(9.9) Xiàhóu Xuán 夏侯玄 [Tàichū 太初]

Lǐ Fēng 李豐, Xǔ Yǔn 許允, Wáng Jīng 王經


[Xiàhóu] Xuán appellation Tàichū. When young he was well known, and when capped he became Cavalier Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet. Once he advanced to meet, with the Empress’s younger brother Máo Zēng together sat, Xuán was shamed by this, and his displeasure showed in his expression. Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] resented this, and demoted him to Feather Forest Supervisor. At Zhèngshǐ’s [240-249] beginning, Cáo Shuǎng assisted the government. Xuán was [Cáo] Shuǎng’s father’s sister’s son. He was gradually promoted to Cavalier Regular Attendant and Central Protector of the Army. (1)

玄字太初。少知名,弱冠為散騎黃門侍郎。嘗進見,與皇后弟毛曾並坐,玄恥之,不悅形之於色。明帝恨之,左遷為羽林監。正始初,曹爽輔政。玄,爽之姑子也。累遷散騎常侍、中護軍。〔一〕

  • (1) Shìyǔ states: Xuán at the time had reputation for knowing men, became Central Protector of the Army, selected out and employed military officials, accompanying battle and Ivory Gate standard, and none were not outstanding talents, and many became governors of provinces and managed prefectures. His establishing of law and sending down of instructions, to the present all became later standards.

〔一〕 世語曰:玄世名知人,為中護軍,拔用武官,參戟牙門,無非俊傑,多牧州典郡。立法垂教,于今皆為後式。


Grand Tutor Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng asked him about the time’s affairs, and Xuán commented believing:

太傅司馬宣王問以時事,玄議以為:

“The governing of talent and employing of men, is the state’s handle, and therefore the measuring [of ability] is concentrated at the Terrace Pavilion [division of the Secretariat], and is the superior’s division; filial conduct is stored in village lanes, [distinguishing] merits and drawbacks is assigned to village men, and is the subordinate’s narration. Wishing to purify teaching and investigate selection, is in understanding division and narration, and not having them interfere with one another and nothing more.

「夫官才用人,國之柄也,故銓衡專於臺閣,上之分也,孝行存乎閭巷,優劣任之鄉人,下之敘也。夫欲清教審選,在明其分敘,不使相涉而已。

Why is this? If superiors exceed their divisions, then one fears because of this it is not fundamental, and the fast path to interference in power will open; if subordinates cross their courses, then one fears Heavenly Rank will outside communicate, and the gates of critical power will become many. Heavenly Rank with subordinates communicating, is common men commenting on handles [of power], critical power having many gates, is the origin of tangles and chaos. From since when the province and prefecture Central Rectifiers graded and measured official ability, it has been years, yet there are knots and tangles, and one does not yet hear of orderliness. How is this not divisions and narrations joining wrongly, each losing their importance as the reason? If ordering Central Rectifiers to only investigate conduct and discuss groupings, discussing groupings then should in conduct be equal, and this can be for choosing officials.

何者?上過其分,則恐所由之不本,而干勢馳騖之路開;下踰其敘,則恐天爵之外通,而機權之門多矣。夫天爵下通,是庶人議柄也;機權多門,是紛亂之原也。自州郡中正品度官才之來,有年載矣,緬緬紛紛,未聞整齊,豈非分敘參錯,各失其要之所由哉!若令中正但考行倫輩,倫輩當行均,斯可官矣。

Why is this? If filial conduct is made known at the family gates, how can one not be loyal and respectful in office? If benevolence and forgiveness are praised among clan to the ninth degree, how can one not attain governance? If righteousness is decisively enacted in village groups, how can one not endure matters and appointment? In these three sorts, selected by Central Rectifiers, though not occupying their office titles, this appointment to office can be understood.

何者?夫孝行著於家門,豈不忠恪於在官乎?仁恕稱於九族,豈不達於為政乎?義斷行於鄉黨,豈不堪於事任乎?三者之類,取於中正,雖不處其官名,斯任官可知矣。

Conduct has large and small, comparison has high and low, then the circulation of what is appointed, also becomes clear and distinguished. Why must one send Central Rectifiers to interfere with mechanism of measuring [ability] below, and grasp critical handles entrusted and wielded above, subordinates and superiors infringe on each other, so producing confusions and wrongs? Moreover the Terrace Pavilion oversees subordinates, investigating achievement and checking wrongs, associates of the multitude of duties, each have their office chiefs, morning to evening investigating each other, so none are investigated like this; the comments of villages, by their intentions are handled, yet causing craftsmen officials to lose rank, everyone hurries in worry, wishing custom to be pure and tranquil, how can this be obtained?

行有大小,比有高下,則所任之流,亦渙然明別矣。奚必使中正干銓衡之機於下,而執機柄者有所委仗於上,上下交侵,以生紛錯哉?且臺閣臨下,考功校否,眾職之屬,各有官長,旦夕相考,莫究於此;閭閻之議,以意裁處,而使匠宰失位,眾人驅駭,欲風俗清靜,其可得乎?

Heavenly Terrace is high and remote, what the masses are cut off in thought. Those able to reach it, then change what is near, who does not cultivate ornamentation to obtain what they seek? If what is sought has path, then cultivating their own family gates, already is not as good as personally attaining eminence with the village groups. Personally attaining eminence with village groups, already is not as good as personally seeking it in provinces and the country. If opening this road, yet one worries their ornamentation truly will depart from fundamentals, and although again sternly reproaching Central Rectifiers, commanding with punishments, yet it will have no benefit.

天臺縣遠,眾所絕意。所得至者,更在側近,孰不脩飾以要所求?所求有路,則脩己家門者,已不如自達于鄉黨矣。自達鄉黨者,已不如自求之於州邦矣。苟開之有路,而患其飾真離本,雖復嚴責中正,督以刑罰,猶無益也。

How can it compare to having each command their division, office chiefs then each with their associates’ ability or wrong present to the Terrance Pavilion, the Terrace Pavilion then in accordance to the office chief’s ability or wrongs grade, consulting the village virtue and conduct ordering, draft their discussion comparison, to not act with bias. Central Rectifiers then only investigate their conduct and legacy, distinguishing their high and low, examining and settling grouping and class, and do not enable rising or falling. The Terrace Pavilion gathers it, like by their selection, and if some have wrongs, then its responsibility is on the relevant manager. The office chief’s grades, the Central Rectifiers’ groupings imitate, comparing and following sequence and employing them, if there is not praised, responsibility is outside. That being the case inside and outside together participate, gains and losses in place, mutually forming and restraining, who would be able to ornament? This then the people’s hearts are settled and matters and reason obtained, the commoners can be tranquil customs and official ability examined.”

豈若使各帥其分,官長則各以其屬能否獻之臺閣,臺閣則據官長能否之第,參以鄉閭德行之次,擬其倫比,勿使偏頗。中正則唯考其行跡,別其高下,審定輩類,勿使升降。臺閣總之,如其所簡,或有參錯,則其責負自在有司。官長所第,中正輩擬,比隨次率而用之,如其不稱,責負在外。然則內外相參,得失有所,互相形檢,孰能相飾?斯則人心定而事理得,庶可以靜風俗而審官才矣。」

He also believed:

又以為:

“The ancients in establishing office, was to relieve and raise the various living things, to gather and order people and things, and therefore they were by lords and elders managed and governed them. Managing and governing is primarily wishing to unify and specialize, unifying then office appointment is settled and superior and subordinate are secure, specializing then duty and enterprise are cultivated and matters are not confused. When matters are simple and enterprise cultivated, superior and subordinate are together secure and the not governed are not had. The Former Kings established all states, although their details cannot be obtained and investigated, however division of border and drawing of boundary, each guarded territory, then there are no form of redundant accumulations and restraints.

