(25.2) Yáng Fù 楊阜 [Yìshān 義山]

Yáng Fù appellation Yìshān was a Tiānshuǐ Jì man. (1) As a provincial attending official he was by Governor Wéi Duān sent to visit Xǔ, appointed Āndìng Chief Clerk. Fù returned, Lǒngyòu’s various officers asked about who would win and lose between Yuán and Cáo. Fù said: “Excellency Yuán is lenient and not decisive, enjoys planning but has few determinations. To not be decisive then is to be without authority, few determinations then is to fail later affairs. Now though he is strong, in the end he cannot accomplish a great enterprise. Excellency Cáo has dominating ability and long-term strategy, determinations pivotal without doubt, law unified and troops elite, able to employ unusual people, those appointed each thoroughly devote their strength, certainly able to relieve great affairs.” Chief Clerk was not what he enjoyed, so he left office. And [Wéi] Duān was summoned to be Minister Charioteer, his son Kāng succeeded him as Inspector, and recruited Fù as Separate Harness. Nominated as Filial and Incorrupt, recruited to the Office of the Chancellor, the province memorialize to keep him ad Advisor to Military affairs.


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Fù when young with the same prefecture’s Yǐn Fèng Cìzēng, Zhào Áng Wěizhāng all had reputation. Wěizhāng and Cìzēng with Fú all were Liáng province attending officials.

〔一〕 魏略曰:阜少與同郡尹奉次曾、趙昂偉章俱發名,偉章、次曾與阜俱為涼州從事。

When Mǎ Chāo was defeated in battle at Wèi’s south he fled to defend the various Róng. Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] pursued reaching Āndìng, but Sū Bó rebelled in Héjiān, and [Cáo Cāo] was about to lead the army back east. Fù at the time was serving as envoy, and spoke to Tàizǔ saying: “[Mǎ] Chāo has the valor of [Hán] Xìn and [Yīng] Bù, extremely obtains the hearts of the Qiāng and Hú, the western provinces fear him. If the main army returns and does not rigorously prepare for him, Lǒng’s upper various prefectures will not be the country’s possession.” Tàizǔ praised him, but the army returned hurriedly, and the preparations were not thorough. [Mǎ] Chāo led the various Róng’s chief commanders to strike Lǒng’s upper prefectures and counties, Lǒng’s upper prefectures and counties all welcomed him, only Jì city served the province and prefectures to firmly defend. [Mǎ] Chāo completely gathered the forces of Lǒngyòu, and Zhāng Lǔ also sent his chief officer Yáng Áng to assist him, altogether over ten thousand people, attacking the city. Fù led the state’s scholar officials and his clansmen and junior relatives elite troops of over a thousand people, sending his younger cousin [Yáng] Yuè to the city top to build a crescent moon camp, with [Mǎ] Chāo meeting in battle, from the Standard Moon reaching to the Eighth Moon resisting and defending but rescue troops did not arrive. The province sent Separate Harness Yán Wēn to follow the river to secretly go out to seek rescue and was by [Mǎ] Chāo killed, therefore the Inspector and Administrator lost color, and first had plans to surrender to [Mǎ] Chāo. Fù shed tears and remonstrated stating: “We Fù and others our fathers and elder brothers and sons and younger brothers to righteously give encouragement, to the death having no second thoughts. Tián Dān’s defense was not as hard as this. Abandoning an almost completed achievement, entrapped in a name for unrighteousness, I Fù will hold to the death.” Therefore he wailed and cried. The Inspector and the Administrator in the end sent someone to request peace, opened the city gates and welcomed [Mǎ] Chāo. [Mǎ] Chāo entered, captured [Yáng] Yuè at Jì, and sent Yáng Áng to kill the Inspector and Administrator.


