(8.5) Zhāng Yān 張燕

Zhāng Yān was a Chángshān Zhēndìng man, originally surnamed Chǔ.

張燕,常山真定人也,本姓褚。

When the Yellow Headscarves rebelled [184], Yān gathered many youths into a bandit horde, ravaged Shānzé, and returned to Zhēndìng with an army of over ten thousand men. Bólíng’s Zhāng Niújiǎo “Oxhorn” also raised an army, styling himself a General and leading troops, and joined with Yān. Yān deferred to Niújiǎo as the commander, and together they attacked Yǐngtáo. Niújiǎo was hit by an arrow. He was seriously wounded and near death, and ordered the army to follow Yān, telling them: “Yān must be the commander.” Niújiǎo died and the army followed Yān, so he changed his surname to Zhāng.

黃巾起,燕合聚少年為群盜,在山澤閒轉攻,還真定,眾萬餘人。博陵張牛角亦起眾,自號將兵從事,與燕合。燕推牛角為帥,俱攻廮陶。牛角為飛矢所中。被創且死,令眾奉燕,告曰:「必以燕為帥。」牛角死,眾奉燕,故改姓張。

Yān was swift in evading blows and nimble and fast surpassing other men, so the army called him Fēi-Yān “the Flying Swallow.”

燕剽捍捷速過人,故軍中號曰飛燕。

Later the men grew numerous and expansive, so the hills and valleys across Chángshān, Zhào-jùn, Zhōngshān, Shàngdǎng, Hénèi were united. Smaller commanders Sūn Qīng, Wáng Dāng, and others led separate divisions that followed Yān. The horde reached a million, and was called the Hēishān “Black Mountain” bandits. Líng-dì could not suppress them, and all the prefectures north of the Hé suffered harm. Yān sent men to the capital to negotiate nominal surrender, and so Yān was appointed Pacifying Disasters Internal Cadet-General. (1)

其後人眾寢廣,常山、趙郡、中山、上黨、河內諸山谷皆相通,其小帥孫輕、王當等,各以部眾從燕,眾至百萬,號曰黑山。靈帝不能征,河北諸郡被其害。燕遣人至京都乞降,拜燕平難中郎將。〔一〕

  • (1) Jiǔzhōu Chūnqiū states: Zhāng Jué had rebelled. Hēishān “Black Mountain,” Báibō “White Wave,” Huánglóng “Yellow Dragon,” Zuǒ Xiào “Colonel,” Niújiǎo “Oxhorn,” Wǔlù “Five Stags,” Dīgēn “Ram Roots,” Kǔqiú “Bitter Worm,” Liú Shí “Rock,” Píng-Hàn “Pacifying Hàn,” Dàhóng “Great Flood, Sīlì “Director of Retainers,” Yuánchéng “Fate City,” Luóshì “Silk Market,” Léigōng “Lord of Thunder,” Fúyún, “Floating Cloud,” Fēi-Yān “Flying Sparrow,” Báijué, “White Noble,” Yáng Fèng “Phoenix,” Yú Dú “Poison,” and others each raised troops. The largest had twenty to thirty thousand, the smallest did not have less than several thousand. Líng-dì could not suppress them, so he sent envoys to appoint Yáng  Fèng as Colonel of Hēishān, to command the various mountain bandits, and nominate Xiàolián “Filial Incorrupt” candidates for office. After this they spread and grew, and could no longer be counted.
  • Diǎnlüè states: The various commanders of the Black Mountain and Yellow Scarves were originally not capped, and so gave each other style names. They called the one who rode a white horse as Zhāng Báiqí “White Rider,” and the one who was swift and agile as Zhāng Fēi-Yān “Flying Swallow,” they called the one with a loud voice Zhāng Léigōng “Lord of Thunder,” the one with a lush beard called himself Yú Dīgēn “Ram Roots,” and the one with large eyes called himself Lǐ Dàmù “Big Eye.”
  • Zhāng Fán’s Hànjì says there was also Zuǒ Xiào, Guō Dàxián “Great Worthy,” Zuǒ Zīzhàngbā “Eighty foots mustache,” three divisions.

〔一〕 九州春秋曰:張角之反也,黑山、白波、黃龍、左校、牛角、五鹿、羝根、苦蝤、劉石、平漢、大洪、司隸、緣城、羅市、雷公、浮雲、飛燕、白爵、楊鳳、于毒等各起兵,大者二三萬,小者不減數千。靈帝不能討,乃遣使拜楊鳳為黑山校尉,領諸山賊,得舉孝廉計吏。後遂彌漫,不可復數。典略曰:黑山、黃巾諸帥,本非冠蓋,自相號字,謂騎白馬者為張白騎,謂輕捷者為張飛燕,謂聲大者為張雷公,其饒鬚者則自稱于羝根,其眼大者自稱李大目。張璠漢紀云:又有左校、郭大賢、左髭丈八三部也。

After this, Dǒng Zhuó moved Heaven’s Son to Cháng’ān, and soldiers across the realm rose up. Yān then led his horde to strive with the leading figures. Yuán Shào and Gōngsūn Zàn fought in Jìzhōu, and Yān sent his subordinate officers Dù Zhǎng and others to assist Zàn, which fought with Shào, and were defeated by Shào, and some of the men deserted and scattered. When Tàizǔ was about to settle Jìzhōu, Yān sent an envoys to ask in assisting in the rule and command, and was appointed General Pacifying the North. He led his horde to go to Yè [to surrender], and was appointed Ānguó precinct Marquis, with a fief of five hundred households.

是後,董卓遷天子於長安,天下兵數起,燕遂以其眾與豪傑相結。袁紹與公孫瓚爭冀州,燕遣將杜長等助瓚,與紹戰,為紹所敗,人眾稍散,太祖將定冀州,燕遣使求佐王師,拜平北將軍;率眾詣鄴,封安國亭侯,邑五百戶。

Yān died, and his son Fāng succeeded. Fāng died, and his son Róng succeeded. (2)

燕薨,子方嗣。方薨,子融嗣。〔二〕

  • Lù Jī’s Jìn Huìdì Qǐjūzhù states: Director Official of Gate Communication  Zhāng Lín was Fēi-Yān’s great-grandson. Lín joined the King of Zhào [Sīmǎ] Lún’s usurpation, and within a year reached the Director of the Secretariat, General of the Guard, and title as a Duke of a prefecture, but was killed by [Sīmǎ] Lún.

〔二〕 陸機晉惠帝起居注曰:門下通事令史張林,飛燕之曾孫。林與趙王倫為亂,未及周年,位至尚書令、衛將軍,封郡公。尋為倫所殺。

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