(52.5) Zhōu Zhāo 周昭 and Appraisals [of Zhāng 張 Gù 顧 Zhūgě 諸葛 Bù 步]

Yǐngchuān’s Zhōu Zhāo wrote letter praising Bù Zhì and Yán Jùn and the rest that said:

潁川周昭著書稱步騭及嚴畯等曰:

“The ancient to now’s worthy scholar officials that lost name and ruined self and overturned family and harmed state, the causes are not just one. However taking their essentials and assembling their constant troubles, there are four and nothing more. Reckless discussion and comment is first, contending for reputation and power is second, valuing friend and faction is third, attending to desires quickly is fourth. Reckless discussion and comment then harms men, contending for reputation and power then destroys friends, valuing friend and faction then deceives the ruler, attending to desires quickly then loses virtue. If these four are not removed, then one cannot be secure. The present age’s noble men able to not be like this, also are in existence, how there only be ancients? However in discussing their differences, they cannot compare to Gù [Shào of] Yùzhāng, Sir Zhūgě [Jǐn], Chancellor Bù [Zhì], Minister of the Guard Yán [Jùn], Zhāng [Chéng the] Exerting Authority [General] in beauty.

「古今賢士大夫所以失名喪身傾家害國者,其由非一也,然要其大歸,總其常患,四者而已。急論議一也,爭名勢二也,重朋黨三也,務欲速四也。急論議則傷人,爭名勢則敗友,重朋黨則蔽主,務欲速則失德,此四者不除,未有能全也。當世君子能不然者,亦比有之,豈獨古人乎!然論其絕異,未若顧豫章、諸葛使君、步丞相、嚴衛尉、張奮威之為美也。

Lúnyǔ says: ‘The master was sincere and good in attracting men,’ also stating ‘achieve men’s beauty, do not achieve men’s evils,’ [Gù Shào the Administrator of] Yùzhāng had this. ‘Watch with solemn dignity, meet with warmth, listen to their words strictly,’ Sir [Zhūgě Jǐn] embodied this. ‘Respectful and secure, authoritative but not ferocious,’ Chancellor [Bù Zhì] followed this. ‘Learn without seeking salary, heart without seeking gain,’ Minister of the Guard [Yàn Jùn] and Exerting Authority [General Zhāng Chéng] performed this. This five gentlemen, though in virtue truly have differences, lightness and heaviness not the same, as for residing in great restraint, not violating the four, all are of the same sort.”

論語言『夫子恂恂然善誘人』,又曰『成人之美,不成人之惡』,豫章有之矣。『望之儼然,即之也溫,聽其言也厲』,使君體之矣。『恭而安,威而不猛』,丞相履之矣。學不求祿,心無苟得,衛尉、奮威蹈之矣。此五君者,雖德實有差,輕重不同,至於趣舍大檢,不犯四者,俱一揆也。

“In the past Dīng Xū set out as orphan, Wú Càn as a herder began, [Gù Shào] Yùzhāng publicized their goodness, so that they became of Lù [Xùn] and Quán [Cóng]’s level, and therefore of men none were hidden and suppressed and social custom prospered. Sir [Zhūgě Jìn], Chancellor [Bù Zhì], Minister of the Guard [Yàn Jùn] three gentlemen, in the past from plain clothes were together friends, and various discussions therefore each told of their merits and drawbacks. Previously, first it was Minister of the Guard [Yàn Jùn], next Chancellor [Bù Zhì], and afterward Sir [Zhūgě Jǐn]; afterward they together served enlightened ruler, attending to the world’s matters, from this their talents were not the same, their ordering of reputation reversing from the previous, this is what the era’s ordinary people judged. As for the three gentlemen’s various goods, in the end they were without deficiency, could they not with the ancients interact! Also Lǔ [Sù] Crossing Jiāng [General] in the past wielded ten thousand troops, garrison residing Lùkǒu, that era’s beautiful enterprise, able and not able, who would not be willing? But the Crossing Jiāng [General Lǔ Sù] then died, the Minister of the Guard [Yàn Jùn] in answer was selected, as his talents were not to be a commander, he deeply declined and firmly yielded, to the end not accepting. Later he was moved to the Nine Ministers, promoted to manage the eight seats, the honor not sufficient for to self glorify, the salary not sufficient to self revere. As for the other two gentlemen, both in rank became high officers, thorough in wealth and utmost in nobility. The Minister of the Guard was without request or desire, the two gentlemen also did not praise and recommend, each holding to their will, protecting their good reputation. Kǒng-zǐ said: ‘The gentleman sympathizes but does not contest, befriends but does not faction.’ This was their manner.”

