(43.4) Mǎ Zhōng 馬忠 [Déxìn 德信]

Mǎ Zhōng appellation Déxìn was a Bāxī Làngzhōng man. When young he was raised by his outer family [maternal side relatives], was surnamed Hú, named Dǔ, and afterward then again returned to his surname [back to Mǎ], and changed his name to Zhōng. He became a prefecture clerk, at the end of Jiàn’ān [196-220] was nominated as Filial and Incorrupt, and sent out as Chief of Hànchāng.

馬忠字德信,巴西閬中人也。少養外家,姓狐,名篤,後乃復姓,改名忠。為郡吏,建安末舉孝廉,除漢昌長。

Xiān-zhǔ [Liú Bèi] led an eastern campaign [222], was utterly defeated at Xiāotíng, and Administrator of Bāxī Yán Zhī sent from all the various counties soldiers, 5000 men, as replacements for losses, and sent Zhōng to deliver them. Xiān-zhǔ had already returned to Yǒng’ān, met Zhōng and spoke with him, and said to Director of the Secretariat Liú Bā: “Though I lost Huáng Quán, I gained Hú Dǔ [Mǎ Zhōng]. This shows the world has no lack of talent.”

先主東征,敗績猇亭,巴西太守閻芝發諸縣兵五千人以補遺闕,遣忠送往。先主已還永安,見忠與語,謂尚書令劉巴曰:「雖亡黃權,復得狐篤,此為世不乏賢也。」

Jiànxīng first year [223] Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng opened his office, and appointed Zhōng Commander Beneath the Gates.

建興元年,丞相亮開府,以忠為門下督。

Third year [225] Liàng entered the south and appointed Zhōng as Administrator of Zāngkē. The prefecture Deputy Zhū Bāo rebelled. After the rebellion, Zhōng brought relief and reasonable government, and deeply had authority and kindness.

三年,亮入南,拜忠牂牁太守。郡丞朱褒反。叛亂之後,忠撫育卹理,甚有威惠。

Eighth year [230] he was summoned to be an Advisor to the Army of the Chancellor, and assisted the Chief Clerk Jiǎng Wǎn’s office in headquarters affairs. He was also given office as Advisor in Provincial Internal Government.

八年,召為丞相參軍,副長史蔣琬署留府事。又領州治中從事。

Next year [231] [Zhūgě] Liàng set out against Qíshān. Zhōng visited where Liàng was and engaged in military affairs. The army returned. Commanding General Zhāng Nì and others suppressed Wènshān prefecture’s rebelling Qiāng.

明年,亮出祁山,忠詣亮所,經營戎事。軍還,督將軍張嶷等討汶山郡叛羌。

Eleventh year [233], the southern foreigner powerful commander Liú Zhòu rebelled, and disturbed all the prefectures. Commander of Láijiàng Zhāng Yì was summoned back, and Zhōng succeeded Yì. Zhōng thereupon beheaded [Liú] Zhòu and pacified the southern lands. Zhōng was given additional office as Supervisor of the Army and General Exerting Authority with fief as Marquis of Bóyáng precinct.

十一年,南夷豪帥劉冑反,擾亂諸郡。徵庲降都督張翼還,以忠代翼。忠遂斬冑,平南土。加忠監軍奮威將軍,封博陽亭侯。

Previously, Jiànníng prefecture killed its Administrator Zhèng Áng, bound its Administrator Zhāng Yì and sent him to Wú, and therefore the Commander had always garrisoned Píngyí county. When Zhōng [became Commander] he thereupon moved headquarters to Wèi county, residing among the people and foreigners. Also Yuèxī commandery had also long been lost territory. Zhōng led Administrator Zhāng Nì in opening up and restoring the old commandery, and by this he was promoted to General Calming the South, advanced in fief to Marquis of Péngxiāng precinct.

初,建寧郡殺太守正昂,縛太守張裔於吳,故都督常駐平夷縣。至忠,乃移治味縣,處民夷之間。又越嶲郡亦久失土地,忠率將太守張嶷開復舊郡,由此就加安南將軍,進封彭鄉亭侯。

Yánxī fifth year [242] he returned to Court, and therefore was sent to Hànzhōng and met Marshal-in-Chief Jiǎng Wǎn to deliver an Imperial Order, and was promoted to General-in-Chief Defending the South.

延熙五年還朝,因至漢中,見大司馬蔣琬,宣傳詔旨,加拜鎮南大將軍。

Seventh year [244] spring, General-in-Chief Fèi Yī to the north resisted the Wèi enemies, and left Zhōng at Chéngdū to oversee Secretariat affairs. Yī returned, and Zhōng therefore returned south.

七年春,大將軍費禕北禦魏敵,留忠成都,平尚書事。禕還,忠乃歸南。

Twelfth year [249] he died. His son Xiū succeeded. (1)

十二年卒,子脩嗣〔一〕。

  • (1) Xiū’s younger brother Huī. Huī’s son Yì was a Jìn Administrator of Jiànníng.

〔一〕 脩弟恢。恢子義,晉建寧太守。


Zhōng as a man was generous and had magnanimity, but was whimsical and teased and greatly laughed, and when furious it did not show on his face. However in handling affairs he could be decisive, and was both authoritative and kind, and therefore the foreigners both feared and loved him. When he died, none of them did not personally go the funeral hall, weeping with utmost sorrow, and they established for him a Temple with sacrifices, which up to now [~290] is still present.

忠為人寬濟有度量,但詼啁大笑,忿怒不形於色。然處事能斷,威恩並立,是以蠻夷畏而愛之。及卒,莫不自致喪庭,流涕盡哀,為之立廟祀,迄今猶在。


Zhāng Biǎo was at the time a famous scholar, whose reputation for refinement surpassed Zhōng. Yán Yǔ showed ability for achievement and in affairs was meticulous and diligent. They continued [administering the south] after Zhōng, but their authority and merits both did not match Zhōng. (1)

張表,時名士,清望踰忠。閻宇,宿有功幹,於事精勤。繼踵在忠後,其威風稱績,皆不及忠。〔一〕

  • Yìbù Qíjiù Zhuàn states: Zhāng Biǎo was [Zhāng] Sù’s son.
  • Huà Yáng’s Guózhì says Biǎo was Zhāng Sōng’s son.
  • This is uncertain.
  • Yán Yǔ appellation Wénpíng was a Nán-jùn man.

〔一〕 益部耆舊傳曰:張表,肅子也。華陽國志云:表,張松子,未詳。閻宇字文平,南郡人也。

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