(53.4) Kàn Zé 闞澤 [Dérùn 德潤]

Kàn Zé appellation Dérùn was a Kuàijī Shānyīn man. His family for generations were farmers, reaching Zé he enjoyed study, lived in poverty without resources, and always was by others hired to write, and by this provided with paper and pen, and when what he wrote was completed, he also could recite it all. He sought teachers for lectures, and studied and read various books, and simultaneously was skilled in calendar calculations, and because of this had prominent reputation. He was nominated as Filial and Incorrupt candidate, sent out as Qiántáng Chief, promoted to Chēn Magistrate. When Sūn Quán became Elite Cavalry General [219], he was recruited to fill vacancy as West Department Official. At the taking of Imperial Title [229], Zé was appointed Secretariat. During Jiāhé [232-238], he became Internal Documents Director, also Attendant Internal. Chìwū Fifth Year [242], he was appointed Heir-Apparent’s Grand Tutor, with office in Internal Documents as before.

闞澤字德潤,會稽山陰人也。家世農夫,至澤好學,居貧無資,常為人傭書,以供紙筆,所寫既畢,誦讀亦遍。追師論講,究覽群籍,兼通曆數,由是顯名。察孝廉,除錢唐長,遷郴令。孫權為驃騎將軍,辟補西曹掾;及稱尊號,以澤為尚書。嘉禾中,為中書令,加侍中。赤烏五年,拜太子太傅,領中書如故。


Zé believed classic works writings were many, and difficult to completely employ, and therefore deliberated the various schools, amended and judged the ‘s writings and various commentaries to teach the two Palaces [of the Heir-Apparent and King of Lǔ], making regulations for conduct going out and in and meeting guests ceremonies, and also wrote Qiánxiànglì zhù to standardize times and days. At every Court great discussion, if there was doubt about the classics, then they consulted and asked him. For his Classicist scholarship diligence, he was given fief as a capital village Marquis.

澤以經傳文多,難得盡用,乃斟酌諸家,刊約禮文及諸注說以授二宮,為制行出入及見賓儀,又著乾象曆注以正時日。每朝廷大議,經典所疑,輒諮訪之。以儒學勤勞,封都鄉侯。

By nature he was polite and modest and sincerely cautious, the Palace Office’s lesser officials, he would call and answer and question, all treating with equal ceremony. If another had a wrong or shortcoming, his mouth never spoke of it, and if appearance seemed to be insufficient, however what was heard was rarely exhausted.

性謙恭篤慎,宮府小吏,呼召對問,皆為抗禮。人有非短,口未嘗及,容貌似不足者,然所聞少窮。

[Sūn] Quán once asked: “Of books and writings and rhapsodies, what is most beautiful?” Zé wished to use parable to enlighten governing chaos, and therefore answered Jiǎ Yì’s Guò Qín Lùn “Discussion on the Mistakes of Qín” was greatest, and [Sūn] Quán read and studied it.

權嘗問:「書傳篇賦,何者為美?」澤欲諷喻以明治亂,因對賈誼過秦論最善,權覽讀焉。

Previously, as Lǚ Yī’s treacherous crimes were discovered, managers thoroughly punished, memorializing for death sentence, some believing it was appropriate to add burning and dismemberment, to make an example of utmost evil. [Sūn] Quán asked Zé, and Zé said: “In flourishing enlightened age, it is not appropriate to again have these punishments.” [Sūn] Quán followed this.

初,以呂壹姦罪發聞,有司窮治,奏以大辟,或以為宜加焚裂,用彰元惡。權以訪澤,澤曰:「盛明之世,不宜復有此刑。」權從之。

Also of the various officials having resentments, there was wish to increase heaviness of regulations and restrictions, to restrain and control subordinates, Zé every time said: “It is appropriate to comply with the Rites and Law.” His harmony and uprightness, was all of this sort. (1) Sixth Year [243] Winter he died, [Sūn] Quán lamented and mourned, and could not eat for several days.

又諸官司有所患疾,欲增重科防,以檢御臣下,澤每曰「宜依禮、律」,其和而有正,皆此類也。〔一〕六年冬卒,權痛惜感悼,食不進者數日。

  • (1) Wúlù states: Yú Fān praised Zé: “Scholar Kàn is outstanding, surpassing Shǔ’s Yáng Xióng. He also said: “Master Kàn’s Classicist method and virtue and conduct, also is the present’s [Dǒng] Zhòngshū.” Previously, Wèi Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] ascended the throne, [Sūn] Quán once casually asked his various ministers: “Cáo Pī in his flourishing years ascended the throne, and I fear I cannot match him [in length of life], what do you sirs believe of it?” The ministers had not yet answered, and Zé said: “Not reaching ten years, Pī will have died. You the Great King need not worry.” [Sūn] Quán said: “How do you know this?” Zé said: “By the characters speaking of it, Not and Ten make Pī , this is his calculation.” Wén-dì indeed in seven years perished.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī calculates Sūn Quán was older than Wén-dì by five years, this seniority difference is negligible.

〔一〕 吳錄曰:虜翻稱澤曰:「闞生矯傑,蓋蜀之揚雄。」又曰:「闞子儒術德行,亦今之仲舒也。」初,魏文帝即位,權嘗從容問群臣曰:「曹丕以盛年即位,恐孤不能及之,諸卿以為如何?」群臣未對,澤曰:「不及十年,丕其沒矣,大王勿憂也。」權曰:「何以知之?」澤曰:「以字言之,不十為丕,此其數也。」文帝果七年而崩。臣松之計孫權年大文帝五歲,其為長幼也微矣。


Zé’s hometown’s elder generation Dānyáng’s Táng Gù also cultivated himself and accumulated learning, was praised as a classicist, and wrote Guóyǔ, Gōngyáng, Gǔliáng Zhuàn commentaries, always teaching several tens of men. When [Sūn] Quán became King of Wú, he appointed [Táng] Gù as Consultant Cadet, and from Lù Xùn, Zhāng Wēn, Luò Tǒng and others all respected him. Huángwǔ Fourth Year [225] he became Secretariat Deputy-Director, and died. (1)

澤州里先輩丹楊唐固亦修身積學,稱為儒者,著國語、公羊、穀梁傳注,講授常數十人。權為吳王,拜固議郎,自陸遜、張溫、駱統等皆拜之。黃武四年為尚書僕射,卒。〔一〕

  • (1) Wúlù states: Gù appellation Zǐzhèng, at time of death was over seventy years.

〔一〕 吳錄曰:固字子正,卒時年七十餘矣。

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