「古之建官,所以濟育群生,統理民物也,故為之君長以司牧之。司牧之主,欲一而專,一則官任定而上下安,專則職業脩而事不煩。夫事簡業脩,上下相安而不治者,未之有也。先王建萬國,雖其詳未可得而究,然分疆畫界,各守土境,則非重累羈絆之體也。

Below investigating Yīn and Zhōu’s Five Rank narration, there were small and large and noble and lowly distinction, and also no lords or officials or ministers or people yet having two strands mutually restricting. When official strands are not unified, then duties and enterprise is not cultivated; when duties and enterprise are not cultivated, then how can matters obtain simplicity? When matters are not simple, then how can the people obtain tranquility? When the people are not tranquil, then wrong and evil together rise, and treachery and falseness grow and spread. The Former Kings understood this, and therefore specialized their duties and unified their strands of enterprise.

下考殷、周五等之敘,徒有小大貴賤之差,亦無君官臣民而有二統互相牽制者也。夫官統不一,則職業不脩;職業不脩,則事何得而簡?事之不簡,則民何得而靜?民之不靜,則邪惡並興,而姦偽滋長矣。先王達其如此,故專其職司而一其統業。

Beginning from the Qín era, they did not teach sagely principles, using selfishness in managing duties, treachery in treating subordinates; fearing foremost officials would not cultivate, they established Supervisor Governors to direct them, and fearing the commanding supervisors would tolerate crookedness, they established Managing Investigators to inspect them; the ministers and governors wore out each other, the supervisors and investigators managed each other, people harbored different hearts, superior and subordinates had different affairs. Hàn carried on these strands, and none were able to rectify and reform. At Wèi House’s rise, days had no time to reach, the Five Rank standards, though difficult to finally restore, can coarsely establish ritual standards to unify government regulation.

始自秦世,不師聖道,私以御職,姦以待下;懼宰官之不脩,立監牧以董之,畏督監之容曲,設司察以糾之;宰牧相累,監察相司,人懷異心,上下殊務。漢承其緒,莫能匡改。魏室之隆,日不暇及,五等之典,雖難卒復,可麤立儀準以一治制。

The present Chief Clerks, all rule officials and people, spanning heavily by prefecture administrators, wearying by Inspectors. If considering what the prefectures absorb, only in overall comparisons, then with the provinces they are the same, and there is no need for this redundancy. It is appropriate to abolish prefecture Administrators, and only appoint Inspectors; if Inspector duties are preserved then supervising and investigating is not abolished, the prefecture officials in the tens of thousands, can return personally to farming work, and so reduce superfluous expenditure, and increase wealth and grow grain. This is first.

今之長吏,皆君吏民,橫重以郡守,累以刺史。若郡所攝,唯在大較,則與州同,無為再重。宜省郡守,但任刺史;刺史職存則監察不廢,郡吏萬數,還親農業,以省煩費,豐財殖穀,一也。

Talents of large counties, all can endure serving as prefecture Administrators, litigation of rights and wrongs, at every creation thoughts are different, obedient following then there is peace, valuing only oneself then there is conflict. The beauty of harmonizing stew, is in combining the different, the benefit for superior and subordinate, is in being able to relieve each other, obediently following then there is peace, this is lute and zither in one sound, sweeping away and removing it, then offices reduce matters and simplify. This is second.

大縣之才,皆堪郡守,是非之訟,每生意異,順從則安,直己則爭。夫和羹之美,在於合異,上下之益,在能相濟,順從乃安,此琴瑟一聲也,蕩而除之,則官省事簡,二也。

Also officials managing prefectures, have duties in supervising the various counties, but act in protecting their factions and kin, villages and towns and old friends, and if they cannot assist, yet in their work they draw out and stamp, and the people are destitute and suffer, and misfortune is created from this, if all together are united, then chaos’s origins would itself be blocked. This is third.

又幹郡之吏,職監諸縣,營護黨親,鄉邑舊故,如有不副,而因公掣頓,民之困弊,咎生于此,若皆并合,則亂原自塞,三也。

Now carrying on from decline and detriment, the people are exhausted, worthy talents are very few, those able to be appointed to affairs are scant, the prefectures’ and counties’ good officials, are often not even one, the prefectures receive the county’s completion, their severe are below, and their officials above are selected, the prefectures then first select, and this is so that the officials closest to the people, are concentrated in obtaining the lowest, and those officiating people’s lives, are always obstinate and base. Now if they are combined, of officials many selected that are pure and good will serve duties, great cultivation will spread and circulate, and people and things will obtain peace. This is fourth.

今承衰弊,民人彫莈,賢才鮮少,任事者寡,郡縣良吏,往往非一,郡受縣成,其劇在下,而吏之上選,郡當先足,此為親民之吏,專得底下,吏者民命,而常頑鄙,今如并之,吏多選清良者造職,大化宣流,民物獲寧,四也。

Regulations cause counties of ten thousand households, to be called prefecture Administrators, five thousand and above, to be called Commandants, a thousand households and down, Magistrates and Chiefs as before, from Chief and above, investigate class and promote use, transferring by ability to rise, what is governed also increases, this is narration to advance ability and effect achievement. If regulation is unified and settled, then official ability has sequence, government and achievement orderly and enlightened. This is fifth.

制使萬戶之縣,名之郡守,五千以上,名之都尉,千戶以下,令長如故,自長以上,考課遷用,轉以能升,所牧亦增,此進才效功之敘也,若經制一定,則官才有次,治功齊明,五也。

If abolishing prefecture Administrators, counties all directly communicating, matters will not be restricted and partitioned, and officials will not be kept stagnant. The Three Dynasties’ manner, though it cannot yet be certain, cultivation of simplifying and unifying, maybe can be reached. Making conveniences for the people and reducing expenditure, is in this.”

若省郡守,縣皆徑達,事不擁隔,官無留滯,三代之風,雖未可必,簡一之化,庶幾可致,便民省費,在於此矣。」

He also believed:

又以為:

“Ornamentation and simplicity in alternating use, is like the four seasons alternately rising. The Ruler embodies Heaven’s reasoning of things, and must in response to harm relieve and reach it, at the time of filling simplicity then ornament by ritual, at the time of grand extravagance then relieve it by simplicity. Now carrying on at the Hundred King’s end, Qín and Hàn’s remaining flow, the world’s customs are full of ornamentation, and it is appropriate to greatly reform it to change the people’s hopes. Now the regulations from the Excellencies and ranked lords down, the ranks from General-in-Chief on up, all obtain robes of fine silk brocade, gauze of beautiful silk, white raw silk, gold and silver ornaments and engravings, and from these on down, multicolored dress, reach to the poorest people, and although superior and subordinate are ranked, each showing their distinction, however in the regulation of Court minsters, they are already comparable to the Utmost Honored, and the dark and yellow colors, already reach to subordinates. Wishing to have markets not sell gorgeous colors, merchants not convey difficult to obtain goods, workers to not make engraved things, cannot be done. Therefore it is appropriate to use great reason as foundations, standardize and define ancient methods, the appropriateness of marking and character, seeking their center, to be ritual and regulation. Chariot and carriage and dress and seal, all should follow character simplicity, prohibit and remove final custom gorgeous things, have families managing Court, and houses with rank, to no longer have brocade and fine ornamentations, no multi-colored dress, delicate and dainty things, from superior to subordinate, so that plain simplicity is distinguished, showing rank and nothing more, do not allow surpassing one or two distinction. If bestowing for achievement and virtue, the Ascended’s grace can specially apply it, all shown to relevant managers, and afterward worn and used. Superiors in cultivating subordinates, is yet like wind bending grass. If plain simplicity in instructions rising in this Court, then hearts full of extravagance will on their own disappear below.”

