(18.8) Páng Dé 龐德 [Lìngmíng 令明]

Páng Dé appellation Lìngmíng was a Nán’ān Huándào man. When young be came a prefecture official and provincial attending official. During Chūpíng [190-193], he followed Mǎ Téng in striking rebelling Qiāng and revolting Dī. He repeatedly had achievements, gradually promoted to reach Colonel. During Jiàn’ān [196-220], Tàizǔ suppressed Yuán Tán and Shàng at Líyáng, [Yuán] Tán sent Guō Yuán and Gāo Gàn and others to plunder Hédōng, Tàizǔ sent Zhōng Yáo to lead Guānzhōng’s various officers to suppress them. Dé followed [Mǎ] Téng’s son [Mǎ] Chāo in resisting [Guō] Yuán and [Gāo] Gàn at Píngyáng, Dé was the army’s frontline, advanced to attack [Guō] Yuán and [Gāo] Gàn, greatly defeated them, personally beheading [Guō] Yuán’s head. (1) Appointed Internal Cadet General, enfeoffed as a capital precinct Marquis. Later Zhāng Báijì [“White Rider” Zhāng] rebelled at Hóngnóng, Dé again followed [Mǎ] Téng in campaigning against him, defeated [Zhāng] Báijì at Liǎngxiáojiàn. At every battle, he always charged the lines and drove away the enemy, his valor crowning [Mǎ] Téng’s army. Later [Mǎ] Téng was summoned as Minister of the Guard, Dé remained and was subordinate to [Mǎ] Chāo. Tàizǔ defeated [Mǎ] Chāo at Wèinán, Dé followed [Mǎ] Chāo in fleeing into Hànyáng, protecting Jìchéng. Later he again followed [Mǎ] Chāo in escaping to Hànzhōng, following Zhāng Lǔ. Tàizǔ settled Hànzhōng, Dé followed the forces in surrendering. Tàizǔ had previously heard of his outstanding valor, and appointed him Setting Righteousness General, enfeoffed as Guānmén precinct Marquis, fief of 300 households.


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Dé hand cut off one head, not knowing it was [Guō] Yuán. After the battle ended, everyone all said [Guō] Yuán had died but could not find his head. [Guō] Yuán was Zhōng Yáo’s sister’s son. Dé in the evening later at Jiānzhōng produced one head, [Zhōng] Yáo saw it and wept. Dé apologized to [Zhōng] Yáo, [Zhōng] Yáo said: “[Guō] Yuán though was my sister’s son, he was a traitor to the state. What do you apologize for?”

〔一〕 魏略曰:德手斬一級,不知是援。戰罷之後,眾人皆言援死而不得其首。援,鍾繇之甥。德晚後於鞬中出一頭,繇見之而哭。德謝繇,繇曰:「援雖我甥,乃國賊也。卿何謝之?」

Hóu Yīn and Wèi Kāi and others in Wǎn rebelled, Dé led his command and with Cáo Rén together attacked and took Wǎn, beheading [Hóu] Yīn and [Wèi] Kāi, and therefore to the south garrisoned Fán, suppressing Guān Yǔ. The various officers below Fán because Dé’s older brother was at Hànzhōng, slightly doubted him. (1) Dé always said: “I received the state’s favor, and righteousness is devoting to the death. I wish to personally strike [Guān] Yǔ. This year if I do not kill [Guān] Yǔ, then [Guān] Yǔ will kill me.” Later he personally with [Guān] Yǔ met in battle, shooting [Guān] Yǔ in the helmet forehead. At the time Dé always rode a white horse, Yǔ’s army called him as White Horse General, and all feared him. [Cáo] Rén sent Dé ti garrison to Fán’s north by ten lǐ, it happened it continuously rained for over ten days, the Hàn river suddenly overflowed, below Fán on flat ground it was five to six zhàng, Dé and the various officers fled the water up the dikes. [Guān] Yǔ rode boats to attack them, with large ships on all four sides shooting atop the dikes. Dé wore armor and grasped bow, his arrows not missing targets. General Dǒng Héng and division retainer officer Dǒng Chāo and others wished to surrender, Dé beheaded them all. From dawn he with strength battled to past midday, [Guān] Yǔ attacked all the more aggressively, his arrows were exhausted, with short weapons he met in battle. Dé said to commanding officer Chéng Hé: “I have heard a good officer does not fear death for temporary escape, the ardent martyr does not destroy integrity to seek life. Today is my death day.” He battled all the more furiously, his aura all the more strong, but the waters gradually rose, the officials and soldiers all surrendered. Dé with his bannermen officer of one man, squad captains of two men, bent bow and shot arrows, riding small boat wishing to return to [Cáo] Rén’s camp. The waters rose and the boat capsized, he lost bow and arrows, alone grabbed the boat in the water, and was by [Guān] Yǔ captured, he stood and would not kneel. [Guān] Yǔ said: “Your older brother is at Hànzhōng, I wish to have you be an officer, why not quickly surrender?” Dé rebuked [Guān] Yǔ and said: “Petty fellow, why speak of surrender? The King of Wèi’s armors forces of a million, his authority shakes Heaven’s Under. Your Liú Bèi is only a mediocrity, how is he able to match him? I would rather be the country’s ghost than be a rebel officer.” Therefore he was by [Guān] Yǔ killed. Tàizǔ heard and grieved for him, for him shedding tears, enfeoffing two sons as Ranked Marquis.

When Emperor Wén succeeded the King’s throne, he then sent envoy to Dé’s tomb to bestow posthumous name, the tally stating: “In the past Xiānzhěn lost life, Wáng Zhú cut throat, losing bodies to follow integrity, previous ages praised them. The Marquis in form shining was resolute and staunch, treading troubles to achieve name, his sound overflowing the time, righteousness higher than the past, and I mourn for him, posthumous name Zhuàng-hóu [“Strong Marquis.”] Also bestowed on his son Huì and others of four men noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes, fief on each of one hundred households. Huì was valorous and fierce and had his father’s air, rank reaching Subaltern General, enfeoffed as a Ranked Marquis. (2)


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Dé’s elder cousin named Róu at the time was at Shǔ.

〔一〕 魏略曰:德從兄名柔,時在蜀。

  • (2) Wáng Yǐn’s Shǔjì states: Zhōng Huì pacified Shǔ, beginning to end drumming and trumpeting, welcoming Dé’s body back to be buried at Yè, inside the mound the body was like one living.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī notes Dé died at Fánchéng, Emperor Wén succeeded the throne, and also sent envoy to where Dé’s tomb was, then his body should not have be in Shǔ. This is Wáng Yǐn’s false report.

〔二〕 王隱蜀記曰:鍾會平蜀,前後鼓吹,迎德屍喪還葬鄴,冢中身首如生。臣松之案德死於樊城,文帝即位,又遣使至德墓所,則其屍喪不應在蜀。此王隱之虛說也。

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