,故解印釋紱,以北帶南,分割膏腴,以奉執事,此非孤赤情之明驗邪?豈寤足下棄烈士之高義,尋禍亡之險蹤,輟而改慮,以好易怨,盜遣士馬,犯暴豫州。始聞甲卒在南,親臨戰陳,懼于飛矢迸流,狂刃橫集,以重足下之禍,徒增孤(子)之咎釁也,故為薦書懇惻,冀可改悔。而足下超然自逸,矜其威詐,謂天罔可吞,豪雄可滅,果令貴弟殞于鋒刃之端。斯言猶在於耳,而足下曾不尋討禍源,克心罪己,苟欲逞其無疆之怒,不顧逆順之津,匿怨害民,聘於余躬。遂躍馬控弦,處我疆土,毒遍生民,辜延白骨。孤辭不獲已,以登界橋之役。是時足下兵氣霆震,駿馬電發;僕師徒肇合,機械不嚴,彊弱殊科,眾寡異論,假天之助,小戰大克,遂陵躡奔背,因壘館穀,此非天威棐諶,福豐有禮之符表乎?足下志猶未厭,乃復糾合餘燼,率我蛑賊,以焚爇勃海。孤又不獲寧,用及龍河之師。羸兵前誘,大軍未濟,而足下膽破眾散,不鼓而敗,兵眾擾亂,君臣並奔。此又足下之為,非孤之咎也。自此以後,禍隙彌深,孤之師旅,不勝其忿,遂至積尸為京,頭顱滿野,愍彼無辜,未嘗不慨然失涕也。後比得足下書,辭意婉約,有改往脩來之言。僕既欣於舊好克復,且愍兆民之不寧,每輒引師南駕,以順簡書。弗盈一時,而北邊羽檄之文,未嘗不至。孤是用痛心疾首,靡所錯情。夫處三軍之帥,當列將之任,宜令怒如嚴霜,喜如時雨,臧否好惡,坦然可觀。而足下二三其德,彊弱易謀,急則曲躬,緩則放逸,行無定端,言無質要,為壯士者固若此乎!既乃殘殺老弱,幽土憤怨,眾叛親離,孑然無黨。又烏丸、濊貊,皆足下同州,僕與之殊俗,各奮迅激怒,爭為鋒銳;又東西鮮卑,舉踵來附。此非孤德所能招,乃足下驅而致之也。夫當荒危之世,處干戈之險,內違同盟之誓,外失戎狄之心,兵興州壤,禍發蕭牆,將以定霸,不亦難乎!前以西山陸梁,出兵平討,會麴義餘殘,畏誅逃命,故遂住大軍,分兵撲蕩,此兵孤之前行,乃界橋搴旗拔壘,先登制敵者也。始聞足下鐫金紆紫,命以元帥,謂當因茲奮發,以報孟明之恥,是故戰夫引領,竦望旌旆,怪遂含光匿影,寂爾無聞,卒臻屠滅,相為惜之。夫有平天下之怒,希長世之功,權御師徒,帶養戎馬,叛者無討,服者不收,威懷並喪,何以立名?今舊京克復,天罔云補,罪人斯亡,忠幹翼化,華夏儼然,望於穆之作,將戢干戈,放散牛馬,足下獨何守區區之士,保軍內之廣,甘惡名以速朽,亡令德之久長?壯而籌之,非良策也。宜釋憾除嫌,敦我舊好。若斯言之玷,皇天是聞。」瓚不答,而增脩戎備。謂關靖曰:「當今四方虎爭,無有能坐吾城下相守經年者明矣。袁本初其若我何!」

Jiàn’ān Fourth Year [199], Shào led all his armies to besiege him. Zàn sent his son to ask for help from the Black Mountain bandits, and also wished to personally lead his cavalry and break out to the southwestern hills, join with the armies of the Black Mountains and attack Jìzhōu, cutting off Shào’s rear. Chief Clerk Guān Jìng advised Zàn: “Now General all the officers and soldiers are already divided and demoralized and the reason they can still resist is that they are feel attached to their homes and their young and old, and also because you General are the master. If you General resist for several days, Yuán Shào will eventually retreat, and after he retreats, all the armies will certainly be reunited. If you General now leave and go, the army will not be able to defend, Yìjīng will be endangered, and you could lose your foundation. If you General lose your base, you would be alone in the wilderness, and how could you be successful?” Zàn therefore stopped and did not go out. (6)

建安四年,紹悉軍圍之。瓚遣子求救于黑山賊,復欲自將突騎直出,傍西南山,擁黑山之眾,陸梁冀州,橫斷紹後。長史關靖說瓚曰:「今將軍將士,皆已土崩瓦解,其所以能相守持者,顧戀其居處老小,以將軍為主耳。將軍堅守曠日,袁紹要當自退;自退之後,四方之眾必復可合也。若將軍今舍之而去,軍無鎮重,易京之危,可立待也。將軍失本,孤在草野,何所成邪!」瓚遂止不出。〔六〕

  • (6) Yīngxióngjì states: Guān Jìng appellation Shìqǐ was a Tàiyuán man. He was by nature a ruthless official, who flattered but had no great ability to plan, and was specially trusted and favored by Zàn.