「文質之更用,猶四時之迭興也,王者體天理物,必因弊而濟通之,時彌質則文之以禮,時泰侈則救之以質。今承百王之末,秦漢餘流,世俗彌文,宜大改之以易民望。今科制自公、列侯以下,位從大將軍以上,皆得服綾錦、羅綺、紈素、金銀飾鏤之物,自是以下,雜綵之服,通于賤人,雖上下等級,各示有差,然朝臣之制,已得侔至尊矣,玄黃之采,已得通於下矣。欲使市不鬻華麗之色,商不通難得之貨,工不作彫刻之物,不可得也。是故宜大理其本,準度古法,文質之宜,取其中則,以為禮度。車輿服章,皆從質樸,禁除末俗華麗之事,使幹朝之家,有位之室,不復有錦綺之飾,無兼采之服,纖巧之物,自上以下,至于樸素之差,示有等級而已,勿使過一二之覺。若夫功德之賜,上恩所特加,皆表之有司,然後服用之。夫上之化下,猶風之靡草。樸素之教興於本朝,則彌侈之心自消於下矣。」


[Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng‘s reply letter said: “Investigating officials and selecting people, eliminating redundant officials, changing dress regulations, all are greatest goodness. Rites by village originally enacted, the Court’s investigating of affairs, overall is as you explained. Yet between them they complement each other’s practices, and in the end cannot be changed. In Qín’s time there were no Inspectors, only prefecture Administrators and Chief Clerks. Hàn’s House though had Inspectors, they carried out six regulations and nothing more. Therefore Inspectors were called ‘conveyed by carriage,’ their subordinates called ‘Attending Officials,’ they did not reside in permanent headquarters, their officials did not become [Court] ministers, and afterward they transferred again as official managers and that is all. In the past Jiǎ Yì also worried about dress regulations, and although Hàn Wén [Liú Héng] personally wore coarse silk, yet he could not have high and low follow his intentions. One fears these three matters, will have to wait for the worthy and able and afterward be achieved and that is all.”

宣王報書曰:「審官擇人,除重官,改服制,皆大善。禮鄉閭本行,朝廷考事,大指如所示。而中間一相承習,卒不能改。秦時無刺史,但有郡守長吏。漢家雖有刺史,奉六條而已,故刺史稱傳車,其吏言從事,居無常治,吏不成臣,其後轉更為官司耳。昔賈誼亦患服制,漢文雖身服弋綈,猶不能使上下如意。恐此三事,當待賢能然後了耳。」

Xuán also wrote letter: “Although Hàn Wén [Liú Héng] personally wore coarse clothes, yet he did not reform law and standards, inside and outside there was usurping and imitating of dress, favored ministers received unlimited bestowments, by these observations, it seems to indicate he established his own reputation, but did not have intention to sincerely judge and manage regulations. Now if your Excellency and lordship command the age’s foremost ministers, chasing the legacy of high antiquity, then it will prosper to utmost governance, restraining ends and ordering origins, if regulation and settling is above, then cultivating conduct will reach the masses. It is about time appropriate for change, maintain eagerly attentive heart, on day order is sent, the subordinates’ answer will be like echo following sound, if holding down to modesty, saying: ‘Wait for worthy and able,’ this would be Yī [Yǐn] or Zhōu[-gōng] not rectifying Yīn’s or Jī’s standards. I humbly cannot understand this.”

玄又書曰:「漢文雖身衣弋綈,而不革正法度,內外有僭擬之服,寵臣受無限之賜,由是觀之,似指立在身之名,非篤齊治制之意也。今公侯命世作宰,追蹤上古,將隆至治,抑末正本,若制定於上,則化行於眾矣。夫當宜改之時,留殷勤之心,令發之日,下之應也猶響尋聲耳,猶垂謙謙,曰『待賢能』,此伊周不正殷姬之典也。竊未喻焉。」


Shortly after this, he became Campaigning West General, with Acting Staff as Commander of Yōng and Liáng Provinces’ various military affairs. (1) With Cáo Shuǎng they together raised the Luò valley campaign, and at the time people ridiculed them. [Cáo] Shuǎng was executed, and Xuán was summoned to Minister Herald, and in several years was transferred to Minister of Ceremonies.

頃之,為征西將軍,假節都督雍、涼州諸軍事。〔一〕與曹爽共興駱谷之役,時人譏之。爽誅,徵玄為大鴻臚,數年徙太常。

  • (1) Wèilüè states: When Xuán was promoted, Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng succeeded him as Protector of the Army. Protector of the Army presided over the various officers, and was tasked with managing military official selection, and from beginning to end those that held this office, could not stop bribery. Therefore at the time Jiǎng Jì became Protector of the Army, there was a saying: “If wishing to seek an Ivory Gate standard, then obtain a thousand pǐ [of silk]; a hundred men commander, five hundred pǐ.” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng with [Jiǎng] Jì was friendly, and asked about this to [Jiǎng] Jì, [Jiǎng] Jì had no way to explain it, and therefore made fun saying: “In Luò’s market purchases, if one coin is lacking then it cannot be.” Therefore they faced each other and laughed. Xuán succeeded [Jiǎng] Jì, and therefore could not stop these affairs. When [Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng succeeded Xuán, he reorganized law orders, and of men none dared violate.

〔一〕 魏略曰:玄既遷,司馬景王代為護軍。護軍總統諸將,任主武官選舉,前後當此官者,不能止貨賂。故蔣濟為護軍時,有謠言「欲求牙門,當得千匹;百人督,五百匹」。宣王與濟善,閒以問濟,濟無以解之,因戲曰:「洛中市買,一錢不足則不行。」遂相對歡笑。玄代濟,故不能止絕人事。及景王之代玄,整頓法令,人莫犯者。

Xuán because of [his connection to Cáo] Shuǎng was restrained, inside was not satisfied. Internal Documents Director Lǐ Fēng although always was by General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng closely treated, however had private intentions on Xuán, and therefore joined with the Empress’s father Merit Grandee Zhāng Qī, and plotted wishing to have Xuán assist the government. [Lǐ] Fēng both inside held handle of power, his son bestowed with a princess, and also with [Zhāng] Qī both were Féngyì men, and therefore [Zhāng] Qī trusted him. [Lǐ] Fēng secretly ordered his younger brother Yǎn Province Inspector [Lǐ] Yì to request to enter Court, wishing to have him command troops to enter, to join strength and rise up. It happened that [Lǐ] Yì’s request to enter Court was not permitted.

玄以爽抑絀,內不得意。中書令李豐雖宿為大將軍司馬景王所親待,然私心在玄,遂結皇后父光祿大夫張緝,謀欲以玄輔政。豐既內握權柄,子尚公主,又與緝俱馮翊人,故緝信之。豐陰令弟兗州刺史翼求入朝,欲使將兵入,并力起。會翼求朝,不聽。

Jiāpíng Sixth Year Second Moon, they were about to appoint a Noble lady [to the harem], and [Lǐ] Fēng and the rest wished to therefore manage overlooking the pavilion, the various gates had stationed troops, to execute the General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Shī], and have Xuán succeed him, and [Zhāng] Qī as Elite Cavalry General. [Lǐ] Fēng secretly spoke with Yellow Gate Supervisor Sū Shuò, Yǒngníng Bureau Director Yuè Dūn, Excess Follower Deputy-Director Liú Xián and others, saying: “You all resided inside, and had many violations of law, the General-in-Chief is strict and stern, and repeatedly spoke of these, and [what happened to] Zhāng Dāng can be a warning.” [Sū] Shuò and the rest all agreed to follow orders. (2)

嘉平六年二月,當拜貴人,豐等欲因御臨軒,諸門有陛兵,誅大將軍,以玄代之,以緝為驃騎將軍。豐密語黃門監蘇鑠、永寧署令樂敦、宂從僕射劉賢等曰:「卿諸人居內,多有不法,大將軍嚴毅,累以為言,張當可以為誡。」鑠等皆許以從命。〔二〕

