(48.1) Sūn Liàng 孫亮 [Zǐmíng 子明]

Sūn Liàng, appellation Zǐmíng, was [Sūn] Quán’s youngest son. Quán was already old, while Liàng was the youngest, so he received special attention. His elder sister the Princess Quán [Sūn Lǔbān] had previously slandered the Heir-Apparent Hé and his mother and was [therefore] anxious, so she relied on [Sūn] Quán’s favor [for Sūn Liàng] and wished to establish a personal connection. She repeatedly praised Quán Shàng’s daughter, advising that she be wed to Liàng. Chìwū thirteenth year [250], Hé was deposed [as Heir-Apparent], and Quán established Liàng as Heir-Apparent, with the lady Quán as consort.

孫亮字子明,權少子也。權春秋高,而亮最少,故尤留意。姊全公主嘗譖太子和子母,心不自安,因倚權意,欲豫自結,數稱述全尚女,勸為亮納。赤烏十三年,和廢,權遂立亮為太子,以全氏為妃。


Tàiyáun [251] first year summer, Liàng’s mother lady Pān was installed as Empress. Winter, Quán was lying ill, and summoned General-in-Chief Zhūgě Kè to serve as Grand Tutor to the Heir-Apparent and Administrator of Kuàijī Téng Yìn as Minister of Ceremonies, to together receive Imperial Command to support the Heir-Apparent.

太元元年夏,亮母潘氏立為皇后。冬,權寢疾,徵大將軍諸葛恪為太子太傅,會稽太守滕胤為太常,並受詔輔太子。

The next year [252] fourth moon, Quán died. The Heir-Apparent at once took Imperial title, issued a Great Amnesty, and changed [the reign-title to Jiànxīng]. That year was Wèi [calendar’s] Jiāpíng fourth year [252].

明年四月,權薨,太子即尊號,大赦,改。是歲,於魏嘉平四年也。


Intercalary moon, Kè became Grand Tutor to the Emperor, Yìn became General of the Guard with command over the affairs of the Secretariat, Senior General-in-Chief Lǚ Dài became Marshal-in-Chief, and all the civil and military officials with fiefs were advanced in noble rank and bestowed with rewards, and the remaining officials [without fief] were advanced in office.

〔建興元年〕閏月,以恪為帝太傅,胤為衛將軍領尚書事,上大將軍呂岱為大司馬,諸文武在位皆進爵班賞,宂官加等。

Winter tenth moon, Grand Tutor Kè led the army to dam Cháohú and build the city Dōngxīng, sending General Quán Duān to defend the western city and Commandant Liú Lüè to defend the eastern city. Twelfth moon, beginning on bǐngshēn [Jan 17], there was great wind and lightning, and Wèi sent Generals Zhūgě Dàn, Hú Zūn, and others to command seventy thousand infantry and cavalry to besiege Dōngxīng, General Wáng Chǎng to attack Nán-jùn, and Guànqiū Jiǎn to advance on Wǔchāng.

冬十月,太傅恪率軍遏巢湖城東興,使將軍全端守西城,都尉留略守東城。十二月朔丙申,大風雷電,魏使將軍諸葛誕、胡遵等步騎七萬圍東興,將軍王昶攻南郡,毌丘儉向武昌。

Jiǎyín [Feb 4], Kè led a great army to oppose the enemy. Wùwǔ [Feb 8], the soldiers arrived at Dōngxīng, fought, and greatly defeated the Wèi army, killing Generals Hán Zòng, Huán Jiā, and others. That moon, there were thunderstorms that destroyed Wǔchāng’s Duān Gate. The Duān Gate was rebuilt, but there was another disaster [storm damage] inside the palace. (1)

甲寅,恪以大兵赴敵。戊午,兵及東興,交戰,大破魏軍,殺將軍韓綜、桓嘉等。是月,雷雨,天災武昌端門;改作端門,又災內殿。〔一〕

  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: Sūn Quán’s Chìwū tenth year [247], an Imperial Order moved the timber and tiles of Wǔchāng’s Palace to be used to repair and build Jiànkāng’s Palace, yet here there is still a Duān Gate inside the palace.
  • Wúlù says: Zhūgě Kè had the intention of moving the capital and building another Wǔchāng Palace. What was presently destroyed was what Kè had newly built.