〔六〕 英雄記曰:關靖字士起,太原人。本酷吏也,諂而無大謀,特為瓚所信幸。

When the reinforcements arrived, both inside and outside would attack Shào. He sent someone with a letter to his son, that when the soldiers arrived they should light a fire as the signal. (7)

救至,欲內外擊紹。遣人與子書,刻期兵至,舉火為應。〔七〕

  • (7) Diǎnlüè states: Zàn sent someone to present a letter to inform his son [Gōngsūn] Xù: “Yuán’s attack is like a fearsome ghost, drums and horns cry as if from the ground, charging up ladders toward my towers. The sun weakens and the moon is trampled, and there is nothing to relive the tedium. You must break through to Zhāng Yān and quickly come with light cavalry. When you arrive set a fire to the north, and I will from the inside set out. Otherwise, I will have no descendants [disown you], and though the world Under Heaven is wide, would you ever be able to have a place to find rest?”
  • Xiàn-dì Chūnqiū states: Zàn dreamed of Jì city collapsing, and knew he would certainly be destroyed, so he sent a messenger with a letter to [Gōngsūn] Xù. One of Shào’s sentries captured it, and Chén Lín sent a [fake] reply letter: “One hears that in the past in the time of the fall of Zhōu there were bodies and blood [everywhere]. I believe this cannot be; how can you plan to today charge out yourself?”
  • The rest is the same as Diǎnlüè records.

〔七〕 典略曰:瓚遣行人文則齎書告子續曰:「袁氏之攻,似若神鬼,鼓角鳴于地中,梯衝舞吾樓上。日窮月蹴,無所聊賴。汝當碎首於張燕,速致輕騎,到者當起烽火於北,吾當從內出。不然,吾亡之後,天下雖廣,汝欲求安足之地,其可得乎!」獻帝春秋曰:瓚夢薊城崩,知必敗,乃遣閒使與續書。紹候者得之,使陳琳更其書曰:「蓋聞在昔衰周之世,僵戶流血,以為不然,豈意今日身當其衝!」其餘語與典略所載同。

One of Shào’s sentries captured the letter, and they set a fire. Zàn believed the reinforcements had arrived, and so set out to do battle. Shào set up an ambush and greatly defeated him, so he returned to defend. Shào made a tunnel to break through his towers, and reached the center citadel. (8)

紹侯者得其書,如期舉火。瓚以為救兵至,遂出欲戰。紹設伏擊,大破之,復還守。紹為地道,突壞其樓,稍至中京。〔八〕

  • (8) Yīngxióngjì states: Yuán Shào sent a division of attackers to dig a path through the ground, and when the tunnel reached below the tower they set up wooden supports tunnel underground. When they judged that they had reached the center, they set fire to the supports, and the tower at once collapsed.

〔八〕 英雄記曰:袁紹分部攻者掘地為道,穿穴其樓下,稍稍施木柱之,度足達半,便燒所施之柱,樓輒傾倒。

Zàn knew he would certainly be destroyed, so he killed all his wives and children, and then killed himself. (9)

瓚自知必敗,盡殺其妻子,乃自殺。〔九〕

  • (9) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Guān Jìng said: “I have heard that the superior gentleman who has led another to danger must share in the misfortune. How can I be the only survivor?” Therefore he urged on his horse to charge Shào’s army and died. Shào sent his head to [the capital] Xǔ.

〔九〕 漢晉春秋曰:關靖曰:「吾聞君子陷人於危,必同其難,豈可獨生乎!」乃策馬赴紹軍而死。紹悉送其首於許。


Xiānyú Fǔ then led his armies to swear loyalty to Imperial command. Fǔ was appointed General Establishing Loyalty, with command over the six prefectures of Yōuzhōu. Tàizǔ and Yuán Shào faced one another at Guāndù, and Yán Róu sent an envoy to Tàizǔ to receive orders, and was promoted to Colonel Protecting the Wūhuán. Meanwhile Fǔ personally went to visit Tàizǔ and was appointed Left General Crossing the Liáo, given fief as Marquis of a precinct, and sent back to defend and support his home province. (1)

鮮于輔將其眾奉王命。以輔為建忠將軍,督幽州六郡。太祖與袁紹相拒於官渡,閻柔遣使詣太祖受事,遷護烏丸校尉。而輔身詣太祖,拜左度遼將軍,封亭侯,遣還鎮撫本州。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: Fǔ followed Tàizǔ at Guāndù. Yuán Shào was defeated and fled, Tàizǔ was pleased, and looked back to say to Fǔ: “The year before last [Yuán Shào] Běnchū sent Gōngsūn Zàn’s head here and I looked at it and was very surprised and that is all. But now I have overcome him. This was both Heaven’s will, and also by the strength of you few sirs.”

〔一〕 魏略曰:輔從太祖於官渡。袁紹破走,太祖喜,顧謂輔曰:「如前歲本初送公孫瓚頭來,孤自視忽然耳,而今克之。此既天意,亦二三子之力。」

Tàizǔ overcame Nánpí, Róu led his retainers and the Xiānbēi to present prized horses to the army, followed in the campaigns against the Wūhuán of three commanderies, and for his achievement was given fief as a Marquis Within the Passes. (2)

太祖破南皮,柔將部曲及鮮卑獻名馬以奉軍,從征三郡烏丸,以功封關內侯。〔二〕

  • Wèilüè states: Tàizǔ greatly favored Yán Róu, and always said to him: “I look upon you like my son, and also hope that you will look to me as a father.” Róu because of this attached himself to the Five Office [Cadet-]General [Cáo Pī] as if they were brothers.

〔二〕 魏略曰:太祖甚愛閻柔,每謂之曰:「我視卿如子,亦欲卿視我如父也。」柔由此自託於五官將,如兄弟。

Fǔ also led his armies to obedience. When Wén-dì ascended [220], Fǔ was appointed as Tiger-Fang General and Róu as General Crossing the Liáo, and both were advanced to Marquis of a county, ranked Specially Advanced.

輔亦率其眾從。文帝踐阼,拜輔虎牙將軍,柔度遼將軍,皆進封縣侯。位特進。

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