(26.1) Mǎn Chǒng 滿寵 [Bóníng 伯寧]

Mǎn Chǒng, appellation Bóníng, was a Shānyáng Chāngyì man. At age eighteen he served as a prefectural investigative officer. At the time in the prefecture there was Lǐ Shuò and others who used their personal retainers to harm the common people, and the Administrator sent Chǒng to investigate and stop this. Shuò and the others all apologized and never again robbed and plundered. He was appointed Magistrate of Gāopíng. A county man Zhāng Bāo became the investigative officer, but was corrupt and accepted bribes, causing disorder in the government. Chǒng sent officials and soldiers out to arrest him as he moved and announced his crimes, and when the interrogation was finished [Mǎn Chǒng] resigned his office and returned home.

滿寵字伯寧,山陽昌邑人也。年十八,為郡督郵。時郡內李朔等各擁部曲,害于平民,太守使寵糾焉。朔等請罪,不復鈔略。守高平令。縣人張苞為郡督郵,貪穢受取,干亂吏政。寵因其來在傳舍,率吏卒出收之,詰責所犯,即日考竟,遂棄官歸。


When Tàizǔ took command of Yǎnzhōu [192], he was recruited as an advisor. When [Tàizǔ] was appointed General-in-Chief [196], he was appointed to the West Department and as Magistrate of Xǔ. At the time Cáo Hóng’s clan and relatives were esteemed, and had retainers at [Xǔ county’s] borders who repeatedly violated the law, and Chǒng arrested them. Hóng wrote in answer to Chǒng, but Chǒng would not listen. Hóng complained to Tàizǔ, so Tàizǔ summoned the officers of Xǔ. Chǒng knew his intentions, so he quickly killed the criminals. Tàizǔ was pleased and said: “Should not affairs be managed like that?”

太祖臨兗州,辟為從事。及為大將軍,辟署西曹屬,為許令。時曹洪宗室親貴,有賓客在界,數犯法,寵收治之。洪書報寵,寵不聽。洪白太祖,太祖召許主者。寵知將欲原,乃速殺之。太祖喜曰:「當事不當爾邪?」

When former Grand Commandant Yáng Biāo was arrested and placed in the county prison, Director of the Secretariat Xún Yù and Minister Treasurer Kǒng Róng and others all asked Chǒng: “Only ask him words, do not also flog him in interrogation.” Chǒng did not follow this request, and used flogging interrogation following the law.

故太尉楊彪收付縣獄,尚書令荀彧、少府孔融等並屬寵:「但當受辭,勿加考掠。」寵一無所報,考訊如法。

After several days, he sought audience with Tàizǔ, and said to him: “Yáng Biāo has been interrogated thoroughly and made no confession. A man to be executed must first confess his crime. This man is famed within the seas. If his guilt is not obvious, then [if he is punished] the people’s support will be lost. I humbly ask you as a wise lord to take pity on him.” Tàizǔ pardoned and released Biāo that same day.

數日,求見太祖,言之曰:「楊彪考訊無他辭語。當殺者宜先彰其罪;此人有名海內,若罪不明,必大失民望,竊為明公惜之。」太祖即日赦出彪。

Previously Yù and Róng had heard that Biāo had been beaten in interrogation, and had both been furious. When they learned this had led to his release, they became favorable to Chǒng. (1)

初,彧、融聞考掠彪,皆怒,及因此得了,更善寵。〔一〕

  • (1) Your servant Sōngzhī believes Excellency Yáng was of an accomplished family, was himself a famed official, so even if he had some transgression, he should have received some protection. How could he have been so obviously oppressed with such excessive punishments? If he deserved to have been so interrogated, then how could the two worthy gentlemen Xún and Kǒng be so presumptuous as to plead on his behalf? Chǒng because of this incident was considered able, but he was only acting as a ruthless official and that is all. Though he later acted well, how can that make up for his previous cruelty?

〔一〕 臣松之以為楊公積德之門,身為名臣,縱有愆負,猶宜保祐,況淫刑所濫,而可加其楚掠乎?若理應考訊,荀、孔二賢豈其妄有相請屬哉?寵以此為能,酷吏之用心耳。雖有後善,何解前虐?


