(45.2) Zhāng Yì 張翼 [Bógōng 伯恭]

Zhāng Yì appellation Bógōng was a Qiánwèi Wǔyáng man. His great-great-grandfather was Excellency of Works [Zhāng] Hào, his great-grandfather was Guǎnglíng Administrator [Zhāng] Gāng, both with reputation and legacy. (1)


Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi] settled Yì Province, took office as Governor, and Yì became his Documents Aide. At Jiàn’ān’s [196-220] end, he was nominated as Filial and Incorrupt candidate, became Jiāngyáng Chief, transferred to Fúlíng Magistrate, promoted to Zǐtóng Administrator, gradually promoted to Guǎnghàn and Shǔ Prefecture Administrator.


Jiànxīng Ninth Year [232], he became Láijiàng Commander, Soothing South Internal Cadet General. Yì by nature wielded law strictly, and did not obtain pleased hearts from the different custom [minority tribes]. The elder leader Liú Zhòu rebelled and created chaos, and Yì raised troops to suppress [Liú] Zhòu. [Liú] Zhòu was not yet defeated, when it happened that [Zhāng Yì] was summoned to return, his various subordinates all believed it was appropriate to then hurriedly ride to face his crimes, but Yì said: “Not so. I because the Mán and Yí stir up trouble, and did not prove qualified am therefore summoned back and that is all, however my successor has not yet arrived, I am still facing the battlefield, and should transport provisions and accumulate grain, to be the resources for exterminating the rebels; how can I because of dismissal therefore overthrow the public state’s affairs?” Therefore he commanded without remiss, his successor arrived and he therefore set out. Mǎ Zhōng because of these completed foundations defeated and destroyed [Liú] Zhòu, Chancellor Zhūgě Liàng heard and praised this. When [Zhūgě] Liàng set out from Wǔgōng, he appointed Yì as Front Army Commander, with office as Fúfēng Administrator. [Zhūgě] Liàng died, and [Zhāng Yì] was appointed Front Manager of the Army, and in discussing the past achievement of the suppression of Liú Zhòu, he was bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes.


Yánxī Inaugural Year [238], he entered as Secretariat, was soon promoted to Commander of Jiànwēi, with Acting Staff, advanced in fief to a capital precinct Marquis and General-in-Chief Campaigning West.