Fù inside had ambition to take revenge on [Mǎ] Chāo, but was not yet able to obtain the opportunity. Shortly after this, Fù due to losing his wife requested leave for burial. Fù’s maternal elder cousin Jiāng Xù garrisoned Lìchéng. Fùwhen young grew up in [Jiāng] Xù’s house, met with [Jiāng] Xù’s mother and [Jiāng] Xù, speaking of the time and events previously inside Jì, sobbing and his grief extreme. [Jiāng] Xù said: “Why be like this?” Fù said: “Defending the city could not be completed, my lord perished and I could not die, also is to have what face and eyes to look out to Heaven’s Under? Mǎ Chāo turned back on his father and rebelled against his lord, sadistically killed the provincial officers, how is it that I Fù alone mourns and reproaches, the whole province’s scholar officials all ignorant of this disgrace? You gather troops and control regulations but are without heart to suppress bandits; this is why Zhào Dùn wrote ‘regicide.’ [Mǎ] Chāo is strong but without righteousness, those with many quarrels are easy to plan against.” [Jiāng] Xù’s mother sighed and ordered [Jiāng] Xù to follow Fù’s plan. The plan was settled, outside with his fellow villagers Jiāng Yǐn, Zhào Áng, Yǐn Fèng, Yáo Qióng, Kǒng Xìn, and Wǔdū men Lǐ Jùn, Wáng Líng joined in planning, settled pact to suppress [Mǎ] Chāo, sending his younger cousin [Yáng] Mó to arrive at Jì to speak with [Yáng] Yuè, and also joining Āndìng’s Liáng Kuān, Nán’ān’s Zhào Qú, Páng Gōng, and others. The pact pledge was made clear, Seventeenth Year [212] Ninth Moon, he with [Jiāng] Xù raised troops at Lǔchéng. [Mǎ] Chāo heard Fù and the rest had raised troops, and personally commanded and went out. But [Zhào] Qú and [Liáng] Kuān and the rest untied [Yáng] Yuè, shut Jì city gates, suppressed [Mǎ] Chāo’s wives and children. [Mǎ] Chāo attacked Lìchéng, captured [Jiāng] Xú’s mother. [Jiāng] Xú’s mother cursed him saying: “You are a traitor son who turned back on father, a cruel rebel who killed his lord, how can Heaven and Earth long tolerate you, yet you do not quickly die, dare you with your face and eyes see people?” [Mǎ] Chāo was angry and killed her. Fù with [Mǎ] Chāo battled, his body suffering five wounds, his clansmen and brothers that died were seven people. [Mǎ] Chāo therefore to the south fled to Zhāng Lǔ.


Lǒngyòu was pacified, Tàizǔ in enfeoffing the achievement of suppressing [Mǎ] Chāo made marquis of eleven people, bestowed on Fù noble rank as Marquis within the Passes. Fù declined stating: “I Fù when my lord lived was without achievement of resisting troubles, when my lord died was without efficacy of dying for integrity, by righteousness should be expelled, by law should be punished. [Mǎ] Chāo also is not dead, there is no appropriateness to negligently burden me with noble rank and salary.”

Tàizǔ’s reply said: “You with various worthies together established a great achievement, the people of the western lands believe it a beautiful story. Zǐgòng declined reward, Zhòngní said it was stopping the good. You thus cut heart to follow the state’s mandate. Jiāng Xù’s mother urged [Jiāng] Xù to early set out, enlightened wisdom as this, even Yáng Chǎng’s wife probably did not surpass this. Worthiness ah, worthiness ah! With excellent scribes recording, she certainly will not fall to the ground.”