〔一〕 臣松之案:孫權赤烏十年,詔徙武昌宮材瓦,以繕治建康宮,而此猶有端門內殿。吳錄云:諸葛恪有遷都意,更起武昌宮。今所災者恪所新作。


Second year [253], spring, first moon, bǐngyín [Feb 17], lady Quán was installed as empress, and there was a Great Amnesty. Gēngwǔ, Wáng Chǎng and the other [Wèi officers] all retreated. Second moon, the [Wú] army returned from Dōngxīng, and many fiefs and rewards were bestowed.

二年春正月丙寅,立皇后全氏,大赦。庚午,王昶等皆退。二月,軍還自東興,大行封賞。

Third moon, Kè led the army to attack Wèi. Summer, fourth moon, they besieged Xīnchéng [at Héféi]. There was a great epidemic, and over half of the soldiers died. Autumn, eighth moon, Kè led the army back.

三月,恪率軍伐魏。夏四月,圍新城,大疫,兵卒死者大半。秋八月,恪引軍還。

Winter, tenth moon, there was a great feast. General of the Guard Sūn Jùn led hidden troops to ambush and kill Kè in the palace hall. A Great Amnesty [was issued], and Jùn became Chancellor, with fief as Marquis of Fùchūn. Eleventh moon, five giant birds were spotted at Chūnshēn, so the next year the reign title was changed.

冬十月,大饗。武衛將軍孫峻伏兵殺恪於殿堂。大赦。以峻為丞相,封富春侯。十一月,有大鳥五見于春申,(明年改)〔改明年〕元。


Wǔfèng [meaning “Five Phoenixes,” see above] first year [254] summer, great floods. Autumn, Marquis of Wú [Sūn] Yīng plotted to kill Jùn, was discovered, and Yīng committed suicide. Winter, eleventh moon, a comet crossed the Dǒu and Niú [constellations]. (1)

五鳳元年夏,大水。秋,吳侯英謀殺峻,覺,英自殺。冬十一月,星茀于斗、牛。〔一〕

  • (1) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: That year in Jiāozhǐ, bài [type of grain] grasses transformed into planted fields of dào [type of grain].

〔一〕 江表傳曰:是歲交阯稗草化為稻。

Second year [255] spring first moon, Wèi General-in-Chief Defending the East Guànqiū Jiǎn and General of the Front Wén Qīn led the armies of Huáinán west and fought at Yuèjiā. Intercalary moon, rénchén [Mar 1], Jùn and General of Elite Cavalry Lǚ Jù and General of the Left Liú Zàn led troops to attack Shòuchūn. The army arrived at Dōngxīng, and heard that Qīn and the others had been defeated. Rényín [Mar 14], the troops advanced to Tuógāo, and Qīn came to Jùn to surrender. Huáinán’s remaining armies of several tens of thousands came to submit. Wèi’s [General] Zhūgě Dàn entered Shòuchūn. Jùn led the army back.

二年春正月,魏鎮東大將軍毌丘儉、前將軍文欽以淮南之眾西入,戰于樂嘉。閏月壬辰,峻及驃騎將軍呂據、左將軍留贊率兵襲壽春,軍及東興,聞欽等敗。壬寅,兵進于橐皋,欽詣峻降,淮南餘眾數萬口來奔。魏諸葛誕入壽春,峻引軍還。

Second moon, they fought with Wèi General Cáo Zhēn at Gāotíng, and Zhēn was completely defeated. Liú Zàn was defeated by Dàn’s separate officer Jiǎng Bān at Gūbēi. Zàn and Generals Sūn Léng, Jiǎng Xiū and others all encountered harm. Third moon, General Defending the South Zhū Yì was sent to attack Ānfēng, but was unsuccessful.

