son Xiù 秀 [Jìyàn 季彥]
Péi Qián appellation Wénxíng was a Hédōng Wénxǐ man. (1)
- (1) Wèilüè states: Qián was of a for generations great clan. His father Mào, served in Líng-dì’s time, successively as county magistrate, prefecture administrator, and Secretariat. At Jiàn’ān’s beginning, for serving as envoy in leading and guiding Guānzhōng’s various officers in suppressing Lǐ Jué and having achievement, he was given fief as a ranked Marquis. Qián when young did not cultivate fine conduct, and because of this was by his father not respected.
He avoided the chaos in Jīngzhōu, Liú Biǎo treated him courtesy due a guest. Qián privately said to his intimates Wáng Càn and Sīmǎ Zhī: “Governor Liú does not have an overlord’s talent, yet wishes to be like Xībó, his defeat will be in no time.” Therefore he went south to Chángshā. Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] settled Jīngzhōu , appointed Qián as Advisor to Chancellor’s Military Affairs, sent out successively as three counties’ magistrate, entered as Granary Department Associate.
Tàizǔ asked Qián: “You previously with Liú Bèi both were in Jīngzhōu, what do you believe of [Liú] Bèi’s ability and planning?” Qián said: “If residing in the central states, able to disorder people but not able to govern. If taking advantage to defend rugged terrain, sufficient to be one corner’s master.”
At the time Dài prefecture was in great chaos, appointed Qián as Dàijùn Administrator. The Wūhuán Kings and their Chieftains, altogether three men, each declared themselves Chányú, concentrating control of prefecture affairs. Of the previous Administrators none could govern and correct, and Tàizǔ wished to give Qián elite troops to defend and suppress them. Qián declined saying: “Dài prefecture’s population is very many, troops and horses drawing bows, if mobilized are in the tens of thousands. The Chányú themselves know their recklessness have been for a long time, and inside cannot be at ease. Now if many officers and soldiers go, they will certainly fear and resist at the borders, if few officers then it will not be feared. It is appropriate to use planning against them, and not to use troops to intimidate.” Therefore he went in one carriage to the prefecture. The Chányú were surprised and pleased, Qián comforted them with tranquility. The Chányú on down took off cap and bowed head, and all returned from beginning to end the plundered women, weapons, and property. Qián cited and executed the prefecture’s great officials that with the Chányú reported Hǎo Wēn, Guō Duān, and others over over the men, the north was greatly shaken, and the common people submitted heart. He was in Dài for three years, returned as Chancellor’s Reason Department Official, Tàizǔ commended and praised his achievement of governing Dài, Qián said: “I Qián with the common people though was lenient, to the various Hú was harsh. Now the planners certainly believing that I Qián in reasoning am too strict, in service will add lenience and kindness. They [the Hú] by nature are arrogant and unrestrained, excessive lenience will certainly cause slackening, and if slackened and also wishing to gather them using law, this is how litigation and conflict are produced. Using the situation to consider things, Dài certainly will again rebel.” Therefore Tàizǔ deeply regretted calling back Qián so quickly. After several tens of days, news of the three Chányú rebelling arrived, and so sent Marquis of Yánlíng [Cáo] Zhāng as Valiant Cavalry General to campaign against them.
Qián was sent out as Pèiguó Chancellor, promoted to Yǎnzhōu Inspector. Tàizǔ went to Móbēi , sighed at his army lines’ orderliness, and specially applied rewards. When Wén-dì ascended the throne , he entered as Cavalier Regular Attendant. He was sent out as Wèijùn and Yǐngchān Managing Agriculture Internal Cadet General, and the presentations communicated and tribute raised, was comparable to prefectures and states, and from this agricultural offices were advanced in service and on the road safe. He was promoted to Jīngzhōu Inspector, bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes.
