(40.3) Liào Lì 廖立 [Gōngyuān 公淵]

Liào Lì appellation Gōngyuān was a Wǔlíng Línyuán man. When Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi] was designate Jīng Province Governor, he recruited him as an Attending Official, his years were not yet thirty, he was selected as Chángshā Administrator. Xiānzhǔ entered Shǔ, Zhūgě Liàng defended Jīng’s territory, Sūn Quán sent envoy to communicate friendship with [Zhūgě] Liàng, and therefore asked of all scholars who were skilled in governance, [Zhūgě] Liàng answered: “Páng Tǒng and Liào Lì are Chǔ’s good talents, and should support and raise the era’s enterprise.”

Jiàn’ān Twentieth Year [215], [Sūn] Quán sent Lǚ Méng to surprise attack the south’s three prefectures, Lì escaped and fled, himself returning to Xiānzhǔ. Xiānzhǔ previously knew and treated him [well], and did not deeply blame him, appointing him Bājùn Administrator. Twenty-fourth Year [219], Xiānzhǔ became King of Hànzhōng, summoned Lì as Attendant Internal. Hòuzhǔ inherited position, moved to Cháng River Colonel.

廖立廖音理救反。字公淵,武陵臨沅人。先主領荊州牧,辟為從事,年未三十,擢為長沙太守。先主入蜀,諸葛亮鎮荊土,孫權遣使通好於亮,因問士人皆誰相經緯者,亮答曰:「龐統、廖立,楚之良才,當贊興世業者也。」建安二十年,權遣呂蒙奄襲南三郡,立脫身走,自歸先主。先主素識待之,不深責也,以為巴郡太守。二十四年,先主為漢中王,徵立為侍中。後主襲位,徙長水校尉。


Lì’s original thinking, was himself saying his talent and reputation should be Zhūgě Liàng’s second, but he instead he traveled and scattered below Lǐ Yán and others, and always harbored discontent. Later Chancellor’s official Lǐ Shào and Jiǎng Wǎn arrived, Lì calculated saying: “The army is about to distantly set out, you sirs are good at investigating these matters. In the past the Former Emperor did not take Hànzhōng, to run to with the Wú men contest the south’s three prefectures, in the end gave the three prefectures to the Wú men, in futility toiling officials and soldiers, without benefit returning. When Hànzhōng was lost, they sent Xiàhóu Yuān and Zhāng Hé to penetrate deeply into Bā, almost ruining the whole province. Later in gaining Hànzhōng, it caused Marquis Guān [Yǔ] to die without survivors, Shàngyōng was overturned and defeated, losing one whole region. It was [Guān] Yǔ relying on valorous reputation, using the army without method, only by wishes charging ahead and that is all. Therefore beginning to end there was repeated loss of armies. Those like Xiàng Lǎng and Wén Gōng are ordinary men and that is all. [Wén] Gōng as an Internal Manger was without order, [Xiàng] Lǎng in the past served Mǎ Liáng and his brothers, calling them sagely men, now as a Chief Clerk, by nature is able to hold to the way. Internal Cadet Guō Yǎncháng, follows others and that is all, and is not sufficient to with him deal with great affairs, and yet he is an Attendant Internal. The present is a feeble age, and to wish to appoint these three men, is not appropriate. Wáng Lián’s flowing custom, if employed, causes the common people to weary and suffer, so that it came to today.” [Lǐ] Shào and [Jiǎng] Wǎn both reported his words to Zhūgě Liàng.

立本意,自謂才名宜為諸葛亮之貳,而更游散在李嚴等下,常懷怏怏。後丞相掾(李郃)〔李邵〕、蔣琬至,立計曰:「軍當遠出,卿諸人好諦其事。昔先(主)〔帝〕不取漢中,走與吳人爭南三郡,卒以三郡與吳人,徒勞役吏士,無益而還。既亡漢中,使夏侯淵、張郃深入于巴,幾喪一州。後至漢中,使關侯身死無孑遺,上庸覆敗,徒失一方。是羽怙恃勇名,作軍無法,直以意突耳,故前後數喪師眾也。如向朗、文恭,凡俗之人耳。恭作治中無綱紀;朗昔奉馬良兄弟,謂為聖人,今作長史,素能合道。中郎郭演長,從人者耳,不足與經大事,而作侍中。今弱世也,欲任此三人,為不然也。王連流俗,苟作掊克,使百姓疲弊,以致今日。」(郃)〔邵〕、琬具白其言於諸葛亮。