  • (1)Yìbù Qíjiù Zhuàn states: [Zhāng] Hào appellation Shūmíng, studied law and the Chūnqiū, traveling and studying at the capital, with Guǎnghàn’s Tán Càn, Hànzhōng’s Lǐ Hè, Shǔ Prefecture’s Zhāng Bà together joining as friends. General-in-Chief Dèng Zhì recruited [Zhāng] Hào, and he was soon promoted to Secretariat Deputy-Director, sent out as Péngchéng Chancellor, recommended hermit Lǘqiū Miǎo and others, and was summoned and appointed Minister of Justice. Yánguāng Third Year [124], Ān-dì discussed deposing the Heir-Apparent, and only Hào with Minister of Ceremonies Huán Yān, Minister Charioteer Lái Lì commented believing it could not be. When Shùn-dì was first enthroned, he appointed Hào as Excellency of Works, and at eighty three years he died.
  • Xù Hànshū states: [Zhāng] Gāng appellation Wénjì, when young as a Three Excellencies’ son understood the classics and had cultivated conduct and was nominated as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate, but did not accept. The Excellency over the Masses recruited him as High Standard candidate to be an Attendant Censor. Hàn’ān Inaugural Year [142] he was appointed Merit Grandee, and with Attendant Internal Dù Qiáo and others, eight men, on the same day received Imperial Order, to Wielding Staff separately go out, to cite and note the realm Under Heaven’s corrupt and incorruptible, with ink cord that the guilty were then arrested, and the Inspectors and 2000 dàn [officials] by relay station memorialized news. Their authority and kindness was pure and loyal, and their names shook the prefectures and states, and they were called the Eight Eminents. At the time, General-in-chief Liáng Jì encroached upon and disturbed the common people, [Dù] Qiáo and the rest of seven men all carried orders in four directions out, and only [Zhāng] Gāng alone buried chariot wheel at Luòyáng capital precinct and did not go, saying: “Ravenous wolves block the road, how can I go ask after foxes?” Therefore he sent up letter saying: “General-in-chief Liáng Jì, Hénán Intendant Bù Yí, depending on favor as Imperial in-laws, carrying the state’s generous favor, with the appearance of wood cutters, settling down like Protector, unable to spread and raise up the Five Teachings, assist and support Sun and Moon, instead specializing as fat swine and long snake, unrestrained in their corruption and greed, with whole heart loving wealth, indulging without restraint or satiation, often cultivating flattery to harm the loyal and good, truly what Heaven’s Authority cannot pardon, what capital punishment should be added. Careful articles on their heart for no master in fifteen articles to the left, all are what loyal ministers gnash their teeth at.” The letter memorial was presented, and the capital shook in surprise. At the time [Liáng] Jì’s younger sister was Empress, inside favor on her flourished, [Liáng] Jì and his brothers held heavy power over the Ruler of Men, although Shùn-dì knew [Zhāng] Gāng’s words were not false accusation, yet he did not have the heart to punish [Liáng] Jì. [Liáng] Jì deeply hated [Zhāng] Gāng. It happened that Guǎnglíng bandit Zhāng Yīng and others gathered several tens of thousands of people and killed the Inspector and 2000 dàn [officials], [Liáng] Jì wished to trap [Zhāng] Gāng, and therefore forced the Secretariat to appoint [Zhāng] Gāng to Guǎnglíng Administrator; if he was not by [Zhāng] Yīng killed, then [Liáng Jì] wished to use the law to deal with him. When the former Administrator had gone, he had at once requested many troops; when [Zhāng] Gāng received appointment, Imperial Order asked him how many troops and horses he needed, and [Zhāng] Gāng replied: “I have no need for troops and horses,” and therefore in a single carriage went to office, directly visited [Zhāng] Yīng’s fortress gates, showing disaster and fortune. [Zhāng] Yīng was greatly alarmed, and fled wishing to close the gates. [Zhāng] Gāng also outside the Gates dismissed the sent officials and troops, keeping those close to him of over ten people, and with letter said to the elder that previously was by [Zhāng] Yīng trusted, requesting to meet with him, and asking the origin of the rebellion, and therefore showed Imperial Order of kindness, sending him to return to ask [Zhāng] Yīng. [Zhāng] Yīng saw [Zhāng] Gāng’s intentions were sincere, and at once went out to meet [Zhāng] Gāng. [Zhāng] Gāng invited him to come up and sit, asking his pains and hardships; the courtesies completed, and therefore said to him: “From beginning to end the 2000 dàn [Administrators], mostly were not their men, blocked the state’s grace, and acted without restraint for their personal requests. The villages and prefectures are distant, Heaven’s Son cannot morning and night hear of them, and therefore the people gather together to avoid harm. The 2000 dàn [Administrators] truly had crimes, and those that served then were not righteous. Loyal servants do not cheat their master to glorify themselves, filial sons do not degrade their fathers to seek fortunes. Heaven’s Son’s sagely benevolence, wishing culture and virtue to bring it, therefore sends me as Administrator to come, to ponder how to with rank and salary to honor each other, and unwilling to use punishment. Now truly is the time to turn disaster into fortune. If hearing righteousness but not submitting, Heaven’s Son will be astonished and furious, and great army will gather, how is this not danger? It is appropriate to deeply calculate these benefits and harms.” [Zhāng] Yīng heard, and weeping said: “We the desolate frontier’s humble people, repeatedly were by the 2000 dàn [officials] encroached on unjustly, could not bear their oppression, and therefore then gathered together to survive. Your enlightened governance’s benevolence reaches grass and trees, and therefore we are reborn in your favor, but fear on the day we cast away weapons, we will not be forgiven and our offspring exterminated and that is all.” [Zhāng] Gāng said: “How can that be? Swearing by Heaven and Earth, pledging by Sun and Moon, you are about to be honored with noble rank, what disaster is there?” [Zhāng] Yīng said: “If we are pardoned from crimes, and able to keep our heads to return to farming the fields, then we will cherish and respect it to our last teeth; rank and salary is not our hope.” Although [Zhāng] Yīng was a great bandit, rising in mad violence, he himself believed he would certainly die, and when he obtained [Zhāng] Gāng’s words, he became opened minded, and then took leave and returned to camp. The next day, he therefore led his command of over ten thousand men, with his wife and children with [dirty] face and bound went to [Zhāng] Gāng to surrender. [Zhāng] Gāng in all cases released their bonds and comforted and accepted, saying to [Zhāng] Yīng: “You all in one morning were released, and could drop and vanish, you should each send up your names, to certainly receive fief and reward.” [Zhāng] Yīng said: “We beg to return to our former business, and are unwilling to with our dirtied names defile enlightened times.” [Zhāng] Gāng because of their utmost sincerity, therefore each followed their intentions, personally for them preparing dwellings. The younger relatives that wished to be officials, were by ability appointed to office; those that wished to be commoners, were exhorted to farming and silk, fields and business were both abundant, and the southern province was quiet. In discussing achievement, [Zhāng] Gāng was about to be given fief, but was by [Liáng] Jì blocked, and therefore did not become a Marquis. Heaven’s Son praised his achievement, and summoned him wishing to employ him. [Zhāng] Yīng and the rest sent up letter, begging to have him remain in the prefecture for two years. Jiànkāng Inaugural Year [144], he died of illness in office, at the time thirty-six years. [Zhāng] Yīng and others of over three hundred people, all mourning escorted the coffin to Luòyáng, the burial was finished, and they for him raised mound and established shrine, in the Four Seasons presenting sacrifices, cherishing his memory like mourning for father and mother. Heaven’s Son recalled him without end, sent down Imperial Order in praise, and appointed one son as a Cadet.