When Míng-dì succeeded the throne , he entered the Secretariat, was sent out as Hénán Intendant, transferred to Grand Commandant’s Master of the Army, Minister of Agriculture, fief as Marquis of Qīngyáng precinct, fief of 200 households. He entered as Secretariat Director, memorialized on correcting division of duties, to staff and select based on reputation reflecting reality, and the cases of cutting off offices were over 150. Losing his father he left office, was honored as Merit Grandee. Zhèngshǐ Fifth Year  he died, posthumously titled Minister of Ceremonies, posthumous name Zhēn-hóu “Chaste Marquis.” (1) His son Xiù succeeded. The Legacy Order specified frugal burial, inside the mausoleum only installing one seat, a few pottery pieces, nothing else set up. Xiù during Xiánxī became Secretariat Deputy-Director. (2)
- (1) Wèilüè states: At the time far and near all said he would become an Excellency, it happened that he of illness died. Previously Qián himself felt he was born lowly, without a maternal uncle’s clan, and also was by his father not respected, thus he deferred to integrity in serving and advancing, and though he went through many positions, he was pure and scrupulous. Every time he was in office, he did not bring his wife and children. His wife and children were impoverished, weaved weeds to support themselves. Also in the time Qián was Yǎnzhōu [Inspector], he once made a Hú couch, and when he departed, he left it hanging on a pillar. Also his father was in the capital, going outside and inside in meager carriage, his various younger brothers were in farm huts, always on foot traveling; the family members small and large gathered each day to eat; their family teachings high and low they maintained, the matter resembling the Shífèn. His investigations and calculation judgements, from Wèi’s rise few have been able to match. Qián as a man had extensive talents, had elegance, however yet it was like this and nothing more, and in the end he was without advancement, and therefore the world submitted to his purity and did not make a model of the rest.
- (2) Wénzhāng Xùlù states: Xiù appellation Jìyàn. He was liberal and extensively learned, at eight years was able to write prose, and therefore had reputation. General-in-Chief Cáo Shuǎng recruited him. When the mourning for his father ended, and he gave all the property to his brothers. At twenty-five years, he was promoted to Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet. [Cáo] Shuǎng was executed, and as his former official he was dismissed. Promoted to Wèiguó Chancellor, gradually promoted to Cavalier Regular Attendant, Secretariat Deputy Director and Director, Merit Grandee. During Xiánxī, Jìn Wén-wáng [Sīmǎ Zhāo] first established the Five Ranks, and ordered Xiù to manage the regulations, with fief as Marquis of Guǎngchuān. When the Jìn House received the abdication, he was advanced to Left Merit Grandee, changed fief to Jùlù Duke, promoted to Excellency of Works. He wrote discussions on the Yì and Yuè, and also drew Dìyù tú “Regional Maps” in eighteen piān, circulated through the world. Ménghuì tú and Diǎnzhì Guānzhì both were not finished. At forty eight years, Tàishǐ Seventh Year  he died, posthumous name Yuán-gōng “Primary Duke,” with accompaning sacrifices in the Ancestral Temple. His youngest son Wěi, appellation Yìmín, succeeded the fief.
- Xún Chuò’s Jìzhōu jì states: Wěi as a man was liberal and elegant and had foresight, widely learned and studied the ancients, in conduct high and orderly, from youth well known. He had successive positions as Heir-Apparent Internal Companion, Attendant Internal Secretariat. At Yuánkāng’s [291-299] end, he became Secretariat Left Deputy Director. The King of Zhào [Sīmǎ] Lún, because his reputation was heavy, feared and hated him, knew that he was not with lady Jiǎ of the same heart, but still unjustly harmed him.
- Your Servant Sōngzhī cites Lù Jī’s Huì-dì Qǐjū zhù appraising: “Wěi is elegant with distant judgement, and should be the Court’s famous scholar,” also stating: “He is the people’s hope.” Wěi’s reasoning was profound and extensive, supported in discussing troubles, he wrote Chóngyǒu and Guìwú two discussions, to rectify the detriments of empty boasting. His words were elite and rich, and were the world’s famed discussions. His son Sōng, appellation Dàowén. Xún Chuò appraised Sōng as having his grandfather’s manner. He became Internal Documents cadet, early died.