  • (1) Huángfǔ Mì’s Liènǚzhuàn states: Jiāng Xù’s mother was Tiānshuǐ’s Jiāng [Xù] Bóyì’s mother. During Jiàn’ān, Mǎ Chāo attacked Jì, harming Liáng province Inspector Wéi Kāng, the province’s people were distressed, none were not moved to anger. [Jiāng] Xù became Succoring the Yì General, gathering troops to garrison Lì. [Jiāng] Xù’s aunt’s son Yáng Fù formerly was [Wéi] Kāng’s attending official, of the same there were over ten people, all planning to be subordinate to [Mǎ] Chāo to secretly join together to for [Wéi] Kāng take revenge, but did not yet have an opening. It happened [Yáng] Fù’s wife died, he took leave of [Mǎ] Chāo to visit back to Xī, and therefore passed to Lì, inquired after Xù’s mother, explained how Kāng had been harmed and the troubles inside Jì, facing her and sobbing for a long time. Jiāng Xù and his household were moved to grief, Xù’s mother said: “Tut! Bóyì, his Inspectorship Wéi encountered trouble, how is it one province’s disgrace? It is also your burden, how is it only for [Yáng Fù] Yìshān to carry? You are not to look after me, when matters are delayed then changes appear. Of people who does not die? Dying for the state is the greatest of loyal righteousness. You should only quickly set out, I personally for you will deal with things, and not have my remaining years burden you.” Therefore she ordered [Jiāng] Xù to with [Yáng] Fù consult, made pledge, and separately had people sent to speak with the fellow villagers Yǐn Fèng, Zhào Áng, and Āndìng’s Liáng Kuān and others, to have [Jiāng] Xù first raise troops to rebel against [Mǎ] Chāo, [Mǎ] Chāo would be angered and certainly personally come to strike [Jiāng] Xù, and [Liáng] Kuān and the rest would take advantage to from the rear shut the gates. The pact pledge was settled, [Jiāng] Xù therefore advanced troops to enter Lǔ, [Zhào] Áng and [Yǐn] Fèng defended Qíshān. [Mǎ] Chāo heard, and indeed personally went out to strike [Jiāng] Xù, [Liáng] Kuān from the rear shut Jì’s gates, [Mǎ] Chāo lost position. Passing Lǔ, [Jiāng] Xù defended Lǔ. [Mǎ] Chāo therefore advanced to reach Lì, those in Lì going, believed it was [Jiāng] Xù’s army returning, and also there were rumors [Mǎ] Chāo had fled to Hànzhōng, and therefore Lì was without preparations. When [Mǎ] Chāo entered Lì, he seized [Jiāng] Xù’s mother, the mother angrily cursed [Mǎ] Chāo. [Mǎ] Chāo on being cursed was greatly angry and at once killed [Jiāng] Xù’s mother and his children, burned the city and left. [Yáng ] Fù and the rest reported the situation, Tàizǔ extremely commended them, hand wrote orders of praise. The story is like in the base biography.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī notes: [Huángfǔ] Mì calls [Yáng] Fù as [Jiāng] Xù’s aunt’s son, but the base biography says [Jiāng] Xù was [Yuán] Fù’s outer elder cousin, with the present names for inner and outer [paternal and maternal] not the same.
  • [Huángfǔ] Mì also records [Zhào] Áng’s wife stating: Zhào Áng’s wife Yì was former Yì province Inspector Tiānshuǐ Zhào Wěizhāng’s wife, the Wáng clan’s daughter. [Zhào] Áng was Qiāngdào Magistrate, left [Wáng] Yì at Xī. It happened the same prefecture’s Liáng Shuāng rebelled, attacking and capturing Xīchéng, harming [Wáng] Yì’s two sons. [Wáng] Yì’s daughter [Zhào] Yīng was aged six years, alone with [Wáng] Yì inside the city. [Wáng] Yì saw her two sons were already dead, and also feared to be by [Liáng Shuāng violated, drew saber wishing to cut throat, looked back to [Zhào] Yīng and sighed saying: “To die is for you to be abandoned, then who will you rely on! I have heard Xīshī was covered in unclean clothes then people covered their noses, all the more when my appearance is not as Xīshī.” Therefore she took privy manure stained hemp and wore it, rarely eating and had lean appearance, from spring to winter. [Liáng] Shuāng with