  • (2) Wèishū states: Xuán by nature was noble, but because of [Cáo] Shuǎng was deposed and demoted, and always was discontent and not satisfied. Internal Documents Director Lǐ Fēng with Xuán and the Empress’s father Merit Grandee Zhāng Qī secretly plotted to create chaos. [Zhāng] Qī with [Lǐ] Fēng were of the same prefecture, was a deceptive and opportunistic man, was as Dōngguǎn Administrator summoned, was of the Empress’s family, and also was not satisfied, and therefore all together plotted. Previously, [Lǐ] Fēng himself believed that he dealt with classified matters, and [his son Lǐ] Tāo also a ranked Marquis and Giving Affairs Central, was bestowed with the princess of Qícháng, had responsibility inside and outside, his heart could not be at ease, and secretly said to [Lǐ] Tāo: “Xuán is Within the Seas an important man, and moreover has great appointment, but at the age and time when most robust he always met with removal, and also was Cáo Shuǎng’s own outer [female-side] younger cousin, and with the General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Shī] has resentment. I have obtained Xuán’s letter, and deeply for it was sorrowful. [Zhāng] Qī has ability and employment, but was removed from leading troops and horses and large prefecture, and returned to sit at home in alley. Each could not achieve their ambition, and I wish to have you of secret plans inform them.” [Zhāng] Qī once was ill and lying down, [Lǐ] Fēng sent [Lǐ] Tāo to ask after his illness, and [Lǐ] Tāo’s screen attendant said to [Zhāng] Qī: “[Lǐ] Tāo was bestowed with princess, father and son are in critical positions close, but the General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Shī] controls matters, and we always fear we do not meet with clear trust, and the Minister of Ceremonies [Xiàhóu Xuán] also harbors deep sorrow. Your lordship although has honor as the Empress’s father, safety and danger cannot yet be known, and you all with [Lǐ] Tāo’s family have the same anxieties. [Lǐ] Tāo’s father wishes to with your lordship plan this.” [Zhāng] Qī was silent for a good while and then said: “In difficulties on the same boat, how can I escape? This is a great affair, and if not successful immediately disaster will reach our clans.” [Lǐ] Tāo therefore went to report to [Lǐ] Fēng. They secretly spoke with Yellow Gate Supervisor Sū Shuò and others, and Sū Shuò and others replied to [Lǐ] Fēng: “By your lordship’s plans.” [Lǐ] Fēng said: “Now there is appointing a Noble lady, the various Regiment troops all garrison the gates, His Majesty overlooks the pavilion, because of this then together coerce him, and command the various official men and troops, to at once execute the General-in-chief. You all should together secretly tell them this intention.” [Sū] Shuò and the rest said: “If His Majesty unexpectedly does not follow, then what?” [Lǐ] Fēng and the rest said: “The matter has authority and appropriateness, if at the time he does not trust and follow, then he can be forced to leave and that is all. How could he be able to not follow?” [Sū] Shuò and the rest agreed. [Lǐ] Fēng said: “This is a destroying clans matter, you all must keep it secret. If the matter is successful, you all will be given fiefs as Marquis and be Regular Attendants.” [Lǐ] Fēng again secretly informed Xuán and [Zhāng] Qī. [Zhāng] Qī sent his son [Zhāng] Miǎo with [Lǐ] Fēng to together join, to together plan to raise up matters.
  • Shìyǔ states: [Lǐ] Fēng sent his son [Lǐ] Tāo to plan and reply to Xuán, and Xuán said: “It should be detailed and that is all,” and did not report.

〔二〕 魏書曰:玄素貴,以爽故廢黜,居常怏怏不得意。中書令李豐與玄及后父光祿大夫張緝陰謀為亂,緝與豐同郡,傾巧人也,以東莞太守召,為后家,亦不得意,故皆同謀。初,豐自以身處機密,息韜又以列侯給事中,尚齊長公主,有內外之重,心不自安。密謂韜曰:「玄既為海內重人,加以當大任,年時方壯而永見廢,又親曹爽外弟,於大將軍有嫌。吾得玄書,深以為憂。緝有才用,棄兵馬大郡,還坐家巷。各不得志,欲使汝以密計告之。」緝嘗病創臥,豐遣韜省病,韜屏人語緝曰:「韜尚公主,父子在機近,大將軍秉事,常恐不見明信,太常亦懷深憂。君侯雖有后父之尊,安危未可知,皆與韜家同慮者也,韜父欲與君侯謀之。」緝默然良久曰:「同舟之難,吾焉所逃?此大事,不捷即禍及宗族。」韜於是往報豐。密語黃門監蘇鑠等,蘇鑠等答豐:「惟君侯計。」豐言曰:「今拜貴人,諸營兵皆屯門。陛下臨軒,因此便共迫脅,將群寮人兵,就誅大將軍。卿等當共密白此意。」鑠等曰;「陛下儻不從人,奈何?」豐等曰:「事有權宜,臨時若不信聽,便當劫將去耳。那得不從?」鑠等許諾。豐曰:「此族滅事,卿等密之。事成,卿等皆當封侯常侍也。」豐復密以告玄、緝。緝遣子邈與豐相結,同謀起事。世語曰:豐遣子韜以謀報玄,玄曰「宜詳之耳」,而不以告也。

The General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Shī] slightly heard their plot, invited [Lǐ] Fēng to meet together, [Lǐ] Fēng was unaware and went, and immediately was killed. (3)