- Wěi’s younger first cousin Miǎo, appellation Jǐngshēng, had significant ability, and became Grand Tutor Sīmǎ Yuè’s Attending Official Internal Cadet, Acting Staff as Supervisor to the Internal and External Camps’ Various Military Affairs.
- Qián’s youngest brother Huī, appellation Wénjì, was Jìzhōu Inspector. He had high talent and distant judgment, good at speaking of the mysterious and profound. For his matter see Xún Càn, Fù Jiǎ, Wáng Bì, Guǎn Lù’s various biographies. Huī’s eldest son Lí, appellation Bózōng, originally named Yǎn, was Traveling Strike General. Next Kāng, appellation Zhòngyù, was Heir Apparent’s Left Guard Leader. Next Kǎi, appellation Shūzé, was Attendant Internal Internal Documents Director, Minister Grandee, with Open Office. Next Chuò, appellation Jìshū, was Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet, early died, posthumously titled Cháng River Colonel. Kāng, Kǎi, Chuò all were famed scholars, but Kǎi’s talent and fame was most heavy.
- Jìn Zhūgōng zàn states: Kāng had liberal ability, Chuò for enlightened judgement was praised, Kǎi when young with Lángyé’s Wáng Róng both as officials had fame, Zhōng Huì conveyed this to General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng stating: “Péi Kǎi is pure communication, Wáng Róng is concise.” [Sīmǎ Zhāo] Wén-wáng at once recruited them as officials, advancing successively through prominent positions. Xiè Kūn made Yuèguǎng zhuàn, which praised Kǎi as talented and intelligent, at the time alone walking [without match].
- Lí’s son Bāo was Qínzhōu Inspector. Kāng’s son Chún was Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet. The next Dùn, was Xúzhōu Inspector. The next Hé, had talent and fame. When Jìn Yuán-dì [Sīmǎ Ruì] became Securing East General, Hé was his Chief Clerk, Attendant Internal Wáng Kuàng with Sīmǎ Yuè wrote letter that said: “Péi Hé is here, though he does not govern matters, however is knowledge and judgement is liberal and vast, these subordinates all greatly venerate and attatch to him.” The next Kuò, was Central Rampart General. Kǎi’s son Zàn was Internal Docuemnts Cadet. Next Xiàn, was Yùzhōu Inspector. Chuò’s son Xiá, was Grand Tutor’s Registrar. Zàn and Xiá both had flourishing reputation, early died. Jìn Zhūgōng zàn appraises Xiàn as having purity and knowledge.
- Wèilüè arranges biographies with Xú Fú, Yán Gàn, Lǐ Yì, Zhāng Jì, Yóu Chǔ, Liáng Xí, Zhào Yǎn, Péi Qián, Hán Xuān, Huáng Lǎng ten men in the same juàn. [Zhāng] Jì, [Liáng] Xí, [Zhào] Yǎn, [Péi] Qián four men themselves have biographies [in SGZ 15, 15, 23, 23]. Xú Fú’s matters are in Zhūgě Liàng’s biography [SGZ 35], Yóu Chǔ’s matters are in Zhāng Jì’s biography [SGZ 15]. The rest Hán [Xuān] and the rest four men are recorded hereafter.