At the time Yuán Shào was growing powerful north of the [Yellow] River. Rǔnán was Shào’s home commandery. His disciples and retainers were spread wide across its counties, and they gathered troops to resist the government. Tàizǔ was worried about this, so he appointed Chǒng as Administrator of Rǔnán. Chǒng raised five hundred followers, attacked and captured over twenty fortifications. He invited rebel leaders that had not surrendered to a meeting, and once they were seated he killed them, over ten men, and for a time all was pacified. He captured twenty thousand households and two thousand soldiers, and ordered them to return to farm work.

時袁紹盛於河朔,而汝南紹之本郡,門生賓客布在諸縣,擁兵拒守。太祖憂之,以寵為汝南太守。寵募其服從者五百人,率攻下二十餘壁,誘其未降渠帥,於坐上殺十餘人,一時皆平。得戶二萬,兵二千人,令就田業。


Jiàn’ān thirteenth year [208] he followed Tàizǔ in the campaign in Jīngzhōu. The main army returned, and Chǒng was left as Acting General Exerting Authority, camping at Dāngyáng. Sūn Quán several times raided the eastern frontier, so Chǒng was summoned back and returned as Administrator of Rǔnán, and titled Marquis within the Passes.

建安十三年,從太祖征荊州。大軍還,留寵行奮威將軍,屯當陽。孫權數擾東陲,復召寵還為汝南太守,賜爵關內侯。

Guān Yǔ besieged Xiāngyáng [219]. Chǒng assisted General Attacking the South Cáo Rén in the garrison at Fánchéng to resist them, but the armies of General of the Left Yú Jīn and the others because of the heavy rains and flooding were destroyed by Yǔ. Yǔ pressed hard and attacked Fánchéng, and the walls were eroded by water and frequently broke down, and all the army turned pale in fear. Someone said to Rén: “We do not have the strength to resolve the present crisis. Before Yǔ’s can completely encircle us, we can take light boats in the night to flee. Though we will lose the city, we can save ourselves.”

關羽圍襄陽,寵助征南將軍曹仁屯樊城拒之,而左將軍于禁等軍以霖雨水長為羽所沒。羽急攻樊城,樊城得水,往往崩壞,眾皆失色。或謂仁曰:「今日之危,非力所支。可及羽圍未合,乘輕船夜走,雖失城,尚可全身。」

Chǒng said: “The floodwaters from the hills came suddenly, and hopefully will not last long. I have heard that Yǔ has already sent a separate commander to Jiáxià, just south of Xǔ, and the common people are disturbed and in unrest. The only reason that Yǔ does not dare advance further is because he is afraid our army will cut off his rear and that is all. If we now flee, all south of the great [Yellow] River will be lost to the state. Sir, you must remain here.”

寵曰:「山水速疾,冀其不久。聞羽遣別將已在郟下,自許以南,百姓擾擾,羽所以不敢遂進者,恐吾軍掎其後耳。今若遁去,洪河以南,非復國家有也;君宜待之。」

Rén said: “Agreed.” Chǒng then drowned a white horse for the soldiers to all swear covenant [to hold out]. When Xú Huǎng and the others arrived to rescue them, Chǒng fought hard with distinction, and Yǔ thereupon retreated. He was advanced in fief to Marquis of Ānchāng precinct.

仁曰:「善。」寵乃沈白馬,與軍人盟誓。會徐晃等救至,寵力戰有功,羽遂退。進封安昌亭侯。


When Wén-dì became King [220] he was promoted to General Raising Martial ability. He defeated Wú at Jiānglíng with distinction, and was promoted to General Overcoming Waves, garrisoning Xīnyě. The main army went on a southern campaign and arrived at Jīng lake. Chǒng commanded the various armies at the front and faced off with the rebels across the water. Chǒng ordered all the officers: “This evening’s wind is very strong. The rebels will certainly come and attack with fire. We must prepare for this.” The armies were all vigilant.

文帝即王位,遷揚武將軍。破吳於江陵有功,更拜伏波將軍,屯新野。大軍南征,到精湖,寵帥諸軍在前,與賊隔水相對。寵敕諸將曰:「今夕風甚猛,賊必來燒軍,宜為其備。」諸軍皆警。

In the middle of the night, the rebels indeed sent ten regiments secretly in the darkness to burn them. Chǒng attacked them by surprise and defeated them. He was advanced in fief to Marquis of Nán village.