大將軍微聞其謀,請豐相見,豐不知而往,即殺之。〔三〕

  • (3) Shìyǔ states: The General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Shī] heard of [Lǐ] Fēng’s plot, and Resident Wáng Yàng pledged his life to invite [Lǐ] Fēng: “If [Lǐ] Fēng has no preparations, the situation and authority will compel him and he will certainly come; if he does not come, I [Wáng] Yàng alone am enough to control him; if he knows the plot is leaked, he will with armies surround himself, with long halberds self defend, directly enter Yúnlóng gate, seize Heaven’s Son and ascend Língyún Terrace, atop the terrace is three thousand men and weapons, calling and drumming to gather armies, and for this, I [Wáng] Yàng am not sufficient.” The General-in-Chief therefore sent [Wáng] Yàng with chariot to welcome him, [Lǐ] Fēng saw he was forced, and accompanied [Wáng] Yàng and arrived.
  • Wèishì Chūnqiū states: The General-in-Chief reproached [Lǐ] Fēng, [Lǐ] Fēng knew disaster had arrived, and therefore with stern expression said: “You father and son [Sīmǎ Yì and Sīmǎ Shī] harbored treachery, and are about to overturn the State Altars, I regret my strength is inferior, to be unable to take and exterminate you and that is all.” The General-in-Chief was furious, and had warrior with saber pommel hit [Lǐ] Fēng’s lower back, killing him.
  • Wèilüè states: [Lǐ] Fēng appellation Ānguó, was former Minister of the Guard Lǐ Yì’s son. During Huángchū [220-226], because of his father’s appointment he was summoned to accompany the army. Beginning at the time he was in plain clothes [not yet an official], at seventeen years, at Yèxià he had reputation for purity, discerning people, Within the Seas he was praised, and none did not take note of him. Later he accompanied the army to Xǔchāng, and his reputation daily increased. His father was unwilling for him to be like this, and therefore ordered him to shut his gates, and had him cut off relations with guests. Previously, Míng-dì was at the East Palace, and [Lǐ] Fēng was among the Literary Scholars. At the succession to the Honored Position, they obtained a Wú surrendered man, and asked: “The Jiāng’s east has heard of whom among the central states’ famed scholars?” The surrendered man said: “We have heard of a Lǐ Ānguó.” At the time [Lǐ] Fēng was a Yellow Gate Cadet, Míng-dì asked his attendants where Ānguó was, and the attendants answered with [Lǐ] Fēng. The Emperor said: “[Lǐ] Fēng’s name really reached to Wú and Yuè?” Later he was transferred to Cavalry Commandant and Giving Affairs Center. After the Emperor passed, he became Yǒngníng Minister Charioteer, but as his reputation exceeded the facts, his ability and employment was little. During Zhèngshǐ [240-249], he was promoted to Attendant Internal Secretariat Deputy-Director. When [Lǐ] Fēng was in the Terrace Division, he always frequently claimed illness. At the time Terrace regulations, was that if illness reached 100 days then salary was ended, [Lǐ] Fēng was ill for several tens of days, then temporarily rose, then stopped and again rested, and was like this for several years. Previously, [Lǐ] Fēng’s son [Lǐ] Tāo was selected to be bestowed with princess, [Lǐ] Fēng although outside declined it, inside he did not deeply dislike it. [Lǐ] Fēng’s younger brothers [Lǐ] Yì and [Lǐ] Wěi, served within several years, and both were successively prefecture Administrators. [Lǐ] Fēng once among people prominently reprimanded his two younger brothers, saying they should use honorable positions for [lost passage]. When Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng was chronically ill, [Lǐ] Wěi was a 2000 dàn [rank official], unrestrained in alcohol, ruined Xīnpíng and Fúfēng two prefectures but [Lǐ] Fēng did not summon him, and everyone believed he was relying on favor. When Cáo Shuǎng controlled the government, [Lǐ] Fēng relied on playing the two Excellencies off each other, not joining with anyone, and therefore at the time there was slanderous letter: “Cáo Shuǎng’s power heats like soup, the Grand Tutor father and sons cool like paste, Lǐ Fēng and his brothers are like wandering light.” Its meaning was that [Lǐ] Fēng although outside showed purity and tranquility, but inside he schemed matters, resembling wandering light. When [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng memorialized to execute [Cáo] Shuǎng, he stopped his carriage below the watchtower, with [Lǐ] Fēng communicated, [Lǐ] Fēng was terrified, with rapid breath, his legs bent to the ground and unable to rise. Reaching Jiāpíng Fourth Year [252] after [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng died, the Internal Documents Director was vacant, the General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Shī] consulted and asked the Court ministers: “Who can fill it?” Someone pointed to [Lǐ] Fēng. [Lǐ] Fēng although knew this was not a prominent position, yet because he was connected by marriage to the state, thought he should attached to the Utmost Honored, and therefore bowed and did not decline, and therefore memorial employed him. [Lǐ] Fēng was in the Internal Documents for two years, the Emperor often alone summoned him to speak, and it is unknown what they said. [Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng knew they were discussing about him, invited [Lǐ] Fēng, but [Lǐ] Fēng would not honestly answer, and therefore killed him. These matters are secret. [Lǐ] Fēng from beginning to end served two Courts [Míng-dì, King of Qí], and did not have his family property in his thoughts, relying on government salary and nothing more. [Lǐ] Tāo although was bestowed a princess, [Lǐ] Fēng always ordered him to not to use it to infringe and take, and when bestowed with coins and silk, at once it was given out to family and clansmen. When bestowed with palace women, most gave them to their younger clansmen, but [Lǐ] Fēng all gave to his various sister’s sons. After he died, managers confiscated his family property, but his family had no excess savings.
  • Wèishì Chūnqiū states: In the night they sent [Lǐ] Fēng’s corpse to the Minister of Justice, the Minister of Justice Zhōng Yù would not accept it, saying: “This is not what the law office manages.” He was informed of the situation, and moreover ordered to, and therefore accepted. The Emperor was furious, and was about to ask how [Lǐ] Fēng died, the Dowager-Empress was afraid, called the Emperor to enter, and he therefore stopped. Envoy was sent to arrest [Lǐ] Yì.
  • Shìyǔ states: [Lǐ] Yì’s later wife, was Cavalier Regular Attendant Xún Yì’s older sister, and said to [Lǐ] Yì: “The Internal Documents matter is discovered, you can before [arrest] letter arrives flee to Wú, why sit and wait for death? Who among your attendants can together go with you through water and fire?” [Lǐ] Yì was thoughtful and had not yet answered, his wife said: “You are in a big province, and do not know who can with you together die or live, leaving also is not to escape.” [Lǐ] Yì said: “Our two sons are small, I will not go. Now only I will be connected and die, the two sons will certainly be pardoned.” Indeed it was as [Lǐ] Yì said. [Lǐ] Yì’s son [Lǐ] Bīn, was Yáng Jùn’s wife’s sibling’s son. At Jìn Huī-dì‘s beginning, he became Hénán Intendant, and with [Yáng] Jùn together died. See Jìnshū.

〔三〕 世語曰:大將軍聞豐謀,舍人王羕請以命請豐。「豐若無備,情屈勢迫,必來,若不來,羕一人足以制之;若知謀泄,以眾挾輪,長戟自衛,徑入雲龍門,挾天子登淩雲臺,臺上有三千人仗,鳴鼓會眾,如此,羕所不及也」。大將軍乃遣羕以車迎之。豐見劫迫,隨羕而至。魏氏春秋曰:大將軍責豐,豐知禍及,遂正色曰:「卿父子懷姦,將傾社稷,惜吾力劣,不能相禽滅耳!」大將軍怒,使勇士以刀環築豐腰,殺之。魏略曰:豐字安國,故衛尉李義子也。黃初中,以父任召隨軍。始為白衣時,年十七八,在鄴下名為清白,識別人物,海內翕然,莫不注意。後隨軍在許昌,聲稱日隆。其父不願其然,遂令閉門,敕使斷客。初,明帝在東宮,豐在文學中。及即尊位,得吳降人,問「江東聞中國名士為誰」?降人云:「聞有李安國者是。」時豐為黃門郎,明帝問左右安國所在,左右以豐對。帝曰:「豐名乃被于吳越邪?」後轉騎都尉、給事中。帝崩後,為永寧太僕,以名過其實,能用少也。正始中,遷侍中尚書僕射。豐在臺省,常多託疾,時臺制,疾滿百日當解祿,豐疾未滿數十日,輒暫起,已復臥,如是數歲。初,豐子韜以選尚公主,豐雖外辭之,內不甚憚也。豐弟翼及偉,仕數歲間,並歷郡守。豐嘗於人中顯誡二弟,言當用榮位為〔囗〕。及司馬宣王久病,偉為二千石,荒于酒,亂新平、扶風二郡而豐不召,眾人以為恃寵。曹爽專政,豐依違二公間,無有適莫,故于時有謗書曰:「曹爽之勢熱如湯,太傅父子冷如漿,李豐兄弟如游光。」其意以為豐雖外示清淨,而內圖事,有似於游光也。及宣王奏誅爽,住車闕下,與豐相聞,豐怖,遽氣索,足委地不能起。至嘉平四年宣王終後,中書令缺,大將軍諮問朝臣:「誰可補者?」或指向豐。豐雖知此非顯選,而自以連婚國家,思附至尊,因伏不辭,遂奏用之。豐為中書二歲,帝比每獨召與語,不知所說。景王知其議己,請豐,豐不以實告,乃殺之。其事祕。豐前後仕歷二朝,不以家計為意,仰俸廩而已。韜雖尚公主,豐常約敕不得有所侵取,時得賜錢帛,輒以外施親族;及得賜宮人,多與子弟,而豐皆以與諸外甥。及死後,有司籍其家,家無餘積。魏氏春秋曰:夜送豐尸付廷尉,廷尉鍾毓不受,曰:「非法官所治也。」以其狀告,且敕之,乃受。帝怒,將問豐死意,太后懼,呼帝入,乃止。遣使收翼。世語曰:翼後妻,散騎常侍荀廙姊,謂翼曰:「中書事發,可及書未至赴吳,何為坐取死亡!左右可共同赴水火者誰?」翼思未答,妻曰:「君在大州,不知可與同死生者,去亦不免。」翼曰:「二兒小,吾不去。今但從坐,身死,二兒必免。」果如翼言。翼子斌,楊駿外甥也。晉惠帝初,為河南尹,與駿俱死,見晉書。

The matter was sent down to managers, and they arrested Xuán, [Zhāng] Qī, [Sū] Shuò, [Yuè] Dūn, [Liú] Xián and the rest and sent them to the Minister of Justice. (4)

事下有司,收玄、緝、鑠、敦、賢等送廷尉。〔四〕

  • (4) Shìyǔ states: Xuán reached the Minister of Justice, and would not agree to confess. Minister of Justice Zhōng Yù personally went to oversee the management of Xuán. Xuán with stern expression reproached [Zhōng] Yù: “What should I confess? You are a Director Scribe Responsible, you can make one for me.” [Zhōng] Yù believed because he [Xiàhóu Xuán] was a famed scholar, his integrity was high and unable to be bent, but the lawsuit had to be finished, and in the night for him wrote a confession, having it agree with the already known matters, and shedding tears showed it to Xuán. Xuán looked at it, and nodded and nothing more. [Zhōng] Yù’s younger brother [Zhōng] Huì, was younger than Xuán, and Xuán would not with him interact, and that day with [Zhōng] Yù sat and acted familiar with Xuán, but Xuán paid no heed.
  • Sūn Shèng’s Záyǔ states: Xuán was in prison, [Zhōng] Huì therefore wished to act familiar with and befriend Xuán, and Xuán with stern expression said: “Sir Zhōng why do you pressure me like this?”