- Yán Gàn appellation Gōngzhòng, Lǐ Yì appellation Xiàoyì, both were Féngyì Dōngxiàn men. Féngyì Dōngxiàn of old had no dominant clan, therefore the two men both were of lowly families, their talent and character both heavy and generous. At Zhōngpíng’s [184-189] end, both were over twenty years, Gàn enjoyed fencing, Yì enjoyed managing funeral affairs. Féngyì’s primary clans Huán, Tián, Jí, Guō and former Attendant Internal Zhèng Wénxìn and others, recognizing that each had talent, together noted and rememebred them. It happened that the three adjuncts were in chaos, of men many fled away, but Gàn and Yì did not leave, and with those they knew supported each other, gathering firewood to support themselves. Reaching Jiàn’ān’s beginning, Guānzhōng was first opened. Imperial Order divided Féngyì’s west several counties to be Zuǒnèishǐ prefecture, capital at Gáoling, the east various counties to be the original prefecture, capital at Línjìn. Yì in the county division was in the west part, Yì said to Gàn: “[I the] west county’s younger department, cannot with you fight over seats, now we should together make a couch.” Therefore they joined together, both serving the east prefecture in right [senior] duties. The Director of Retainers recruited Gàn, he did not arrive. At year’s end, the prefecture nominated Gàn as filial and incorruptible, Yì promoted to calculations official. Yì remained at the capital, became Pínglíng Magistrate, promoted to Supplementary Followers Deputy Director, successively in prominent duties. Reaching the Wèi fief of ten prefectures, invited Yì as Military Libationer, and also Wèi Secretariat Left Deputy Director. When Wén-dì succeeded the throne, appoitned Remonstration Comment Grandee, Metal Mace Bearer Minsiter of the Guard, died in office. Yì’s son Fēng, appellation Xuānguó, see Xiàhóu Xuán’s biography [SGZ 9]. Gàn as filial and incorruptible candidate became Púbǎn Magistrate, was ill, left office. He was again nominated as utmost filial candidate, becoming Public Carriage Major Director. He was by the province invited, Imperial Order appoitned him Consultant Cadet, he returned as Advisor to Provincial Affairs. It happened that in establishing command to arrest Gāo Gàn, an also in recollection of previous achievement suppressing Guō Yuán, he was given fief as Marquis of Wǔxiāng, transferred to Hóngnóng Administrator. When Mǎ Chāo rebelled, Gàn’s prefecture was close to [Mǎ] Chāo, and the people scattered. [Mǎ] Chāo was defeated, and he became Hànyáng Adminsitrator. Promoted to Yìzhōu Inspector, but as the roads were not connected, during Huángchū, he was transferred to Five Office Internal Cadet General. In Míng-dì’s time, he was promoted to Yǒng’ān Minister Charioteer, after several years he died. Previously Lǐ Yì with upright principle pushed sincerity to men, and therefore at the time Chén Qún and others with him were all friendly. Though he was without other talent strengths, yet in the end his service advancement did not pause or stumble. Gàn from the chaos and afterward, further deferred to integrity to study, and was especially good at the Chūnqiū of Gōngyáng. Director of Retainers Zhòng Yáo did not like the Gōngyáng but liked the Zuǒshì, saying the Zuǒshì was grand office, but said the Gōngyáng was a pastry seller, and therefore repeatedly with Gàn together debated the strengths and shortcomings. Yáo as a man was clever and quick, good at grasping debate, but Gàn was inarticulate, in times of challenge having nothing to answer. Yáo said to Gàn: “Gōngyáng Gāo indeed to Zuǒ Qiūmíng submits.” Gàn said: “I this official to your eminence submit and that is all, the Gōngyáng has not.”