昔丁諝出於孤家,吾粲由於牧豎,豫章揚其善,以並陸、全之列,是以人無幽滯而風俗厚焉。使君、丞相、衛尉三君,昔以布衣俱相友善,諸論者因各敘其優劣。初,先衛尉,次丞相,而後有使君也;其後並事明主,經營世務,出處之才有不同,先後之名須反其初,此世常人決勤薄也。至於三君分好,卒無虧損,豈非古人交哉!又魯橫江昔杖萬兵,屯據陸口,當世之美業也,能與不能,孰不願焉?而橫江既亡,衛尉應其選,自以才非將帥,深辭固讓,終於不就。後徙九列,遷典八座,榮不足以自曜,祿不足以自奉。至於二君,皆位為上將,窮富極貴。衛尉既無求欲,二君又不稱薦,各守所志,保其名好。孔子曰:『君子矜而不爭,群而不黨。』斯有風矣。

“Also Exerting Authority [General Zhāng Chéng]’s reputation, also was after the three gentlemen, managed a region’s garrison, receiving high officer’s appointment, with Sir [Zhūgě Jǐn] and Chancellor [Bù Zhì] not differing. However in successive state matters, discussing achievements and contributes, truly there was ordering, and therefore his noble rank and position in honor was different. But Exerting Authority was able to understand this share, his heart without desires that lost principle, served without seeking to fill up, every time ascending Court hall, he followed ritual and moved, words and aura speaking boldly, with nothing but loyalty. [Zhāng Xiū] Shūsì though was kin and noble, in speaking he worried of his destruction, Cài Wénzhì though was distant and lowly, he spoke and praised his worthiness. His daughter was matched to the Heir-Apparent, received gifts as if mourning, generous in giving, only serious of men, success and failure gains and losses, all was as he considered, and it can be called holding to principle and seeing function, good as an ancient scholar.”

又奮威之名,亦三君之次也,當一方之戍,受上將之任,與使君、丞相不異也。然歷國事,論功勞,實有先後,故爵位之榮殊焉。而奮威將處此,決能明其部分,心無失道之欲,事無充詘之求,每升朝堂,循禮而動,辭氣謇謇,罔不惟忠。叔嗣雖親貴,言憂其敗,蔡文至雖疏賤,談稱其賢。女配太子,受禮若弔,慷愾之趨,惟篤人物,成敗得失,皆如所慮,可謂守道見機,好古之士也。

“If then these govern the state, manage the army, in speedy time, establish overlord’s achievement, these five do not yet surpass men. As for purity in following the way, seeking not for gain, rising and falling in the world, protecting reputation and conduct, remove custom, they truly are teachers. Therefore I coarsely discuss these matters, to show to posterity superior gentlemen.”

若乃經國家,當軍旅,於馳騖之際,立霸王之功,此五者未為過人。至其純粹履道,求不苟得,升降當世,保全名行,邈然絕俗,實有所師。故粗論其事,以示後之君子。」

Zhōu Zhāo appellation Gōngyuǎn, with Wéi Yào, Xuē Yíng, Huà Hé together wrote Wúshū, later he became Internal Documents Cadet, in connection a matter was sent down to prison, [Huà] Hé memorialized to plead for him, Sūn Xiū did not listen, and therefore he was executed.

周昭者字恭遠,與韋曜、薛瑩、華覈並述吳書,後為中書郎,坐事下獄,覈表救之,孫休不聽,遂伏法云。


Appraisal states:

Zhāng Zhāo received posthumous command to to be support and assistant, achievement and accomplishment successful and raised, loyal bold words direct and upright, actions not for himself; but for his sternness he seen with dread, for his highness he was seen as an outsider, he did not become Chancellor, and also did not rise to Teacher or Protector, returned home, living in retirement and nothing more, from this it is clear that [Sūn] Quán did not match [Sūn] Cè.

Gù Yōng accorded to pure conduct, and managed it with wisdom, and therefore was able to reach the highest honored position.

Zhūgě Jǐn and Bù Zhì both by virtuous consideration and restraint met with use at the time.

Zhāng Chéng and Gù Shào were open-hearted leaders, good at valuing men, Zhōu Zhāo’s discussion, praised their extreme beauty, and therefore is in detail recorded. [Gù] Tán presented counsel for the public, having loyal and chaste integrity. [Zhāng] Xiū and [Gù] Chéng cultivated will, with all were friendly. But love and hate attack one another, they were exiled to the southern frontiers, how tragic!

評曰:張昭受遺輔佐,功勳克舉,忠謇方直,動不為己;而以嚴見憚,以高見外,既不處宰相,又不登師保,從容閭巷,養老而已,以此明權之不及策也。顧雍依杖素業,而將之智局,故能究極榮位。諸葛瑾、步騭並以德度規檢見器當世,張承、顧邵虛心長者,好尚人物,周昭之論,稱之甚美,故詳錄焉。譚獻納在公,有忠貞之節。休、承脩志,咸庶為善。愛惡相攻,流播南裔,哀哉!

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