〔四〕 世語曰:玄至廷尉,不肯下辭。廷尉鍾毓自臨治玄。玄正色責毓曰:「吾當何辭?卿為令史責人也,卿便為吾作。」毓以其名士,節高不可屈,而獄當竟,夜為作辭,令與事相附,流涕以示玄。玄視,頷之而已。毓弟會,年少於玄,玄不與交,是日於毓坐狎玄,玄不受。孫盛雜語曰:玄在囹圄,會因欲狎而友玄,玄正色曰:「鍾君何相偪如此也!」

Minister of Justice Zhōng Yù memorialized: “[Lǐ] Fēng and the rest plotted to coerce the Utmost Honored, to without authority execute the highest minister, Great Rebellion Without Principle, and it is requested to discuss what to do by law.” Therefore there was meeting of the Excellencies and Ministers and Court councilors by the Minister of Justice’s comment, and all believed: “[Lǐ] Fēng and the rest each received unique favor, managed classified matters, [Zhāng] Qī took advantage of the honor of being an outer relative-by-marriage, Xuán served as the reign’s minister, and also occupied ranked position, but harbored and hid disastrous heart, scheming vicious rebellion, communicating and involving with eunuchs, instructing them with treacherous plans, but feared and dreaded Heaven’s authority, did not dare to make prominent his scheming, and therefore wished to coerce ruler and threaten the ascended, unrestrained in his treachery and tyranny, plotting to execute good supporter, usurping his established position, and so was about to overturn the capital’s houses, endangering the State Altars. [Zhōng] Yù’s rectification all should be by law, and reply to [Zhōng] Yù to put it into effect.” Imperial Order wrote: “Princess of Qícháng, was the late Emperor’s beloved daughter, pardon her three sons from death.” Therefore [Lǐ] Fēng, [Xiàhóu] Xuán, [Zhāng] Qī, [Yuè] Dūn, [Liú] Xián and the rest all were exterminated to the third degree, (5) the rest of their kin relocated to Lèlàng prefecture [on the northeastern frontier].

廷尉鍾毓奏:「豐等謀迫脅至尊,擅誅冢宰,大逆無道,請論如法。」於是會公卿朝臣廷尉議,咸以為「豐等各受殊寵,典綜機密,緝承外戚椒房之尊,玄備世臣,並居列位,而包藏禍心,搆圖凶逆,交關閹豎,授以姦計,畏憚天威,不敢顯謀,乃欲要君脅上,肆其詐虐,謀誅良輔,擅相建立,將以傾覆京室,顛危社稷。毓所正皆如科律,報毓施行」。詔書:「齊長公主,先帝遺愛,原其三子死命。」於是豐、玄、緝、敦、賢等皆夷三族,〔五〕其餘親屬徙樂浪郡。

  • (5) Wèishū states: [Lǐ] Fēng’s son [Lǐ] Tāo, as he was bestowed with princess, was forced to commit suicide in prison.

〔五〕 魏書曰:豐子韜,以尚主,賜死獄中。

Xuán’s character was tolerant and he had magnanimity and generosity, and as he was about to be beheaded at the East Market, his countenance did not change, and his movements were at ease. At the time he was aged forty-six years. (6) During Zhèngyuán [254-255], to continue meritorious ministers’ generations, fief was given on [Xiàhóu] Shàng’s cousin’s grandson [Xiàhóu] Běn as Chānglíng precinct Marquis, with fief of 300 households, to serve as [Xiàhóu] Shàng’s descendant.

玄格量弘濟,臨斬東巿,顏色不變,舉動自若,時年四十六。〔六〕正元中,紹功臣世,封尚從孫本為昌陵亭侯,邑三百戶,以奉尚後。

  • (6) Wèilüè states: Xuán from when he from the west returned, did not interact in human affairs, and did not gather beauties.
  • Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Previously, Xiàhóu Bà was about to flee to Shǔ, and called on Xuán wishing to go together. Xuán said: “How can I pointlessly live as a guest of bandits and caitiffs?” Therefore he returned to the capital. When the Grand Tutor [Sīmǎ Yì] died, Xǔ Yǔn said to Xuán: “You have no further worries.” Xuán sighed and said: “Shìzōng, how can you not see the situation? This man [Sīmǎ Yì] yet could because my family and I are younger treat with me, but [Sīmǎ Shī] Zǐyuán and [Sīmǎ Zhāo] Zǐshàng cannot tolerate me.” Xuán once wrote Yuè , Zhāng Liáng, and Běn Wú Ròuxíng Lùn, its words and purposes reached far, and all were passed through the generations. When Xuán was arrested, General of the Guard Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng shed tears and pleaded for him, but General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Shī] said: “Have you forgotten the gathering at Excellency of Works Zhào’s burial?” Before this, Excellency of Works Zhào Yǎn died, the General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Shī] and his brothers gathered at the burial, the guests were in the hundreds, Xuán arrived late, the crowd of guests all rose from their mats to welcome him, and the General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Shī] because of this feared him.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: Cáo Shǎung in Zhèngshǐ Fifth Year [244] campaigned against Shǔ, at the time Xuán was already Commander of Guānzhōng, reaching the Tenth Year [249], after [Cáo] Shuǎng was executed and exterminated, only then did he return to Luò[yáng]. According to Shàodìjì [SGZ 4], Excellency of Works Zhào Yǎn in the Sixth Year [245] died, Xuán then was unable to attend [Zhào] Yǎn’s burial. If this is saying Xuán entered Court, the Annals and Biographies also do not have such a matter. This seems absurd and not true.

〔六〕 魏略曰:玄自從西還,不交人事,不蓄華妍。魏氏春秋曰:初,夏侯霸將奔蜀,呼玄欲與之俱。玄曰:「吾豈苟存自客於寇虜乎?」遂還京師。太傅薨,許允謂玄曰:「無復憂矣。」玄歎曰:「士宗,卿何不見事乎?此人猶能以通家年少遇我,子元、子上不吾容也。」玄嘗著樂毅、張良及本無肉刑論,辭旨通遠,咸傳于世。玄之執也,衛將軍司馬文王流涕請之,大將軍曰:「卿忘會趙司空葬乎?」先是,司空趙儼薨,大將軍兄弟會葬,賓客以百數,玄時後至,眾賓客咸越席而迎,大將軍由是惡之。臣松之案:曹爽以正始五年伐蜀,時玄已為關中都督,至十年,爽誅滅後,方還洛耳。案少帝紀,司空趙儼以六年亡,玄則無由得會儼葬,若云玄入朝,紀、傳又無其事。斯近妄不實。


Previously, Central Manager of the Army Gāoyáng’s Xǔ Yǔn with [Lǐ] Fēng and Xuán were close and friendly. Before this there was a forged and sent written Imperial Order, appointing Xuán as General-in-Chief and Yǔn as Excellency Commandant, to together control Secretariat affairs. There was an unknown man before daylight riding horse with Imperial Order register handed over to Yǔn’s gate official, saying: “It is an Imperial Order,” and then at once galloping away. Yǔn immediately burned the letter, and did not report it to Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng. Later [Lǐ] Fēng and the rest’s matter was discovered, Yǔn was relocated to be Defending North General, with Acting Staff as Commander of the Hé’s north’s various military affairs. Before he set out, for giving out government property, he was arrested and sent to the Minister of Justice, relocated to Lèlàng, and on the road died. (1)