- Hán Xuān appellation Jǐngrán, was a Bóhǎi man. As a man he was short and small. During Jiàn’ān, the Chancellor recruited him as an army planning official, and as a supplementary follower was at Yè. Once at Yè he went out and in the palace, and at the east side gate’s interior with the Marquis of Línzī [Cáo] Zhí encountered one another. At the time it had newly rained, the ground had mud puddles. Xuān wished to avoid them, but was obstructed by puddles and could not go. Therefore he with a fan shielded himself, standing on the road’s side. [Cáo] Zhí resented Xuān not going, and also not showing courtesy, and therefore stopped carriage, and sent his regular followers to ask Xuān’s office. Xuān said: “Chancellor’s Army Planning Official.” [Cáo] Zhí again asked: “Should you be harrassing a ranked lord or not?” Xuān said: “By the Chūnqiū’s principles, though a King’s man is small, he is above the ranked lords, and one never hears that a chancellor’s official must to a lower vassal lord show courtesy.” [Cáo] Zhí again said: “If it as you say, then to be a father’s official, when meeting the son should there be courtesy or not?” Xuān again said: “By the rites, a subject and son are of one rank, but I Xuān in years is also older.” [Cáo] Zhí knew his skill was difficult to match, and therefore withdrew, and with the Heir-Apparent [Cáo Pī] spoke of it, believing [Hán Xuān good at] debate. During Huángchū, he became Secretariat Cadet, once due to a office matter he was about to receive punishment in the palace hall’s front, he was already bound, but the flogging staff was not yet applied. Wén-dì’s carriage passed by, and he asked: “Who is this?” His attendants replied: “Secretariat Cadet Bóhǎi’s Hán Xuān.” The Emperor remembered what previously the Marquis of Línzī had said, and therefore realized and said: “It is the Hán Xuān that Zǐjiàn told of!” He specially pardoned him, and therefore released his bonds. At the time the weather was greatly cold, Xuān previously was about to receive flogging, and had to remove his pants, and wrap up his pants to bind, reaching his pardon, the pants waist would not go down, and therefore he hurriedly left. The Emperor watched and sent him off, laughing and said: “This house has land of gazing at secret truth.” Later he was sent out as Qīnghé and Dōngjùn Adminsitrator. In Míng-dì’s time, he became Secretariat Minister Herald, and after several years died. Xuān from beginning to end in office, was among permitting or not, however he was good at being kind to others. Previously Nányáng’s Hán Jì for virtue was before Xuān as Minsiter Herald, Jì as a man was worthy, and Xuān afterward also was praised in office, and therefore in the herald department there was a saying: “Large herald, small herald, from beginning to end how the conduct resembles one another.”
- According to the base records, Xuān’s name is never seen, only Wèilüè has this biography, and Shìyǔ lists him among famed ministers.
- Huáng Lǎng appellation Wéndá was a Pèijùn man. As a man was liberal in communication and had honest character. His father for their home county was a soldier, Lǎng was moved by this, and refused intentions to travel and study, and because of this by the state and prefecture scholar officials was treated with unique courtesy. He specially with Dōngpíng’s Yòuxìng’s Wáng Huīyáng had large interactions, Huīyáng personally paid respect to Lǎng’s mother below her seat. Lǎng previously served during Huángchū, becoming a Chief Clerk, promoted to Cháng’ān Magistrate, it happened that for mourning of his mother he did not accept, and later became Wèi Magistrate, promoted to Xiāngchéng Managing Agriculture Internal Cadet Genearl, Zhuōjùn Administrator. In Míng-dì’s time from illness he died. Previously Lǎng as a leader, due to his father’s past, always abstained from calling his subordinate squad captains, and instead called them by their surname and appellation, and even when angry, he also to the end did not speak [their personal names]. Lǎng in service reached 2000 dàn rank, and Huīyáng also successveily was Cháng’ān Magistrate, Jiǔquán Adminsitrator. Therefore at the time people said Huīyáng outside appeared course but inside was firm and close, able to not consider Lǎng’s origins and ends, serve Lǎng’s mother like his own mother, and was clear in judgement.
- Yú Huàn states: The world praises gentleman’s virtue as like a dragon, overall because they are skilled at changes. In the past Cháng’ān market trader Liú Zhòngshǐ, once was by a market official insulted, and then was grateful, stoped on his ruler to break it, and therefore went into study, passing through schools to cultivate, leaving reputation within the seas. Later due to his principle he was summoned, but he would not accept, and everyone submitted to his high standard. I believe previous ages had these, and the present’s Xú and Yán attend to it. If they were not of a dragon’s will, how were able to reach this? Lǐ pushed to utmost way, Zhāng labored to serve master, Hán saw things differently, Huáng was able to stand out, each like roots atop a stone, casting shadows for a thousand lǐ, and it also is not easy. Yóu was fervent, spreading belly and heart, completely protecting prefecture, meeting the ruler, also releasing Lù Shēng, exceptional travelling feast and play, also is a truth. Liáng, Zhào and Péi, though to Zhāng and Yáng cannot match, as for examining self, aged but increasing enlightenement, it also is difficult to be able to.