(9.5) Cáo Xiū 曹休 [Wénliè 文烈]

Cáo Xiū appellation Wénliè was Tàizǔ’s [Cáo Cāo’s] cousin’s son. The realm Under Heaven was in chaos, and the clansmen all scattered and left their home village. Xiū was aged over ten years, lost his father, and alone with one retainer carried the body for funeral and burial, led his aged mother, and crossed the Jiāng [Yángzǐ river] to Wú. (1)

曹休字文烈,太祖族子也。天下亂,宗族各散去鄉里。休年十餘歲,喪父,獨與一客擔喪假葬,攜將老母,渡江至吳。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèishū “History Book of Wèi” states: Xiū’s grandfather once was Administrator of Wú-jùn. Xīu at the Administrator’s residence saw on the wall his grandfather’s portrait, stopped to pay respects and wept, and those there all praised and sighed in admiration.

〔一〕 魏書曰:休祖父嘗為吳郡太守。休於太守舍,見壁上祖父畫像,下榻拜涕泣,同坐者皆嘉歎焉。

Because Tàizǔ raised righteous troops, he changed his surname and personal name to travel to Jīngzhōu, using side paths to return north. He met Tàizǔ, and Tàizǔ said to his attendants: “This is my family’s thousand lǐ colt.” He was sent to stay with Wén-dì [Cáo Pī], and met with treatment like a son. He always followed on campaign, employed as a manager in the Tiger Leopard Cavalry and personal guard.

以太祖舉義兵,易姓名轉至荊州,閒行北歸,見太祖。太祖謂左右曰:「此吾家千里駒也。」使與文帝同止,見待如子。常從征伐,使領虎豹騎宿衛。

[217] Liú Bèi sent his General Wú Lán to camp at Xiàbiàn, Tàizǔ sent Cáo Hóng to attack them, with Xiū as Cavalry Commandant and Advisor to [Cáo] Hóng’s army. Tàizǔ said to Xiū: “Though you are the army’s advisor, in fact you are the commander.” [Cáo] Hóng heard this order, and also entrusted matters to Xiū.

劉備遣將吳蘭屯下辯,太祖遣曹洪征之,以休為騎都尉,參洪軍事。太祖謂休曰:「汝雖參軍,其實帥也。」洪聞此令,亦委事於休。

[218, Liú] Bèi sent Zhāng Fēi to camp at Gùshān, wishing to cut off the army’s rear. Everyone discussed and was unsure, and Xiū said: “If the rebels truly were cutting off the road, they would hide troops and move secretly. Now instead they first make noise to show strength, so this cannot be. We should while they are not yet gathered, urgently strike [Wú] Lán. If [Wú] Lán is destroyed then [Zhāng] Fēi will himself flee.” [Cáo] Hóng followed this, advanced troops to strike [Wú] Lán, greatly defeated them, and [Zhāng] Fēi indeed fled.

備遣張飛屯固山,欲斷軍後。眾議狐疑,休曰:「賊實斷道者,當伏兵潛行。今乃先張聲勢,此其不能也。宜及其未集,促擊蘭,蘭破則飛自走矣。」洪從之,進兵擊蘭,大破之,飛果走。

[219] Tàizǔ evacuated Hànzhōng, the various armies returned to Cháng’ān, and appointed Xiū as Central Manager of the Army.

太祖拔漢中,諸軍還長安,拜休中領軍。

[220] Wén-dì succeeded as King. He became General Managing the Army, and for his achievements from beginning to end was given fief as Marquis of Dōngyáng precinct. Xiàhóu Dūn died, and so Xīu became General Defending the South, with Staff of Authority as Regional Commander over various military affairs. The Imperial Carriage sent him off, and the Ascended then dismounted the carriage and grasped his hand in farewell. Sūn Quán sent Generals to camp at Lìyáng, Xiū arrived, struck and defeated them, and also separately sent troops to cross the Jiāng, burning the enemies at Wúhú camp’s several thousand houses. He was promoted to General Campaigning East and Inspector of Yángzhōu, and advanced in fief to Marquis of Ānyáng village. (2)

文帝即王位,為領軍將軍,錄前後功,封東陽亭侯。夏侯惇薨,以休為鎮南將軍,假節都督諸軍事,車駕臨送,上乃下輿執手而別。孫權遣將屯歷陽,休到,擊破之,又別遣兵渡江,燒賊蕪湖營數千家。遷征東將軍,領揚州刺史,進封安陽鄉侯。〔二〕

  • (2) Wèishū states: Xiū in mourning his mother was filial. The Emperor sent Palace Attendants to seize away his mourning clothes and order him to drink wine and eat meat, Xiū received this Imperial Order but his form became even more haggard and sorrowful. He begged to return to Qiáo to bury his mother, and the Emperor again sent Exceeding Cavalry Colonel Xuē to send Imperial Order to reduce his mourning, return home for the funeral, stay one night then complete the burial, and after the burial go to where [the Emperor] was. The Emperor met him, and personally consoled him. He met with love and favor like this.