初,中領軍高陽許允與豐、玄親善。先是有詐作尺一詔書,以玄為大將軍,允為太尉,共錄尚書事。有何人天未明乘馬以詔版付允門吏,曰「有詔」,因便馳走。允即投書燒之,不以開呈司馬景王。後豐等事覺,徙允為鎮北將軍,假節督河北諸軍事。未發,以放散官物,收付廷尉,徙樂浪,道死。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: Yǔn appellation Shìzōng, was of a for generations dominating clan. His father [Xǔ] Jù served successively as Managing Agriculture Colonel and prefecture Administrator. Yǔn when young with the same prefecture’s Cuī Zàn both had reputation in Jì Province, and was summoned to enter the army. In Míng-dì‘s time he became Secretariat Selections Department Cadet, with Chén state’s Yuán Kǎn opposed, and together in connection to duty affairs, all were arrested and sent to prison, and Imperial Order’s intentions were strict and cutting, and they would die, but those upright believed it to severe. Yǔn said to [Yuán] Kǎn: “You are a meritorious minister’s son, and law answers the Eight Commentaries, and you do not need to worry about death.” [Yuán] Kǎn knew his meaning, that they were receiving severity. Yǔn’s punishment indeed was repealed, and he was sent out as a prefecture Administrator, gradually promoted to Attendant Internal Secretariat Central Manager of the Army. Yǔn heard Lǐ Fēng and the rest had been arrested, and wished to go meet the General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Shī], had already gone out the door, but hesitated and was uncertain, in the middle of the road went back to fetch scallions, and [Lǐ] Fēng and the rest had already been dealt with. The General-in-Chief heard Yǔn was advancing quickly, was bewildered and said: “I myself arrested [Lǐ] Fēng and the rest, and do not know why the scholar officials are hurried?” At the time of the Court ministers the hurrying were many, but everyone all believed his meaning was Yǔn. It happened Defending North General Liú Jīng died, and the Court appointed Yǔn to succeed [Liú] Jīn. He had already received Staff and transfer, and went out stopping at outer residence. The General-in-Chief with Yǔn wrote letter: “Although Defending North has few matters, yet it commands and manages a direction, and one hopes you can shake civilization drums, establish red integrity, serve your home province, this is what is called showing embroidery for day travel.” Yǔn’s heart was deeply pleased, with those in the Terrace exchanged news, and wished to change his drums and horns and banners and flags. His elder brother’s son previously heard everyone say that Yǔn previously met with suspicion, and warned Yǔn: “Merely going and you will get it, why do this?” Yǔn said: “You are a coarse scholar and do not understand, I am by this honoring the state and that is all, and therefore seek them.” The Emperor as Yǔn was about to go out, then had Imperial Order to gather the various ministers, the various ministers all collected, and the Emperor specially led Yǔn to be close to him; Yǔn previously was a Attendant Internal, and looking back about to with the Emperor take leave, he shed tears and sobbed. The meeting finished, ending and going out, Imperial Order hurriedly ordered Yǔn to leave. It happened that mangers memorialized that Yǔn previously had without authority taken kitchen coins and grain and given it to various performances and his subordinate officials, and therefore he was arrested and sent to the Minister of Justice, interrogated to the end, and was spared death and relocated to the frontiers. Yǔn in Jiāpíng Sixth Year Autumn relocated, his wife and children could not accompany him, and on the road not yet arrived, that year’s winter he died.
  • Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Yǔn was a Official Division Cadet, selecting prefecture Administrators. Míng-dì suspected his selections were not ordered, summoned him to enter, and was about to apply punishment. Yǔn’s wife lady Ruǎn barefooted went out, and said: “An enlightened ruler can be with reason contested, but difficult to with emotion pleaded.” Yǔn nodded and entered. The Emperor angrily questioned him, Yǔn replied: “Such-and-such prefecture Administrator though term limit document first arrived, his year term limit is afterward, though the Administrator is behind, the day limit is ahead.” The Emperor first obtained the matter and investigated it, and therefore released and sent him out, and observing his clothes were damaged, said: “This is a pure official,” and gave bestowment on him. At Yǔn’s sending out as Defending North[ General], he was pleased and said to his wife: “I knew I would be pardoned.” His wife said: “The disaster is seen in this, what pardon is there?” Yǔn was good at appraising seals, was about to be appointed, but as the seal was not good, sent for it to again be carved, and it was like this three times. Yǔn said: “Although the seal is newly completed already it has been disgraced.” He asked the seal deliverer, and indeed it had fallen in the lavatory. Xiāngyìnshū states: “Appraising seals methods originally came from Chén Chángwén, [Chén] Chángwén told it to Wéi Zhòngjiàng, seal craftsman Yáng Lì followed [Wèi] Zhòngjiàng’s methods, and told it to Xǔ Shìzōng. [Yáng] Lì used methods to divine good and bad fortune, out of ten correct eight to nine. [Wèi] Zhòngjiàng asked [Chén] Chángwén: ‘From whom did you obtain these methods?’ [Chén] Chángwén said: ‘Originally it came from Hàn’s era, there was Xiāngyìn, Xiānghù jīng, and also Yīng jīng, Niú jīng, and Mǎ jīng. Seal craftsman Zōng Yǎng told this method to Chéng Shēnbó, and therefore there are twelve schools of appraisal methods passed through the generations.” Yǔn’s wife lady Ruǎn was worthy and wise but ugly, Yǔn at the first meeting was amazed, and after the marriage ceremony was complete, he had no intention to again enter. The wife sent maidservant to observe him, and she said “There is guest surnamed Huán.” The wife said: “This certainly is Huán Fàn, who will urge him [Xǔ Yǔn] to enter.” Soon afterward [Huán] Fàn indeed urged him. Yǔn entered, and immediately again rose, the wife clutched his garment to keep him. Yǔn looked back and said to the woman: “Women have Four Virtues, how many do you have?” The woman said: “What I this new bride lack is only appearances. Gentlemen have a hundred conducts, how many do you have?” Xǔ [Yǔn] said: “All are prepared.” The woman said: “Gentlemen have a hundred conducts, and virtue is head. You enjoy beauty but do not enjoy virtue, how can you say all are prepared?” Yǔn had shamed look, knew she was out of the ordinary, and therefore became close with and valued her. They had two sons, [Xǔ] Qí, [Xǔ] Měng, when young had reputation. Yǔn later was by [Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng executed, a family servant fled to enter and tell the woman [lady Ruǎn], the woman was just at [loom] machine, her expression and look did not change, and said: “I early knew it would be like this.” The family servant wished to hide the sons, and the woman said: “It has no relation to the boys.” Later they moved to where the tomb was, [Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng sent Zhōng Huì to observe them, and if their talents and skills and virtues could match their father, they were to be arrested. The boys asked their mother, the mother answered: “Though you are good, your talents and abilities are not many, be direct your thoughts when with [Zhōng] Huì conversing, show you have no worries, do not show utmost sorrow, when [Zhōng] Huì stops then stop. Also you can somewhat ask about Court affairs.” The boys followed this. [Zhōng] Huì returned report, provided all their circumstances and answers, and in the end they escaped disaster, all because of their mother’s instructions. Although [Zhōng] Huì was skilled in appraising, yet he lost to a worthy woman’s wisdom. Indeed it helped her posterity, so that fief was given on her sons and grandsons and nothing more.
  • Shìyǔ states: Yǔn had two sons, [Xǔ] Qí appellation Zǐtài, [Xǔ] Měng appellation Zǐbào, and both had government ability and talent and learning. During Jìn’s Yuánkāng [291-299], [Xǔ] Qí became Colonel Director of Retainers, [Xǔ] Měng Yōu Province Inspector.
  • Fù Chàng’s Jìn Zhūgōng Zàn states: [Xǔ] Měng’s ritual and music was refined and elegant, and at the time the most excellent. [Xǔ] Qí’s son [Xǔ] Xiá appellation Sīzǔ, for his purity was praised, rank reached Attendant Internal. [Xǔ] Mèng’s son [Xǔ] Shì appellation Yízǔ, had talent and ability, reached Púyáng Inner Scribe and Píngyuán Administrator.