the provinces and prefectures made peace, [Wáng] Yì indeed therefore escaped trouble. [Zhào] Áng sent scribes to welcome them, had not yet arrived by thirty lǐ, she stopped and said to [Zhào] Yīng: “A wife without the talisman letter from Protector Tutors then does not go out the room doors. Zhāo Jiāng drowned in the flow, Bó Jī waited to burn, every time reading their biographies, my heart praised their integrity. Now I encountered chaos but could not die, how can I again face the various elder women? That I held to life and did not die was only out of pity for you. Now the official residences are already near, I will leave you and die.” Therefore she drank poison and stopped. At the time there was an antidote good broth, opened her mouth and poured it, and after a long while then it resolved. During Jiàn’ān, [Zhào] Áng transferred to Advisor to military affairs, moved to reside at Jì. It happened Mǎ Chāo attacked Jì, [Wáng] Yì personally wore cloth arm guard, assisting [Zhào] Àng in defending, and she also all shed her girdle ornaments and embroidery to reward the battle soldiers. When [Mǎ] Chāo’s attack was severe, inside the city was hungry and destitute, the Inspector Wéi Kāng by nature was benevolent, pitied that the people were injured and harmed, and wished to with [Mǎ] Chāo make peace. [Zhào] Áng’s remonstrants were not listened to, he returned to speak with [Wáng] Yì. [Wáng] Yì said: “Lords have forthright ministers, grandees have the righteousness of specially acting for benefit. Specially acting is not a wrong. How does one know rescue troops will not arrive at Guān Lǒng? You should together exhort the soldiers to high merits, preserve integrity to the death. It cannot be followed.” By the time [Zhào] Áng returned, [Wéi] Kāng with [Mǎ] Chāo had made peace. [Mǎ] Chāo therefore turned back on promise and harmed [Wéi] Kāng, and also coerced [Zhào] Áng, sending as hostage his primary son [Zhào] Yuè to Nánzhèng. He wished to force [Zhào] Áng to be employed by him, however his heart did not yet extremely trust [Zhào Áng]. [Mǎ] Chāo’s wife Yáng heard of [Wáng] Yì’s integrity and conduct, and invited her to feast to end of day. [Wáng] Yì wished [Zhào] Áng to be trusted by [Mǎ] Chāo to aide their plans, and spoke to Yáng saying: “In the past Guǎn Zhòng entered Qí, and established the achievement of nine unification. Yóu Yú went to Qín, Duke Mù accomplished hegemony. Right now the State Altars are newly settled, governing the chaos is in obtaining people. Liáng province’s soldiers and horses then can then with the central plains compete, it cannot be not detailed.” Yáng was deeply moved by this, believing it loyalty to herself, and therefore with [Wáng] Yì repeatedly met and joined. That [Zhào] Áng was able to be trusted by [Mǎ] Chāo to complete the achievement and avoid disaster, was by [Wáng] Yì’s strength. When [Zhào] Áng with Yáng Fù and the rest joined to plot to suppress [Mǎ] Chāo, he reported to [Wáng] Yì saying: “My plan is like this, the matter is certain to succeed, but what of [Zhào] Yuè?” [Wáng] Yì in stern voice answered saying: “Loyal righteousness established in body, wiping away the great disgrace of lord and father, losing head is not enough to be considered heavy, all the more for one son. That Xiàng Tuō and Yán Yuān still live is only by their honorable righteousness persisting.” [Zhào] Áng said: “Excellent.” Therefore they together closed the gates and drove away [Mǎ] Chāo, [Mǎ] Chāo fled to Hànzhōng, from Zhāng Lǔ obtained troops and returned. [Wáng] Yì again with [Zhào] Áng protected Qíshān, was by [Mǎ] Chāo encircled, in thirty days rescue troops arrived, and then it was resolved. [Mǎ] Chāo then killed [Wáng] Yì’s son [Zhào] Yuè. Altogether from the troubles of Jìchéng reaching to Qíshān, in [Zhào] Áng producing surprise plans, [Wáng] Yì always advised.