〔二〕 魏書曰:休喪母至孝。帝使侍中奪喪服,使飲酒食肉,休受詔而形體益憔悴。乞歸譙葬母,帝復遣越騎校尉薛喬奉詔節其憂哀,使歸家治喪,一宿便葬,葬訖詣行在所。帝見,親自寬慰之。其見愛重如此。

[222] The Emperor campaigned against Sūn Quán, and appointed Xiū as General-in-Chief Campaigning East, with Acting Yellow Battle-Ax of Authority to command Zhāng Liáo and others and the various provinces and prefectures’ over twenty armies, striking [Sūn] Quán’s chief general Lǚ Fàn and others at Dòngpǔ, defeating them. He was appointed Governor of Yángzhōu.

帝征孫權,以休為征東大將軍,假黃鉞,督張遼等及諸州郡二十餘軍,擊權大將呂範等於洞浦,破之。拜揚州牧。

[226] Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] succeeded. He was advanced in fief to Marquis of Chángpíng. Wú General Shěn Dé camped at Huàn, Xiū attacked and defeated them, taking [Shěn] Dé’s head. Wú Generals Hán Zōng, Zhái Dān, and others from beginning to end led their armies to Xiū to surrender. His fief was increased by 400, adding to the previous to 2500 households, promoted to Marshal-in-Chief, and Regional Commander of Yángzhōu as before.

明帝即位,進封長平侯。吳將審德屯皖,休擊破之,斬德首,吳將韓綜、翟丹等前後率眾詣休降。增邑四百,并前二千五百戶,遷大司馬,都督揚州如故。

Tàihé second year [228], the Emperor along two prongs campaigned against Wú, sending Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng to follow the Hàn river downstream, and Xiū to command the various armies against Xúnyáng. The enemy General falsely surrendered, Xiū advanced deeply, battled but was unsuccessful, and retreated back to Shítíng. the army in the night was alarmed, the soldiers were in chaos, and the abandoned armor and heavy supply wagons were very many. Xiū sent up letter apologizing for his guilt, the Emperor sent Garrisoned Cavalry Colonel Yáng Jì to console him, with gifts and rewards many and great. Xiū because of this had sores break out on his back and died, posthumous name Zhuàng-hóu “Robust Marquis.” His son Zhào succeeded. (3)

太和二年,帝為二道征吳,遣司馬宣王從漢水下,(督休)〔休督〕諸軍向尋陽。賊將偽降,休深入,戰不利,退還宿石亭。軍夜驚,士卒亂,棄甲兵輜重甚多。休上書謝罪,帝遣屯騎校尉楊暨慰諭,禮賜益隆。休因此癰發背薨,諡曰壯侯。子肇嗣。〔三〕

  • (3) Shìyǔ states: Zhào appellation Chángsī.

〔三〕 世語曰:肇字長思。


[Cáo] Zhào had talent and manner renowned in his time, became Cavalier Regular Attendant, and Garrisoned Cavalry Colonel. Míng-dì was lying ill, about to entrust him with King of Yān [Cáo] Yǔ and others with later affairs. The Emperor’s intentions changed, and Imperial Order sent Zhào as a Marquis to return to his fief. During Zhèngshǐ [240-249] he died, posthumously ranked General of the Guard. His son Xīng succeeded. Previously, Wén-dì divided from Xiū’s fief 300 households to give fief to Zhào’s younger brother [Cáo] Zuǎn as full marquis, who later became General Exterminating Wú, died, posthumously ranked General of the Front. (1)

肇有當世才度,為散騎常侍、屯騎校尉。明帝寢疾,方與燕王宇等屬以後事。帝意尋變,詔肇以侯歸第。正始中薨。追贈衛將軍。子興嗣。初,文帝分休戶三百封肇弟纂為列侯,後為殄吳將軍,薨,追贈前將軍。〔一〕

  • (1) Zhāng Yǐn’s Wénshìzhùan “Biography of Literary Scholars” states: Zhào’s grandson [Cáo] Shū appellation Yányuǎn when young was strict in intention and conduct, widely learned and had talent and elegance. He served Jìn, recruited to the Office of the Excellencies, became Magistrate of Luòyáng, and for ability had reputation. Marshal-in-Chief and King of Qí [Sīmǎ] Jiǒng assisted the government, and Shū with Zuǒ Sī of Qí together served as Recorder-Commanders. After as a Palace Gentleman he was sent out as Administrator of Xiāngyáng and Major Campaigning South. It happened that the realm Under Heaven was in chaos, Shū suppressed bandits and went against Wú, and in battle was defeated and died.

〔一〕 張隱文士傳曰:肇孫攄,字顏遠,少厲志操,博學有才藻。仕晉,辟公府,歷洛陽令,有能名。大司馬齊王冏輔政,攄與齊人左思俱為記室督。從中郎出為襄陽太守、征南司馬。值天下亂,攄討賊向吳,戰敗死。

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