[Zhūgě] Liàng memorialized against Lì stating: “Cháng River Colonel Liào Lì, believing himself noble and great, judges the good and bad of the various officials, publicly saying the state does not appoint worthies but appoints vulgar officials, and also says those leading ten thousand men are petty fellows; slandering the Former Emperor, defaming the mass of ministers. Someone had report that while the state’s soldiers and armies drilled, divisions and squads clearly divided, Lì raised head to observe, indignantly showing anger and saying: ‘How is it worth talking of?’ Overall the instances like this cannot be counted. A ram in disordering the herd, yet is able to do harm, all the more for Lì who is entrusted with great position, how will the middle men and below know truth or falseness?” (1)

亮表立曰:「長水校尉廖立,坐自貴大,臧否群士,公言國家不任賢達而任俗吏,又言萬人率者皆小子也;誹謗先帝,疵毀眾臣。人有言國家兵眾簡練,部伍分明者,立舉頭視屋,憤吒作色曰:『何足言!』凡如是者不可勝數。羊之亂群,猶能為害,況立託在大位,中人以下識真偽邪?」〔一〕

Therefore deposed Lì to commoner, exiled to Wènshān prefecture. Lì personally led his wife and children to plow and grow to care for themselves, heard that Zhūgě Liàng had died, shed tears and sighed saying: “I will end with left lapel!” [Translator’s note: This is a literary reference; the people of the central states wore lapels on the right and foreigners wore lapels on the left.] Later Supervisor of the Army Jiāng Wéi led supporting army past Wènshān, visited Lì, praised Lì’s thoughts and aura as not declining, speaking and discussing at ease. Lì therefore ended in exile, his wife and children returned to Shǔ.

於是廢立為民,徙汶山郡。立躬率妻子耕殖自守,聞諸葛亮卒,垂泣歎曰:「吾終為左衽矣!」後監軍姜維率偏軍經汶山、詣立,稱立意氣不衰,言論自若。立遂終徙所。妻子還蜀。

  • (1) [Zhūgě] Liàng’s collected works has Liàng’s memorial that states: “Lì served the Former Emperor without loyal and filial heart, in administering Chángshā then he opened gate to welcome the enemy, in governing Bājùn then there was abundant confusion in matters, in accompanying the General-in-Chief then he slandered and ridiculed, in attending to Zǐ palace then he grasped blade cutting off men’s head in Zǐ palace’s lavatory. After Your Majesty succeeded the throne, all increased in office title, Lì thus became a General, to my face saying to I your servant: ‘How I am suitable to be among the various Generals? To not memorialize me as a Minister, at least I should be of the Five Colonels.’ I your servant answered: ‘A General, is to follow great comparisons and that is all. As for Ministers, [Lǐ Yán] Zhèngfāng also has not yet become a Minister. Moreover it is appropriate to be of the Five Colonels.’ From this afterward, he was discontent and harbored resentment.”
  • Imperial Order said: “The Three Miáo confused government, Yǒuyú gave forgiveness, Liào Lì is wild and confused, I cannot bear to execute, urgently exile to barren land.”

〔一〕 亮集有亮表曰:「立奉先帝無忠孝之心,守長沙則開門就敵,領巴郡則有闇昧闟茸其事,隨大將軍則誹謗譏訶,侍梓宮則挾刃斷人頭於梓宮之側。陛下即位之後,普增職號,立隨比為將軍,面語臣曰:『我何宜在諸將軍中!不表我為卿,上當在五校!』臣答:『將軍者,隨大比耳。至於卿者,正方亦未為卿也。且宜處五校。』自是之後,怏怏懷恨。」詔曰:「三苗亂政,有虞流宥,廖立狂惑,朕不忍刑,亟徙不毛之地。」

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