〔一〕 皇甫謐列女傳曰:姜敘母者,天水姜伯奕之母也。建安中,馬超攻冀,害涼州刺史韋康,州人悽然,莫不感憤。敘為撫夷將軍,擁兵屯歷。敘姑子楊阜,故為康從事,同等十餘人,皆略屬超,陰相結為康報仇,未有閒。會阜妻死,辭超寧歸西,因過至歷,候敘母,說康被害及冀中之難,相對泣良久。姜敘舉室感悲,敘母曰:「咄!伯奕,韋使君遇難,豈一州之恥,亦汝之負,豈獨義山哉?汝無顧我,事淹變生。人誰不死?死國,忠義之大者。但當速發,我自為汝當之,不以餘年累汝也。」因敕敘與阜參議,許諾,分人使語鄉里尹奉、趙昂及安定梁寬等,令敘先舉兵叛超,超怒,必自來擊敘,寬等因從後閉門。約誓以定,敘遂進兵入鹵,昂、奉守祁山。超聞,果自出擊敘,寬等從後閉冀門,超失據。過鹵,敘守鹵。超因進至歷,歷中見超往,以為敘軍還。又傳聞超以走奔漢中,故歷無備。及超入歷,執敘母,母怒罵超。超被罵大怒,即殺敘母及其子,燒城而去。阜等以狀聞,太祖甚嘉之,手令褒揚,語如本傳。臣松之案:謐稱阜為敘姑子,而本傳云敘為阜外兄,與今名內外為不同。謐又載趙昂妻曰:趙昂妻異者,故益州刺史天水趙偉璋妻,王氏女也。昂為羌道令,留異在西。會同郡梁雙反,攻破西城,害異兩男。異女英,年六歲,獨與異在城中。異見兩男已死,又恐為雙所侵,引刀欲自刎,顧英而歎曰:「身死爾棄,當誰恃哉!吾聞西施蒙不絜之服,則人掩鼻,況我貌非西施乎?」乃以溷糞涅麻而被之,尠食瘠形,自春至冬。雙與州郡和,異竟以是免難。昂遣吏迎之,未至三十里,止謂英曰:「婦人無符信保傅,則不出房闈。昭姜沈流,伯姬待燒,每讀其傳,心壯其節。今吾遭亂不能死,將何以復見諸姑?所以偷生不死,惟憐汝耳。今官舍已近,吾去汝死矣。」遂飲毒藥而絕。時適有解毒藥良湯,撅口灌之,良久迺蘇。建安中,昂轉參軍事,徙居冀。會馬超攻冀,異躬著布韝,佐昂守備,又悉脫所佩環、黼黻以賞戰士。及超攻急,城中飢困,刺史韋康素仁,愍吏民傷殘,欲與超和。昂諫不聽,歸以語異,異曰:「君有爭臣,大夫有專利之義;專不為非也。焉知救兵不到關隴哉?當共勉卒高勳,全節致死,不可從也。」比昂還,康與超和。超遂背約害康,又劫昂,質其嫡子月於南鄭。欲要昂以為己用,然心未甚信。超妻楊聞異節行,請與讌終日。異欲信昂於超以濟其謀,謂楊曰:「昔管仲入齊,立九合之功;由余適秦,穆公成霸。方今社稷初定,治亂在於得人,涼州士馬,迺可與中夏爭鋒,不可不詳也。」楊深感之,以為忠於己,遂與異重相接結。昂所以得信於超,全功免禍者,異之力也。及昂與楊阜等結謀討超,告異曰:「吾謀如是,事必萬全,當奈月何?」異厲聲應曰:「忠義立於身,雪君父之大恥,喪元不足為重,況一子哉?夫項託、顏淵,豈復百年,貴義存耳。」昂曰:「善。」遂共閉門逐超,超奔漢中,從張魯得兵還。異復與昂保祁山,為超所圍,三十日救兵到,乃解。超卒殺異子月。凡自冀城之難,至于祁山,昂出九奇,異輒參焉。