〔一〕 魏略曰:允字士宗,世冠族。父據,仕歷典農校尉、郡守。允少與同郡崔贊俱發名於冀州,召入軍。明帝時為尚書選曹郎,與陳國袁侃對,同坐職事,皆收送獄,詔旨嚴切,當有死者,正直者為重。允謂侃曰:「卿,功臣之子,法應八議,不憂死也。」侃知其指,乃為受重。允刑竟復吏,出為郡守,稍遷為侍中尚書中領軍。允聞李豐等被收,欲往見大將軍,已出門,回遑不定,中道還取蔥,豐等已收訖。大將軍聞允前遽,怪之曰:「我自收豐等,不知士大夫何為匆匆乎?」是時朝臣遽者多耳,而眾人咸以為意在允也。會鎮北將軍劉靜卒,朝廷以允代靜。已受節傳,出止外舍。大將軍與允書曰:「鎮北雖少事,而都典一方,念足下震華鼓,建朱節,歷本州,此所謂著繡晝行也。」允心甚悅,與臺中相聞,欲易其鼓吹旌旗。其兄子素頗聞眾人說允前見嫌意,戒允「但當趣耳,用是為邪」!允曰:「卿俗士不解,我以榮國耳,故求之。」帝以允當出,乃詔會群臣,群臣皆集,帝特引允以自近;允前為侍中,顧當與帝別,涕泣歔欷。會訖,罷出,詔促允令去。會有司奏允前擅以廚錢穀乞諸俳及其官屬,故遂收送廷尉,考問竟,(故)減死徙邊。允以嘉平六年秋徙,妻子不得自隨,行道未到,以其年冬死。魏氏春秋曰:允為吏部郎,選郡守。明帝疑其所用非次,召入,將加罪。允妻阮氏跣出,謂曰:「明主可以理奪,難以情求。」允頷之而入。帝怒詰之,允對曰:「某郡太守雖限滿文書先至,年限在後,〔某守雖後〕,日限在前。」帝前取事視之,乃釋遣出。望其衣敗,曰:「清吏也。」賜之。允之出為鎮北也,喜謂其妻曰:「吾知免矣!」妻曰:「禍見於此,何免之有?」允善相印,將拜,以印不善,使更刻之,如此者三。允曰:「印雖始成而已被辱。」問送印者,果懷之而墜于廁。相印書曰:「相印法本出陳長文,長文以語韋仲將,印工楊利從仲將受法,以語許士宗。利以法術占吉凶,十可中八九。仲將問長文『從誰得法』?長文曰:『本出漢世,有相印、相笏經,又有鷹經、牛經、馬經。印工宗養以法語程申伯,是故有一十二家相法傳于世。』」允妻阮氏賢明而醜,允始見愕然,交禮畢,無復入意。妻遣婢覘之,云「有客姓桓」,妻曰:「是必桓範,將勸使入也。」既而範果勸之。允入,須臾便起,妻捉裾留之。允顧謂婦曰:「婦有四德,卿有其幾?」婦曰:「新婦所乏唯容。士有百行,君有其幾?」許曰:「皆備。」婦曰:「士有百行,以德為首,君好色不好德,何謂皆備?」允有慚色,知其非凡,遂雅相親重。生二子,奇、猛,少有令聞。允後為景王所誅,門生走入告其婦,婦正在機,神色不變,曰:「早知爾耳。」門生欲藏其子,婦曰:「無預諸兒事。」後移居墓所,景王遣鍾會看之,若才藝德能及父,當收。兒以語母,母答:「汝等雖佳,才具不多,率胸懷與會語,便自無憂,不須極哀,會止便止。又可多少問朝事。」兒從之。會反命,具以狀對,卒免其禍,皆母之教也。雖會之識鑒,而輸賢婦之智也。果慶及後嗣,追封子孫而已。世語曰:允二子:奇字子泰,猛字子豹,並有治理才學。晉元康中,奇為司隸校尉,猛幽州刺史。傅暢晉諸公贊曰:猛禮樂儒雅,當時最優。奇子遐,字思祖,以清尚稱,位至侍中。猛子式,字儀祖,有才幹,至濮陽內史、平原太守。


Qīnghé’s Wáng Jīng also also with [Xǔ] Yǔn both were praised as Jì Province’s famed scholars. During Gānlù [256-260] he became Secretariat, and in connection to the Duke of Gāoguì village’s matter was executed. At first Jīng was a prefecture Administrator, Jīng’s mother said to Jīng: “You are a farming family’s son, now your service reaches 2000 dàn. Things going too far is inauspicious, you can stop.” Jīng did not listen, and successively served as Inspector of two provinces, Colonel Director of Retainers, and in the end was destroyed. (1)[Xǔ] Yǔn’s friend of the same prefecture Cuī Zàn, also once said warning of flourishing too much in the world to Yǔn. (2)

清河王經亦與允俱稱冀州名士。甘露中為尚書,坐高貴鄉公事誅。始經為郡守,經母謂經曰:「汝田家子,今仕至二千石,物太過不祥,可以止矣。」經不能從,歷二州刺史,司隸校尉,終以致敗〔一〕。允友人同郡崔贊,亦嘗以處世太盛戒允云。〔二〕

  • (1) Shìyǔ states: Jīng appellation Yànwěi, previously was Jiāngxià Administrator. General-in-Chief Cáo Shuǎng gave him fabric of twenty pǐ ordering him to sell to Wú, Jīng did not send the letter, resigned office and returned. His mother asked the reason he returned, and Jīng honestly replied. His mother because Jīng led troops and horses but without authority left, had the escort official cane Jīng fifty strokes. [Cáo] Shuǎng heard this, and did not again punish him. Jīng became Colonel Director of Retainers, and recruited Hénèi’s Xiàng Xióng as Commanding Office Attending Official. When Wáng Yè went out, he did not explain Jīng’s intentions, and so it reached disaster. At Jīng’s execution in the East Market, [Xiàng] Xióng wept for him, moving the whole market. The punishment reached Jīng’s mother, and Yōng Province former subordinate Huángfǔ Yàn with his family wealth paid for the burial.
  • Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Jīng was arrested, and took leave of his mother. His mother’s expression did not change, and laughing she answered: “Of men who does not die? In the past the reason I did not stop you, was because I feared you would have no where to be. To like this share fate, what regret is there to have?” Jìn Wǔ-dì Tàishǐ Inaugural Year [265] Imperial Order said: “Former Secretariat Wáng Jīng, although he violated law, yet his holding to his will is laudable. His family was destroyed, and my thoughts always pity this, and appoint Jīng’s grandson as a Cadet Internal.

〔一〕 世語曰:經字(彥偉)〔彥緯〕,初為江夏太守。大將軍曹爽附絹二十匹令交市于吳,經不發書,棄官歸。母問歸狀,經以實對。母以經典兵馬而擅去,對送吏杖經五十,爽聞,不復罪。經為司隸校尉,辟河內向雄為都官從事,王業之出,不申經(竟)〔意〕以及難。經刑於東市,雄哭之,感動一市。刑及經母,雍州故吏皇甫晏以家財收葬焉。漢晉春秋曰:經被收,辭母。母顏色不變,笑而應曰:「人誰不死?往所以不止汝者,恐不得其所也。以此并命,何恨之有哉?」晉武帝太始元年詔曰:「故尚書王經,雖身陷法辟,然守志可嘉。門戶堙沒,意常愍之,其賜經孫郎中。」

  • (2) Xún Chuò’s Jìzhōu Jì states: Zàn’s son Hóng, appellation Liángbó, was pure and respectful and had unselfish will, and became Jìn Official Department Secretariat and Minister of Agriculture.

〔二〕 荀綽冀州記曰:贊子洪,字良伯,清恪有匪躬之志,為晉吏部尚書、大司農。

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