夜半,賊果遣十部伏夜來燒,寵掩擊破之,進封南鄉侯。

Huángchū third year [222], Chǒng was given Acting Staff and Battle-Ax of Authority. Fifth year [224] he was promoted to General of the Front.

黃初三年,假寵節鉞。五年,拜前將軍。


When Míng-dì ascended, he was advanced in fief to Marquis of Chāngyì. Tàihé second year [228] he was appointed Inspector of Yùzhōu.

明帝即位,進封昌邑侯。太和二年,領豫州刺史。

Third year [229] spring, a defector said that Wú was making great preparations to attack north of the [Long] River and that Sūn Quán wished to personally go. Chǒng believed the attack was certainly to be on Xīyáng and made preparations. Quán heard of this and retreated.

三年春,降人稱吳大嚴,揚聲欲詣江北獵,孫權欲自出。寵度其必襲西陽而為之備,權聞之,退還。

Autumn, Cáo Xiū was sent from Lújiāng south to Héféi, and Chǒng was ordered to go to Xiàkǒu. Chǒng sent up a memorial: “Though Cáo Xiū is intelligent and resolute he rarely commands troops. The road he is taking now has its back to the lake and its side to the River. It is easy to advance but difficult to withdraw, and the troops are on low ground. If he enters Wúqiángkǒu, he must be very well prepared.”

秋,使曹休從廬江南入合肥,令寵向夏口。寵上疏曰:「曹休雖明果而希用兵,今所從道,背湖旁江,易進難退,此兵之窪地也。若入無彊口,宜深為之備。」

Before Chǒng’s memorial arrived, Xiū entered and advanced far ahead. The rebels indeed cut off the Jiāshí road at Wúqiángkǒu, obstructing Xiū’s path of retreat. Xiū fought but was unsuccessful, and retreated and fled. It happened that Zhū Líng and others were coming from behind to cut off their road, and they and the rebels met one another. The rebels were taken by surprise and fled, and so Xiū’s army was able to return.

寵表未報,休遂深入。賊果從無彊口斷夾石,要休還路。休戰不利,退走。會朱靈等從後來斷道,與賊相遇。賊驚走,休軍乃得還。

That year Xiū died. Chǒng as General of the Front succeeded him as Regional Commander of Yángzhōu to command all its military affairs. The soldiers and people of Rǔnán all admired him, and young and old all followed after him on the road to his post, and would not be stopped. The Protector of the Army memorialized this and wished to kill the leaders of the following crowd. An Imperial Order permitted Chǒng to take one thousand personal retainers and troops with him, and after this made no further inquiry.

是歲休薨,寵以前將軍代都督揚州諸軍事。汝南兵民戀慕,大小相率,奔隨道路,不可禁止。護軍表上,欲殺其為首者。詔使寵將親兵千人自隨,其餘一無所問。


Fourth year [230] Chǒng was appointed General Attacking the East. That winter Sūn Quán announced he would attack Héféi. Chǒng sent a memorial summoning the armies of Yǎn and Yù provinces, and they all gathered. The rebels saw this and retreated, and an Imperial Order dismissed the gathered troops. Chǒng believed: “Now the rebels have made a large gathering but return. This is not their plan. This is certainly that they wish to appear to retreat to disperse our troops, and then return to take advantage of our weakness and catch us by surprise.” He memorialized that the troops not be dismissed.

四年,拜寵征東將軍。其冬,孫權揚聲欲至合肥,寵表召兗、豫諸軍,皆集。賊尋退還,被詔罷兵。寵以為今賊大舉而還,非本意也,此必欲偽退以罷吾兵,而倒還乘虛,掩不備也,表不罷兵。

After over ten days, Quán indeed came again to Héféi fortress, but could not overcome it and retreated.

後十餘日,權果更來,到合肥城,不克而還。


The next year [231], Wú General Sūn Bù sent a messenger to Yángzhōu to ask to surrender, the message saying: “The road is far and I cannot go myself. I beg for troops to come meet and receive me.” The Inspector Wáng Líng presented Bù’s letter and requested soldiers and horses to receive him. Chǒng believed this must be a trick and would not send troops, and so he composed a reply letter for Wáng Líng [to Sūn Bù]: “You acknowledge your wrongs and wish to escape disaster and return to obedience, leave the despotic and return to the correct way, and for this you should be met with deep praise. Now you wish for us to send troops to receive you, but if we send few troops it will not be enough to defend you and if we send many troops the plan will certainly be discovered. For now we must first secretly plan to achieve your ambition and when the time draws near discuss the matter again.”