Tàizǔ campaigned against Hànzhōng, appointing Fù as Yì province Inspector. Returned, appointed Jīnchéng Administrator, had not yet set out, transferred to Wǔdū Administrator. The prefecture bordered Shǔ and Hàn. [Yáng] Fù requested to follow the precedent of Gōng Suì to calm it and nothing more. It happened Liú Bèi sent Zhāng Fēi and Mǎ Chāo and others to follow Jǔdào to head toward Xiàbiàn, and the Dī Léidìng and others of seven tribes of over ten thousand groups rebelled to welcome them. Tàizǔ sent Regional Protector Cáo Hóng to rest [Mǎ] Chāo and the rest, [Mǎ] Chāo and the rest retreated back. [Cáo] Hóng set liquor for a great assembly, having women performers wear thin silk clothes, beat drums, and all the seated all laughed. Fù in stern voice reproached [Cáo] Hòng saying: “The separation of male and female is the state’s great integrity, how can there be in a wide seating the exposing of female form! Even the chaos of Jié and Zhòu was not as extreme as this.” Therefore holding his robe he took leave to go out. [Cáo] Hóng stood up and dismissed the women and music, and invited Fù back to sit, respectful and in fear.


When Liú Bèi captured Hànzhōng to threaten Xiàbiàn, Tàizǔ because Wǔdū was isolated and far away wished to relocate it, but feared the officials and people were attached to the lands. Fù’s authority and faith was well known, beginning to end he relocated the people and Dī, those sent to reside in Jīngzhào, Fúfēng, Tiānshuǐ’s borders were over ten thousand households, moving the prefecture to Xiǎohuáilǐ, the common people carrying young on their back followed him. In enacting government he raised the main principles and nothing more, and subordinates could not bear to take advantage.

Emperor Wén asked Attendant Internal Liú Yè and others: “The Wǔdū Administrator is what sort of man?” All praised Fù as having the integrity of excellencies and assistants. He was not yet employed [in Court], it happened the Emperor passed away. He was in the prefecture for over ten years, summoned and appointed City Gate Colonel.


Fù once met Emperor Míng wearing embroidery cap, covered in light thin silk half-sleeves, Fù asked the Emperor: “This is according to what ritual method of dress?” The Emperor was silent and did not answer, and from then on when in not methodical dress did not meet Fù.


Promoted to General Architect. At the time first repaired Palace Residences, sending out beautiful women to fill the Rear Courtyards, repeatedly going out and in to shoot and hunt. Autumn, great rain and thunder and lightning, killing many birds.

Fù sent up memorial that said: “I your servant have heard that when an enlightened ruler is above, the various subordinates thoroughly speak. Yáo’s and Shùn’s sagely virtue was seeking criticism and requesting remonstrance. Dà Yǔ’s diligent achievements attended to humble Palace Residences, Chéng Tāng in encountering drought placed the fault upon himself, Zhōu Wén punished widowed wives to manage family and country, Hàn Wén [Liú Héng] personally undertook frugality, his body robes of coarse cloth. These all were able to manifest command and inquiries, bequeathing to their posterity what they planned. In prostration Your Majesty serves the Great Enterprise of Wǔ Huángdì [Cáo Cāo] opening development, maintains the inaugural threads of Wén Huángdì [Cáo Pī] overcoming ends, and truly should ponder and consider the good government of the former ancient sagely worthies, assemble and observe the evil government of the dissolute extinction of end times. What is called good government is attending to frugality and valuing the people’s strength. What is called evil government is following the heart’s lustful desires, stirring passions and letting them out. May Your Majesty study how the beginning of ancient dynasties were able to be bright and dazzle, how the end times weakened to the point of obliteration, and recently observe the changes of Hàn’s end, enough to move the heart to guard and fear. In former times if Huán [Liú Zhì] and Líng [Liú Hóng] had not abolished Gāozǔ’s [Liú Bāng] laws and Wén’s [Liú Héng] and Jǐng’s [Liú Qǐ] respectful frugality, though Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] had divine military power, how would he have been able to apply his abilities? And how would Your Majesty then occupy this honor? Now Wú and Shǔ are not yet settled, the army moves outside, may Your Majesty in moving then thrice think, ponder and only then enact, repeatedly cautious in going out and in, using the gone to reflect on the coming, speaking of it seems light, but success and failure are extremely heavy. Recently the Heavens rained, and also had many sudden and violent thunder and lightning out of the ordinary, to the point of killing birds. Heaven and Earth and the divine intelligence takes the ruler as a son, if the government has inappropriateness then it meets calamities and reprimands. Restraining self and inwardly accusing is what the sagely men recorded. May Your Majesty ponder and worry of what is beyond the formless, cautious of the beginning of the sprouting and slight, follow Hàn Xiào-Wén [Liú Héng] expelling Emperor Huì’s [Liú Yīng] beautiful women, ordering that they be able to themselves marry. Recently the reaction to the delivering of women, distantly was heard as not appropriate, it should be a later plan. Those mending and repairing, should attend to following frugality. The Shū states: ‘Nine Clans all amicable, harmonizing myriad states.’ Attending to and thinking of this appropriateness, to follow the central way, with meticulous heart planning, abolish and cease the expenditures. When Wú and Shǔ are settled, then high is secured and low are happy, the nine intimates glorious. In this way going, the ancestors in heart will be joyous, even Yáo and Shùn would thus be as if ashamed. Now it is appropriate to open great faith to Heaven’s Under, to calm the multitudes, to show to distant people.”

