(43.4) Mǎ Zhōng 馬忠 [Déxìn 德信]

Mǎ Zhōng appellation Déxìn was a Bāxī Làngzhōng man. When young he was raised by his outer family [maternal side relatives], was surnamed Hú, named Dǔ, and afterward then again returned to his surname [back to Mǎ], and changed his name to Zhōng. He became a prefecture clerk, at the end of Jiàn’ān [196-220] was nominated as Filial and Incorrupt, and sent out as Chief of Hànchāng.


Xiān-zhǔ [Liú Bèi] led an eastern campaign [222], was utterly defeated at Xiāotíng, and Administrator of Bāxī Yán Zhī sent from all the various counties soldiers, 5000 men, as replacements for losses, and sent Zhōng to deliver them. Xiān-zhǔ had already returned to Yǒng’ān, met Zhōng and spoke with him, and said to Director of the Secretariat Liú Bā: “Though I lost Huáng Quán, I gained Hú Dǔ [Mǎ Zhōng]. This shows the world has no lack of talent.”


Jiànxīng first year [223] Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng opened his office, and appointed Zhōng Commander Beneath the Gates.


Third year [225] Liàng entered the south and appointed Zhōng as Administrator of Zāngkē. The prefecture Deputy Zhū Bāo rebelled. After the rebellion, Zhōng brought relief and reasonable government, and deeply had authority and kindness.


Eighth year [230] he was summoned to be an Advisor to the Army of the Chancellor, and assisted the Chief Clerk Jiǎng Wǎn’s office in headquarters affairs. He was also given office as Advisor in Provincial Internal Government.


Next year [231] [Zhūgě] Liàng set out against Qíshān. Zhōng visited where Liàng was and engaged in military affairs. The army returned. Commanding General Zhāng Nì and others suppressed Wènshān prefecture’s rebelling Qiāng.


Eleventh year [233], the southern foreigner powerful commander Liú Zhòu rebelled, and disturbed all the prefectures. Commander of Láijiàng Zhāng Yì was summoned back, and Zhōng succeeded Yì. Zhōng thereupon beheaded [Liú] Zhòu and pacified the southern lands. Zhōng was given additional office as Supervisor of the Army and General Exerting Authority with fief as Marquis of Bóyáng precinct.


Previously, Jiànníng prefecture killed its Administrator Zhèng Áng, bound its Administrator Zhāng Yì and sent him to Wú, and therefore the Commander had always garrisoned Píngyí county. When Zhōng [became Commander] he thereupon moved headquarters to Wèi county, residing among the people and foreigners. Also Yuèxī commandery had also long been lost territory. Zhōng led Administrator Zhāng Nì in opening up and restoring the old commandery, and by this he was promoted to General Calming the South, advanced in fief to Marquis of Péngxiāng precinct.


Yánxī fifth year [242] he returned to Court, and therefore was sent to Hànzhōng and met Marshal-in-Chief Jiǎng Wǎn to deliver an Imperial Order, and was promoted to General-in-Chief Defending the South.


Seventh year [244] spring, General-in-Chief Fèi Yī to the north resisted the Wèi enemies, and left Zhōng at Chéngdū to oversee Secretariat affairs. Yī returned, and Zhōng therefore returned south.


Twelfth year [249] he died. His son Xiū succeeded. (1)


  • (1) Xiū’s younger brother Huī. Huī’s son Yì was a Jìn Administrator of Jiànníng.

〔一〕 脩弟恢。恢子義,晉建寧太守。

Zhōng as a man was generous and had magnanimity, but was whimsical and teased and greatly laughed, and when furious it did not show on his face. However in handling affairs he could be decisive, and was both authoritative and kind, and therefore the foreigners both feared and loved him. When he died, none of them did not personally go the funeral hall, weeping with utmost sorrow, and they established for him a Temple with sacrifices, which up to now [~290] is still present.


Zhāng Biǎo was at the time a famous scholar, whose reputation for refinement surpassed Zhōng. Yán Yǔ showed ability for achievement and in affairs was meticulous and diligent. They continued [administering the south] after Zhōng, but their authority and merits both did not match Zhōng. (1)


  • Yìbù Qíjiù Zhuàn states: Zhāng Biǎo was [Zhāng] Sù’s son.
  • Huà Yáng’s Guózhì says Biǎo was Zhāng Sōng’s son.
  • This is uncertain.
  • Yán Yǔ appellation Wénpíng was a Nán-jùn man.

〔一〕 益部耆舊傳曰:張表,肅子也。華陽國志云:表,張松子,未詳。閻宇字文平,南郡人也。

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