其明年,吳將孫布遣人詣揚州求降,辭云:「道遠不能自致,乞兵見迎。」刺史王淩騰布書,請兵馬迎之。寵以為必詐,不與兵,而為淩作報書曰:「知識邪正,欲避禍就順,去暴歸道,甚相嘉尚。今欲遣兵相迎,然計兵少則不足相衛,多則事必遠聞。且先密計以成本志,臨時節度其宜。」

At that time Chǒng received a letter and was summoned back to Court, so he left orders to the [provincial] government’s Chief Clerk: “If [Wáng] Líng wishes to go receive [Sūn Bù] do not give him troops.”

寵會被書當入朝,敕留府長史:「若淩欲往迎,勿與兵也。」

Líng afterward asked for troops but could not obtain them, and so he sent only one commander with infantry and cavalry, seven hundred men, to receive them [Sūn Bù]. In the night Bù made a surprise attack, the commander fled, and over half were killed or wounded.

淩於後索兵不得,乃單遣一督將步騎七百人往迎之。布夜掩擊,督將迸走,死傷過半。

Before this, Chǒng and Líng could not work together, so Líng’s faction slandered Chǒng as old and senile, and so Míng-dì summoned him. When he arrived, his body and spirit were healthy and strong, and after one meeting he was sent back. (1)

初,寵與淩共事不平,淩支黨毀寵疲老悖謬,故明帝召之。既至,體氣康彊,見而遣還。〔一〕

  • (1) Shìyǔ states: Wáng Líng memorialized that Chǒng’s age was advanced and that he indulged in wine, and so should not remain in office. The Emperor therefore summoned Chǒng. The official Guō Móu said: “Chǒng has been Administrator of Rǔnán and Inspector of Yùzhōu for over twenty years, with towering achievements. He also defends the south of the Huái, and the people of Wú fear him.  If he is not equal to what I have said, I will accept responsibility. He should be summoned back to Court, and interviewed about his affairs to investigate this.” The Emperor followed this. When Chǒng arrived, he was interviewed, and could drink an entire dàn of wine without becoming intoxicated and confused. The Emperor gave him rewards and then sent him back.

〔一〕 世語曰:王淩表寵年過耽酒,不可居方任。帝將召寵,給事中郭謀曰:「寵為汝南太守、豫州刺史二十餘年,有勳方岳。及鎮淮南,吳人憚之。若不如所表,將為所闚。可令還朝,問以方事以察之。」帝從之。寵既至,進見,飲酒至一石不亂。帝慰勞之,遣還。

Chǒng repeatedly memorialized asking to stay [at the capital]. The Imperial Order replied: “In the past Lián Pō ate heavily [to prove his body’s rigor despite his age] and Mǎ Yuán [despite his age] remained in his saddle. Now you sir are not yet that old but already call yourself old. Why do you not act like Lián and Mǎ? You must think of calming the frontier and bringing benefit to the central state.”

寵屢表求留,詔報曰:「昔廉頗彊食,馬援據鞍,今君未老而自謂已老,何與廉、馬之相背邪?其思安邊境,惠此中國。」


The next year [232] Wú General Lù Xùn advanced to Lújiāng, and commentators believed they should hurriedly go there to resist him. Chǒng said: “Though Lújiāng is small, its officers are stalwart and its troops elite, and they can defend for a long time. Further, the rebels have left their ships and come two hundred leagues, leaving only empty counties to their rear, and we should entice them to come. Now it is suitable to permit them to advance, so when they are frightened and flee they will not be able to escape.”

明年,吳將陸遜向廬江,論者以為宜速赴之。寵曰:「廬江雖小,將勁兵精,守則經時。又賊舍船二百里來,後尾空縣,尚欲誘致,今宜聽其遂進,但恐走不可及耳。」

The army orderly converged at Yángyíkǒu. The rebels heard many troops had come east, and that night they retreated.

整軍趨楊宜口。賊聞大兵東下,即夜遁。

In those times, [Sūn] Quán came to plan attacks every year.