At the time Yōngqiū King [Cáo] Zhí complained of not being respected, the vassal states of closest kin by law were restricted harshly and densely, therefore Fù also explained the meanings of the Nine Clans. Imperial Order replied saying: “Repeatedly obtaining confidential memorials, first explaining the former ancient enlightened kings and sagely rulers, to criticize ignorant government, was cutting with utmost words, paragraphs of sincere loyalty. Withdrawing to consider and amend mistakes, about to follow the rectifying aid, preparations in everything. Reading and considering the bitter words, I extremely commend it.”


Promoted to Minister Treasurer. At the time Marshal-in-Chief Cáo Zhēn attacked Shǔ, encountered rain and did not advance. Fù sent up memorial that said: “In the past Wén-wáng had the sign of the red crow, and yet to the afternoon had no time to eat; Wǔ-wáng had white fish enter boat, ruler and minister changed color. In moving they obtained auspicious sign, yet they valued apprehension, all the more those having calamity strangeness yet not shaking in fear? Now Wú and Shǔ are not yet pacified, yet Heaven repeatedly sends down changes, Your Majesty should deeply have replies by concentrating vitality, leaning on seat in sitting, thinking to reveal to the distant by virtue, pacifying the close by frugality. Recently the various armies first advanced, then there was the misfortune of heaven raining, delayed and obstructed in the mountains and rugged terrain for accumulated days. The labors of transportation, the bitterness of carrying burdens, the costs are many, if there is no connection, it will certainly violate the original plans. The Zhuàn states: ‘seeing able and then advancing, knowing difficulty and then retreating, is the army’s good governance.’ In vain sending the Six Armies to be destitute among the mountains and valleys, advancing there is nothing to plunder, retreating also not able, is not the way to manage troops. Wǔ-wáng withdrew his armies, Yīn in the end perished, it was by knowing Heaven’s timing. This year had famine and the people are hungry, it is appropriate to issue enlightened Imperial Order to reduce meals and decrease clothing, the things of craftsmen and valuable toys all can be suspended. In the past Shào Xìnchén was Minister Treasurer in an era without problems, and yet memorialized to suspend superficial food. At present the army’s supplies are not enough, all the more is it appropriate to be restrictive.”

The Emperor at once summoned the various armies back.


Later Imperial Order had great commentaries on governance that was not suitable for the people, Fù’s comments believed: “Delivering governance is in appointing worthies, vitalizing the state is in attending to agriculture. If one abandons the worthy and appoints the selfish, this is the most extreme of neglecting governance. Widening and opening the palace buildings, heightening the tower pavilions, to hinder the people’s business, this is the most extreme of harming agriculture. The hundred artisans are not sincere in their vessels, but compete to make the strange and ingenious, to accord with the Ascended’s desires, this is the most extreme of injuring roots. Kǒng-zǐ states: ‘A demanding government is more extreme than a fierce tiger.’ Now the officials of upholding merits and literary conventions, for the government are not connected to government form, if they enjoy the complex and demanding, this is the most extreme of disordering the people. In the present emergencies, it is appropriate to remove the four extremes, and give Imperial Order on the Excellencies and Ministers and prefectures and states, to nominate the worthy and good, direct and upright, sincere and simple servicemen and select and employ them, this also is one beginning to seeking worthies.”


Fù also sent up memorial wishing to reduce the Palace women who were not visited, and so summoned the Managing Office Scribe to ask the Rear Palace’s personnel count. The scribe held to old orders and replied saying: “It is confidential, and cannot be revealed.” Fù was angry, and beat the scribe one hundred strokes, reprimanding him saying: “The country does share a secret to the Nine Ministers, but instead shares it to a minor scribe to be confidential?” The Emperor heard and was all the more respectful and fearful of Fù.


The Emperor’s favorite daughter Shū had not yet matured and died young, the Emperor’s pain was extreme, posthumously enfeoffing her as Píngyuán princess, establishing a temple in Luòyáng, buried at Nánlíng. He was about to personally oversee the escort, Fù sent up memorial stating: “When Wén Huángdì and Wǔ-Xuān Huánghòu passed away, Your Majesty all did not escort the burial, in order to value the State Altars and prepare for the unexpected. How can one for a child escort burial?” The Emperor did not listen.