〔一〕 益部耆舊傳曰:浩字叔明,治律、春秋,游學京師,與廣漢鐔粲、漢中李郃、蜀郡張霸共結為友善。大將軍鄧騭辟浩,稍遷尚書僕射,出為彭城相,薦隱士閭丘邈等,徵拜廷尉。延光三年,安帝議廢太子,唯浩與太常桓焉、太僕來歷議以為不可。順帝初立,拜浩司空,年八十三卒。續漢書曰:綱字文紀,少以三公子經明行脩舉孝廉,不就司徒辟,以高第為侍御史。漢安元年,拜光祿大夫,與侍中杜喬等八人同日受詔,持節分出,案行天下貪廉,墨綬有罪便收,刺史二千石以驛表聞,威惠清忠,名振郡國,號曰八雋。是時,大將軍梁冀侵擾百姓,喬等七人皆奉命四出,唯綱獨埋車輪於洛陽都亭不去,曰:「豺狼當路,安問狐狸?」遂上書曰:「大將軍梁冀、河南尹不疑,蒙外戚之援,荷國厚恩,以芻蕘之姿,安居阿保,不能敷揚五教,翼贊日月,而專為封豕長蛇,肆其貪饕,甘心好貨,縱恣無厭,多樹諂諛以害忠良,誠天威所不赦,大辟所宜加也。謹條其無君之心十五事於左,皆忠臣之所切齒也。」書奏御,京師震悚。時冀妹為皇后,內寵方盛,冀兄弟權重於人主,順帝雖知綱言不誣,然無心治冀。冀深恨綱。會廣陵賊張嬰等眾數萬人殺刺史二千石,冀欲陷綱,乃諷尚書以綱為廣陵太守;若不為嬰所殺,則欲以法中之。前太守往,輒多請兵,及綱受拜,詔問當得兵馬幾何,綱對曰無用兵馬,遂單車之官,徑詣嬰壘門,示以禍福。嬰大驚懼,走欲閉門。綱又於門外罷遣吏兵,留所親者十餘人,以書語其長老素為嬰所信者,請與相見,問以本變,因示以詔恩,使還請嬰。嬰見綱意誠,即出見綱。綱延置上坐,問其疾苦,禮畢,乃謂之曰:「前後二千石,多非其人,杜塞國恩,肆其私求。鄉郡遠,天子不能朝夕聞也,故民人相聚以避害。二千石信有罪矣;為之者乃非義也。忠臣不欺君以自榮,孝子不損父以求福,天子聖(人)〔仁〕,欲文德以來之,故使太守來,思以爵祿相榮,不願以刑也。今誠轉禍為福之時也;若聞義不服,天子赫然發怒,大兵雲合,豈不危乎!宜深計其利害。」嬰聞,泣曰:「荒裔愚人,數為二千石所侵枉,不堪其困,故遂相聚偷生。明府仁及草木,乃嬰等更生之澤,但恐投兵之日,不免孥戮耳。」綱曰:「豈其然乎!要之以天地,誓之以日月,方當相顯以爵位,何禍之有乎?」嬰曰:「苟赦其罪,得全首領以就農畝,則抱戴沒齒,爵祿非所望也。」嬰雖為大賊,起於狂暴,自以為必死,及得綱言,曠然開明,乃辭還營。明日,遂將所部萬餘人,與妻子面縛詣綱降。綱悉釋縛慰納,謂嬰曰:「卿諸人一旦解散,方垂盪然,當條名上之,必受封賞。」嬰曰:「乞歸故業,不願以穢名汙明時也。」綱以其至誠,乃各從其意,親為安處居宅。子弟欲為吏者,隨才任職,欲為民者,勸以農桑,田業並豐,南州晏然。論功,綱當封,為冀所遏絕,故不得侯。天子美其功,徵欲用之。嬰等上書,乞留在郡二歲。建康元年,病卒官,時年三十六。嬰等三百餘人,皆衰杖送綱喪至洛陽,葬訖,為起冢立祠,四時奉祭,思慕如喪考妣。天子追念不已,下詔褒揚,除一子為郎。

