(9.8) Xiàhóu Shàng 夏侯尚 [Bórén 伯仁]

Xiàhóu Shàng appellation Bórén was Yuān’s cousin’s son. Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] with him was close and friendly. (1) Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] settled Jìzhōu, Shàng became Army Major, commanded cavalry following on campaign, later becoming Five Office General’s Literary Scholar. Wèi state was first established [213], he was promoted to Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet. Dài prefecture’s Hú rebelled, sent Yānlíng Marquis [Cáo] Zhāng to campaign and suppress them, with Shàng advising Zhāng’s military affairs, settled Dài’s lands, and returned. Tàizǔ passed away at Luòyáng, Shàng Wielding Staff escorted the coffin back to Yè. In recollection of previous achievements, he was given fief as Líng precinct Marquis, appointed Cavalier Regular Attendant, promoted to Central Manager of the Army. Wén-dì ascended, changed his fief to Pínglíng village Marquis, promoted to Campaigning South General, designate Jīngzhōu Inspector, Acting Staff as Regional Commander of the south’s various military affairs. Shàng memorialized: “Liú Bèi has separate army at Shàngyōng, the mountain roads are rugged and difficult, and they do not of us worry, if we with surprise troops stealthily go, setting out where they are not aware, then it is power to alone overcome.” Therefore he gathered the various armies to strike and defeat Shàngyōng, pacified three prefectures and nine counties, promoted to Campaigning South General-in-Chief. Sūn Quán though declared himself vassal, Shàng increased his preparations to attack and suppress, [Sūn] Quán later indeed had second heart. Huángchū Third Year [222], the Imperial Carriage visited Wǎn, sending Shàng to command the various armies to with Cáo Zhēn together besiege Jiānglíng. [Sūn] Quán’s officer Zhūgě Jǐn with Shàng’s army met at the Jiāng, [Zhūgě] Jǐn crossed and entered an islet in the Jiāng, and divided navy in the Jiāng. Shàng in the night greatly gathered oil boats, commanded infantry and cavalry of over ten thousand men, to go downstream and secretly cross, attacking [Zhūgě] Jǐn’s various armies, between the Jiāng burning his boats, on water and land together attacking, defeating them. The city was not yet taken, it happened there was great plague, Imperial Order commanded Shàng to lead the various armies back. Increased fief by 600 households, adding with the previous to 1900 households, Acting Battle-Ax, advanced to Governor. Jīngzhōu was in ruins and desolate, outside connected to the Mán and Yí, and with Wú blocking the Hàn river as border, of the old people many resided to the Jiāng’s south. Shàng from Shàngyōng connected roads, to the west going over 700 lǐ, of the mountain people and Mán and Yí many submitted and joined, within five to six years, the surrendered and attached were several thousand families. Fifth Year [224], moved fief to Chānglíng village Marquis. Shàng had a beloved concubine as favorite, the favor seized from the principal wife; the principal wife was the Cáo clan’s daughter, and therefore Wén-dì sent someone to kill [the favorite concubine]. Shàng was sorrowful and grieved, he fell ill and became confused, at the burial of the concubine, he could not overcome thoughts of seeing [her], and again excavated [her] to look at her. Wén-dì heard and was enraged at him said: “Dù Xí’s thinking little of Shàng, indeed had reasoning.” However as he was a long-serving minister, his grace and favor did not decline. Sixth Year [225], Shàng was critically ill, returned to the capital, the Emperor repeatedly went to visit, grasped his hand and shed tears. Shàng died [translator’s note: in early 226, not in 225. See Jìn shū 13], posthumous name Dào-hóu “Lamented Marquis.” (2) His son Xuán succeeded. Also divided from Shàng’s fief 300 households, to bestow on Shàng’s younger brother’s son Fèng rank as Marquis Within the Passes.


  • (1) Wèishū states: Shàng had planning and wisdom, Emperor Wén valued him, and with him in plain clothes interacted.

〔一〕 魏書曰:尚有籌畫智略,文帝器之,與為布衣之交。

  • (2) Wèishū records the Imperial Order: “Shàng from youth attended and followed, thoroughly sincere and exhaustive in integrity, though called a different surname, he was yet bone and flesh kin, and therefore entered as belly and heart, went out as claw and teeth. His wisdom and strategy deep and clever, his planning surpassing others, my misfortune he early died, of fate what can be done! Posthumously bestow Campaigning South General-in-Chief and Chánglíng Marquis ribbon and seal.”

  〔二〕 魏書載詔曰:「尚自少侍從,盡誠竭節,雖云異姓,其猶骨肉,是以入為腹心,出當爪牙。智略深敏,謀謨過人,不幸早殞,命也奈何!贈征南大將軍、昌陵侯印綬。」

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