時權歲有來計。


Qīnglóng Inaugural Year [233], Chǒng sent up a memorial that said: “Héféi city’s south side faces the rivers and lakes, and north side is far from Shòuchūn. When the rebels attack and besiege it, they rely on the strength of the water. When the officials and troops rescue it, they must first defeat the rebels’ strongest force, and only then break the encirclement. The rebels are able to come very easily, while it is very difficult for our troops to come rescue it. It is appropriate to move the city’s military strength to the west thirty leagues, where there is difficult terrain to rely on, establish another city, and entrench and defend there. This is a suitable plan to force the rebels to come out into open ground and overextend their return route.”

青龍元年,寵上疏曰:「合肥城南臨江湖,北遠壽春,賊攻圍之,得據水為勢;官兵救之,當先破賊大輩,然後圍乃得解。賊往甚易,而兵往救之甚難,宜移城內之兵,其西三十里,有奇險可依,更立城以固守,此為引賊平地而掎其歸路,於計為便。」

General Protecting the Army Jiǎng Jì commented, believing: “This is showing weakness to the world, destroying one’s own city at the first sign of the rebel’s campfire smoke, and dislodging ourselves from position without even a battle. If it comes to this, they will plunder without restraint, and we will be forced to defend north of the Huái.” The Emperor did not yet give permission.

護軍將軍蔣濟議,以為:「既示天下以弱,且望賊煙火而壞城,此為未攻而自拔。一至於此,劫略無限,必以淮北為守。」帝未許。

Chǒng again memorialized: “Sūn-zǐ said: ‘Soldiers are those who act with deception.’ Therefore when strong we must appear weak and incapable, take advantage of arrogance, and appear afraid. This is ‘Appearance and truth are not necessarily the same.’ He also said: ‘It is good to move the enemy with false appearances.’ Now the rebels have not yet come and we move the city inward. This is what is called using an appearance to entice them. It will draw the rebels far from the river. We seize an opportunity and act. In this we will contend with the outer, and bring strength to the inner.”

寵重表曰:「孫子言,兵者,詭道也。故能而示之以弱不能,驕之以利,示之以懾。此為形實不必相應也。又曰『善動敵者形之』。今賊未至而移城卻內,此所謂形而誘之也。引賊遠水,擇利而動,舉得於外,則福生於內矣。」

Secretariat Zhào Zī believed Chǒng’s plan was best, and an Imperial Order thereupon was sent granting permission.

尚書趙咨以寵策為長,詔遂報聽。

That year, [Sūn] Quán personally came to attack, intending to besiege the New City, but it was far from the river, so he halted twenty days and did not dare leave the boats. Chǒng said to the officers: “Quán knows we have moved the city, and must certainly be speaking boastful words within his army. Now he has come with great strength to settle things with a great achievement, and though he does not dare advance here, he will certainly come ashore to make a dazzling display of his abundant military strength.” Therefore he secretly sent six thousand infantry and cavalry to establish an ambush near [Hé]féi city to wait for them.

寵謂諸將曰:「權得吾移城,必於其眾中有自大之言,今大舉來欲要一切之功,雖不敢至,必當上岸耀兵以示有餘。」乃潛遣步騎六千,伏肥城隱處以待之。

Quán indeed came ashore with a magnificent force, and Chǒng’s ambushing army appeared and attacked them, beheading several hundreds, while others were driven into the water and drowned.

權果上岸耀兵,寵伏軍卒起擊之,斬首數百,或有赴水死者。

The next year [234], Quán personally commanded a hundred thousand and came to Héféi’s New City. Chǒng rode to resist them, raising several tens of strong warriors, cutting branches to make torches and pouring down sesame oil. When the wind blew they set fire, burning the rebels and attacking, shooting and killing Quán’s younger brother’s son Sūn Tài. The rebels thereupon retreated and fled.

明年,權自將號十萬,至合肥新城。寵馳往赴,募壯士數十人,折松為炬,灌以麻油,從上風放火,燒賊攻具,射殺權弟子孫泰。賊於是引退。

Third year [235] spring, Quán sent several thousand military families to establish farms north of the Jiāng. In the eighth moon, Chǒng believed the [garrison-]farms were ready for harvest, and all the people male and female would be spread across the fields, with the garrisoned troops several hundred leagues away, and so they could be attacked by surprise. He sent his Chief Clerk to command the entire army eastward down the Jiāng, destroying all the garrisons, burning all the grain, and then returned. An Imperial Order praised this, and so the captured spoils were all distributed to the officers and soldiers as rewards.