二月,及魏將軍曹珍遇于高亭,交戰,珍敗績。留贊為誕別將蔣班所敗于菰陂,贊及將軍孫楞、蔣脩等皆遇害。三月,使鎮南將軍朱異襲安豐,不克。

Autumn seventh moon, Generals Sūn Yí, Zhāng Yí, Lín Xún, and others plotted to kill [Sūn] Jùn, and were discovered. [Sūn] Yí killed himself, and Xún and the others went into hiding. A large stone on Lílǐ mountain in Yángxiàn stood up on its own.

秋七月,將軍孫儀、張怡、林恂等謀殺峻,發覺,儀自殺,恂等伏辜。陽羨離里山大石自立。

Minister of the Guard Féng Cháo was sent to fortify Guǎnglíng, General Wú Ráng was appointed Administrator of Guǎnglíng, and Liú Lüè was appointed Administrator of Dōnghǎi.

使衛尉馮朝城廣陵,拜將軍吳穰為廣陵太守,留略為東海太守。

That year there was a great drought.

是歲大旱。

Twelfth moon, the Tài “Grand” Temple [for Sūn Quán] was built. An envoy was sent to appoint Féng Cháo Supervisor of the Army, with command over all the military affairs of Xúzhōu. The people were starving and the soldiers resentful.

十二月,作太廟。以馮朝為監軍使者,督徐州諸軍事,民饑,軍士怨畔。


Tàipíng first year [256] spring, (1) beginning of the second moon, there was a fire at Jiànyè.

太平元年春〔一〕二月朔,建業火。

  • Wúlì states: First moon, a Temple was established for [Sūn] Quán, called Tàizǔ “Grand Founder” Temple.

〔一〕 吳歷曰:正月,為權立廟,稱太祖廟。

[Sūn] Jùn employed General-in-Chief Attacking the North Wén Qīn’s plan and commanded an expedition against Wèi. Eighth moon, he sent ahead Qīn and [General of] Elite Cavalry Lǚ Jù, [General of] Chariots and Cavalry Liú Zuǎn, [General] Defending the South Zhū Yì, and General of the Front Táng Zī to lead their armies from Jiāngdū to enter the region of the rivers Huái and Sì.

峻用征北大將軍文欽計,將征魏。八月,先遣欽及驃騎〔將軍〕呂據、車騎〔將軍〕劉纂、鎮南〔將軍〕朱異、前將軍唐咨軍自江都入淮、泗。

Ninth moon, dīnghài [Oct 19], Jùn died. His younger cousin Assistant General [Sūn] Chēn became Palace Attendant, General of the Martial Guard, with authority over all military affairs inside and out, and summoned back [Lǚ] Jù and the others, who heard Chēn had succeeded Jùn and were furious.

九月丁亥,峻卒,以從弟偏將軍綝為侍中、武衛將軍,領中外諸軍事,召還據等。〔據〕聞綝代峻,大怒。

Jǐchǒu [Oct 21], Marshal-in-Chief Lǚ Dài died. Rénchén [Oct 24], Tàibái [Venus] crossed the southern dǒu [dipper constellation]. Jù, Qīn, Zī, and the rest memorialized to recommend General of the Guard Téng Yìn as Chancellor. Chēn would not listen. Guǐmǎo [Nov 4], Yìn was appointed Marshal-in-Chief to succeed Lǚ Dài and garrison Wǔchāng. Jù led his troops back, and wished to attack Chēn. Chēn sent an envoy with a written Imperial Order to send Qīn, Zī, and others to arrest Jù.