Eighteenth Year [256], he with General of the Guard Jiāng Wéi both returned to Chéngdū, [Jiāng] Wéi proposed again setting out the army, only Yì in the court opposed, believing the state was small and the people tired, and it was not appropriate to be recklessly militaristic. [Jiāng] Wéi did not listen, and led Yì and others to go, advancing Yì’s rank to General-in-Chief Defending South.


[Jiāng] Wéi reached Dídào, greatly defeated Wèi’s Yōng Province Inspector Wáng Jīng, and [Wáng] Jīng’s army’s dead in the Táo river were in the tens of thousands. Yì said: “We can stop here. It is not appropriate to again advance. Advancing might ruin this great achievement.” [Jiāng] Wéi was greatly angry. [Zhāng Yì] said: “This is for a snake drawing legs!” [note: an idiom saying not to ruin something by adding incorrect extraneous details ]


[Jiāng] Wéi indeed besieged [Wáng] Jīng at Dídào, and the city could not be overcome.


Since Yì had established different opinion, [Jiāng] Wéi in his heart with Yì was not friendly, and therefore always commanded him to travel together, and Yì also could not but go.


Jǐngyào Second Year [259], he was promoted to Left General of Chariots and Cavalry, with office as Jì Province Inspector. Sixth Year [263], he with [Jiāng] Wéi were all at Jiàngé, and together went to surrender to Zhōng Huì at Fú. Next year Standard Moon, he followed [Zhōng] Huì to Chéngdù, and in the chaos of troops was killed. (1)


  • (1) Huàyáng Guózhì states: Yì’s son Wēi was steadfast and studious, his office reaching Guǎnghàn Administrator.

〔一〕 華陽國志曰:翼子微,篤志好學,官至廣漢太守。

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