The Emperor had newly made Xǔ Palace, and also built Luòyáng Palace Halls and Watchtower Pavilions. Fù sent up memorial that said: “Yáo only had reed thatched roof and yet the myriad states were secure in their place, Yǔ had humble Palace Residences and yet Heaven’s Under delighted in his enterprise. Reaching to Yīn and Zhōu some halls in height were three chǐ [~70 cm], restrained to nine seats and that was all. The ancient sagely Emperors and enlightened Kings, never once used utmost Palace Residences in height and beauty to impoverish and harm the wealth and strength of the Hundred Surnames. Jié built Xuánshì [“Jade Room”] and Xiàngláng [“Ivory Verandas”], Zhòu made Qīnggōng [“Hanging Palace”] and Lùtái [“Deer Tower”], and so destroyed their State Altars. Chǔ Líng because of building Zhānghuà had his body suffer disaster, Qín Shǐhuáng built Āfáng and calamity reached his son, Heaven’s Under rebelled against him, in the Second Generation perishing. To not judge the strength of the myriads of people, to follow the desires of ears and eyes, never once has there not been destruction. Your Majesty should take Yáo, Shùn, Yǔ, Tāng, Wén, Wǔ as model examples, Xià Jié, Yīn Zhòu, Chǔ Líng, Qín Huáng as extreme prohibitions. High and high above, truly inspect the ruler’s virtue. Carefully uphold Heaven’s position, to continue on the ancestors, tower and imposing the great enterprise, yet fear to lose it. To not morning and night be respectful and stop, just and respectful and sympathizing with the people, and yet then leisure self and rest self, only in Palace Towers being extravagant and being ornamental, certainly there will be disaster of toppling and destruction. The Yì states: ‘Ample its rooms, shaded its house, closed its doors, quiet it is without people.’ The ruler takes Heaven’s Under as house, speaking of the disaster of ample room, is as far as a house without people. Right now the two caitiffs join and follow, plotting to endanger the Ancestral Temple, armies of hundreds of thousands, to east and west rush along, the borders without a single day of amusement, the farmers abandon enterprise, the people have hungry expressions. Your Majesty do not take this as worry, and instead build Palace Residences, without any resting time. Supposing if the state perished and I your servant could alone survive, I your servant also would not speak, (1) the ruler is the primary head, ministers are the legs and arms, surviving or perishing as one body, in gains or losses sharing in it. The Xiàojīng states: ‘Heaven’s Son has critical ministers of seven people, even if he is without principle he does not lose his Heaven’s Under.’ I your servant though am inferior and cowardly, dare I forget the righteousness of critical ministers? Speech that is not cutting is not enough to move and wake Your Majesty. If Your Majesty does not investigate your servant’s speech, one fears the blessings of your Imperial Grandfather and Illustrious Father will topple to the ground. If your servant’s body could die to repair one out of myriads, then on the day of death, yet would be a year of life. Sincerely bringing coffin and washing, in prostration awaiting heavy punishment.”

The memorial was presented, Heaven’s Son was moved by his loyal words, hand writing Imperial Order reply. Every time in Court meetings, Fù always was upright taking Heaven’s Under as his own responsibility. Repeatedly he remonstrated and criticized, was not listened to, and then would repeatedly beg to resign position, it was not accepted. It happened that he died, his family without surplus wealth. His grandson [Yáng] Bào succeeded.


  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes the way of utmost loyalty is in self perishing as reasoning. Therefore in rectifying and rescuing their evil, one does not for oneself calculate. Yet Fù’s memorial says ‘Supposing if the state perished and I your servant could alone survive, I your servant also would not speak,’ this then is to make determined effort for oneself, how is it for the state? This speech, how is it not to injure honest and upright righteousness? It is the whole memorial’s defect!

〔一〕 臣松之以為忠至之道,以亡己為理。是以匡救其惡,不為身計。而阜表云「使國亡而臣可以獨存,臣又不言也」,此則發憤為己,豈為國哉?斯言也,豈不傷讜烈之義,為一表之病乎!

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