三年春,權遣兵數千家佃於江北。至八月,寵以為田向收熟,男女布野,其屯衛兵去城遠者數百里,可掩擊也。遣長吏督三軍循江東下,摧破諸屯,焚燒穀物而還。詔美之,因以所獲盡為將士賞。


Jǐngchū second year [238], because of his great age Chǒng was summoned back, and appointed Grand Commandant. Chǒng did not manage property, and his household had no surplus wealth. An Imperial Order said: “You sir commanded troops outside and with all your heart served the public good, with the resemblance of Xíngfù and Zhài Zūn. We confer on you ten qīng of land, five hundred hú of grain, and two hundred thousand of cash, in order to honor your loyal and frugal character.”

景初二年,以寵年老徵還,遷為太尉。寵不治產業,家無餘財。詔曰:「君典兵在外,專心憂公,有行父、祭遵之風。賜田十頃,穀五百斛,錢二十萬,以明清忠儉約之節焉。」

Chǒng from beginning to end had reached a fief of 9600 households, and his son and grandson, two men, were titled as precinct Marquis.

寵前後增邑,凡九千六百戶,封子孫二人亭侯。

Zhèngshǐ third year [242] he died. His posthumous title was Jǐng-hóu “Visionary Marquis.” His son Wěi succeeded. Wěi for his good character became famous, and his office reached Minister of the Guard. (1)

正始三年薨,諡曰景侯。子偉嗣。偉以格度知名,官至衛尉。〔一〕

  • Shìyǔ states: Wěi appellation Gōnghéng. Wěi’s son Chángwǔ resembled [his grandfather] Chǒng. At age twenty-four he joined the staff of the General-in-Chief [Sīmǎ Zhāo]. After the incident with the Duke of Gāoguì village, he was appointed official in charge of the Palace Gates night gate.Sīmǎ [Zhāo]’s younger brother the Marquis of Ānyáng district [Sīmǎ] Gàn wished to enter. Gàn’s wife was Wěi’s younger sister. Chángwǔ said: “The lord has already come through this gate. No one is to enter. You may use the east night gate.” Gàn therefore went. When [Sīmǎ Zhāo] asked Gàn why he had arrived late, and Gàn said this was the reason.Military Advisor Wáng Xiàn also could not enter, and hated him, so he had [Sīmǎ Zhāo]’s attendants inform [Sīmǎ Zhāo]: “The official Mǎn closed off the gate and would not allow anyone to enter. He should be to dismissed and impeached.”During the Shòuchūn campaign Wěi followed [Sīmǎ Zhāo] to Xǔ, but because of illness could not continue. His son [Chángwǔ] was following and requested that they withdraw to treat the illness. Only after the campaign was finished did they return, and because of this they were hated. Chángwǔ died during interrogation [and torture] beneath the [beating] staff. Wěi was spared and demoted to commoner. The people of the time thought this was an injustice to them. Wěi’s brother’s son Fèn during Jìn’s Kāngzhōng reign [291-299] reached Director of the Secretariat and Colonel Director of Retainers.Chǒng, Wěi, Chángwǔ, Fèn were all eight feet [~1.85 meters] tall.
  • Xún Chuò’s Jìzhōujì states: Fèn by nature was honest and just, and knowledgeable and perceptive.
  • Jìnzhūgōngzàn states: Fèn’s body was even and elegant, and he resembled [his grandfather] Chǒng.

〔一〕 世語曰:偉字公衡。偉子長武,有寵風,年二十四,為大將軍掾。高貴鄉公之難,以掾守閶闔掖門,司馬文王弟安陽亭侯幹欲入。幹妃,偉妹也。長武謂幹曰:「此門近,公且來,無有入者,可從東掖門。」幹遂從之。文王問幹入何遲,幹言其故。參軍王羨亦不得入,恨之。既而羨因王左右啟王,滿掾斷門不內人,宜推劾。壽春之役,偉從文王至許,以疾不進。子從,求還省疾,事定乃從歸,由此內見恨。收長武考死杖下,偉免為庶人。時人冤之。偉弟子奮,晉元康中至尚書令、司隸校尉。寵、偉、長武、奮,皆長八尺。荀綽冀州記曰:奮性清平,有識檢。晉諸公贊曰:奮體量通雅,有寵風也。

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