(9.8) Xiàhóu Shàng 夏侯尚 [Bórén 伯仁]

Xiàhóu Shàng appellation Bórén was Yuān’s cousin’s son. Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] with him was close and friendly. (1) Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] settled Jìzhōu, Shàng became Army Major, commanded cavalry following on campaign, later becoming Five Office General’s Literary Scholar. Wèi state was first established [213], he was promoted to Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet. Dài prefecture’s Hú rebelled, sent Yānlíng Marquis [Cáo] Zhāng to campaign and suppress them, with Shàng advising Zhāng’s military affairs, settled Dài’s lands, and returned. Tàizǔ passed away at Luòyáng, Shàng Wielding Staff escorted the coffin back to Yè. In recollection of previous achievements, he was given fief as Líng precinct Marquis, appointed Cavalier Regular Attendant, promoted to Central Manager of the Army. Wén-dì ascended, changed his fief to Pínglíng village Marquis, promoted to Campaigning South General, designate Jīngzhōu Inspector, Acting Staff as Regional Commander of the south’s various military affairs. Shàng memorialized: “Liú Bèi has separate army at Shàngyōng, the mountain roads are rugged and difficult, and they do not of us worry, if we with surprise troops stealthily go, setting out where they are not aware, then it is power to alone overcome.” Therefore he gathered the various armies to strike and defeat Shàngyōng, pacified three prefectures and nine counties, promoted to Campaigning South General-in-Chief. Sūn Quán though declared himself vassal, Shàng increased his preparations to attack and suppress, [Sūn] Quán later indeed had second heart. Huángchū Third Year [222], the Imperial Carriage visited Wǎn, sending Shàng to command the various armies to with Cáo Zhēn together besiege Jiānglíng. [Sūn] Quán’s officer Zhūgě Jǐn with Shàng’s army met at the Jiāng, [Zhūgě] Jǐn crossed and entered an islet in the Jiāng, and divided navy in the Jiāng. Shàng in the night greatly gathered oil boats, commanded infantry and cavalry of over ten thousand men, to go downstream and secretly cross, attacking [Zhūgě] Jǐn’s various armies, between the Jiāng burning his boats, on water and land together attacking, defeating them. The city was not yet taken, it happened there was great plague, Imperial Order commanded Shàng to lead the various armies back. Increased fief by 600 households, adding with the previous to 1900 households, Acting Battle-Ax, advanced to Governor. Jīngzhōu was in ruins and desolate, outside connected to the Mán and Yí, and with Wú blocking the Hàn river as border, of the old people many resided to the Jiāng’s south. Shàng from Shàngyōng connected roads, to the west going over 700 lǐ, of the mountain people and Mán and Yí many submitted and joined, within five to six years, the surrendered and attached were several thousand families. Fifth Year [224], moved fief to Chānglíng village Marquis. Shàng had a beloved concubine as favorite, the favor seized from the principal wife; the principal wife was the Cáo clan’s daughter, and therefore Wén-dì sent someone to kill [the favorite concubine]. Shàng was sorrowful and grieved, he fell ill and became confused, at the burial of the concubine, he could not overcome thoughts of seeing [her], and again excavated [her] to look at her. Wén-dì heard and was enraged at him said: “Dù Xí’s thinking little of Shàng, indeed had reasoning.” However as he was a long-serving minister, his grace and favor did not decline. Sixth Year [225], Shàng was critically ill, returned to the capital, the Emperor repeatedly went to visit, grasped his hand and shed tears. Shàng died [translator’s note: in early 226, not in 225. See Jìn shū 13], posthumous name Dào-hóu “Lamented Marquis.” (2) His son Xuán succeeded. Also divided from Shàng’s fief 300 households, to bestow on Shàng’s younger brother’s son Fèng rank as Marquis Within the Passes.

夏侯尚字伯仁,淵從子也。文帝與之親友。〔一〕太祖定冀州,尚為軍司馬,將騎從征伐,後為五官將文學。魏國初建,遷黃門侍郎。代郡胡叛,遣鄢陵侯彰征討之,以尚參彰軍事,定代地,還。太祖崩于洛陽,尚持節,奉梓宮還鄴。并錄前功,封平陵亭侯,拜散騎常侍,遷中領軍。文帝踐阼,更封平陵鄉侯,遷征南將軍,領荊州刺史,假節都督南方諸軍事。尚奏:「劉備別軍在上庸,山道險難,彼不我虞,若以奇兵潛行,出其不意,則獨克之勢也。」遂勒諸軍擊破上庸,平三郡九縣,遷征南大將軍。孫權雖稱藩,尚益脩攻討之備,權後果有貳心。黃初三年,車駕幸宛,使尚率諸軍與曹真共圍江陵。權將諸葛瑾與尚軍對江,瑾渡入江中渚,而分水軍于江中。尚夜多持油船,將步騎萬餘人,於下流潛渡,攻瑾諸軍,夾江燒其舟船,水陸並攻,破之。城未拔,會大疫,詔敕尚引諸軍還。益封六百戶,并前千九百戶,假鉞,進為牧。荊州殘荒,外接蠻夷,而與吳阻漢水為境,舊民多居江南。尚自上庸通道,西行七百餘里,山民蠻夷多服從者,五六年間,降附數千家。五年,徙封昌陵鄉侯。尚有愛妾嬖幸,寵奪適室;適室,曹氏女也,故文帝遣人絞殺之。尚悲感,發病恍惚,既葬埋妾,不勝思見,復出視之。文帝聞而恚之曰:「杜襲之輕薄尚,良有以也。」然以舊臣,恩寵不衰。六年,尚疾篤,還京都,帝數臨幸,執手涕泣。尚薨,諡曰悼侯。〔二〕子玄嗣。又分尚戶三百,賜尚弟子奉爵關內侯。

  • (1) Wèishū states: Shàng had planning and wisdom, Emperor Wén valued him, and with him in plain clothes interacted.

〔一〕 魏書曰:尚有籌畫智略,文帝器之,與為布衣之交。

  • (2) Wèishū records the Imperial Order: “Shàng from youth attended and followed, thoroughly sincere and exhaustive in integrity, though called a different surname, he was yet bone and flesh kin, and therefore entered as belly and heart, went out as claw and teeth. His wisdom and strategy deep and clever, his planning surpassing others, my misfortune he early died, of fate what can be done! Posthumously bestow Campaigning South General-in-Chief and Chánglíng Marquis ribbon and seal.”

  〔二〕 魏書載詔曰:「尚自少侍從,盡誠竭節,雖云異姓,其猶骨肉,是以入為腹心,出當爪牙。智略深敏,謀謨過人,不幸早殞,命也奈何!贈征南大將軍、昌陵侯印綬。」

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