己丑,大司馬呂岱卒。壬辰,太白犯南斗。據、欽、咨等表薦衛將軍滕胤為丞相,綝不聽。癸卯,更以胤為大司馬,代呂岱駐武昌。據引兵還,欲討綝。綝遣使以詔書告喻欽、咨等,使取據。

Winter, tenth moon, dīngwèi [Nov 8], Sūn Xiàn with Dīng Fèng, Shī Kuān, and others were sent with ships and troops to attack Jù at Jiāngdū, and Liú Chéng was sent to command infantry and cavalry to attack Yìn. Yìn and his troops were defeated and exterminated. Jǐyǒu [Nov 10], there was a Great Amnesty, and the reign-title was changed. Xīnhài [Nov 12], Lǚ Jù was captured at Xīnzhōu. Eleventh moon, Chēn was appointed General-in-Chief with Acting Staff of Authority and given fief as Marquis of Yǒngníng. Sūn Xiàn and General Wáng Dūn plotted to kill Chēn, the affair was discovered, and Chēn killed Dūn and forced Xiàn to commit suicide. Twelfth moon, Five Office Internal Cadet-General Diāo Xuán was sent to inform Shǔ of the disorder.

冬十月丁未,遣孫憲及丁奉、施寬等以舟兵逆據於江都,遣將軍劉丞督步騎攻胤。胤兵敗夷滅。己酉,大赦,改年。辛亥,獲呂據於新州。十一月,以綝為大將軍、假節,封(永康侯)〔永寧侯〕。孫憲與將軍王惇謀殺綝,事覺,綝殺惇,迫憲令自殺。十二月,使五官中郎將刁玄告亂于蜀。


Second year [257], spring, second moon, jiǎyín [Apr 4], heavy rain and shaking thunder. Yǐmǎo [Apr 5], snow and bitter cold. Chángshā’s eastern part became Xiāngdōng prefecture and western part became Héngyáng prefecture. Kuàijī’s eastern part became Línhǎi prefecture. Yùzhāng‘s eastern part became Línchuān prefecture.

二年春二月甲寅,大雨,震電。乙卯,雪,大寒。以長沙東部為湘東郡,西部為衡陽郡,會稽東部為臨海郡,豫章東部為臨川郡。

Summer, fourth moon, [Sūn] Liàng personally oversaw the main hall, issued a Great Amnesty, and for the first time personally governed affairs. The memorials that Chēn sent often received difficult questions. He also gathered the younger relatives of troops younger than eighteen and older than fifteen, obtaining over three thousand people. He chose the younger relatives of great officers who had courage and strength to serve as the commanding officers. Liàng said: “I established this army, so that we can grow up together.” Every day they practiced drills within the [palace] gardens. (1)

夏四月,亮臨正殿,大赦,始親政事。綝所表奏,多見難問,又科兵子弟年十八已下十五已上,得三千餘人,選大將子弟年少有勇力者為之將帥。亮曰:「吾立此軍,欲與之俱長。」日於苑中習焉。〔一〕

  • (1) Wúlì states: Liàng repeatedly went to the internal library to inspect Sūn Quán’s former affairs, and asked his attendants and servants: “The former Emperor often issued special Edicts [to discuss things with officials], yet now whenever the General-in-Chief [Sūn Chēn] asks about affairs, he orders me only to write approval?” Liàng later went out to the west garden, and wished to eat unripe plums. He sent to Yellow Gate [attendant] to the palace storehouse to fetch honey to soak the plums. Inside the honey were rat droppings. He summoned and interrogated the storehouse official, and the storehouse officials bowed his head to the ground. Liàng asked the official: “Did the Yellow Gate attendant request this honey from you?” The official said: “He requested, but I did not dare take part in this.” The Yellow Gate attendant did not corroborate this. Palace Attendants Diāo Xuán and Zhāng Bīn said: “The Yellow Gate’s and storehouse official’s words do not agree. We ask they be handed over to prison to investigate this.” Liàng said: “This is very easy to resolve.” He ordered the rat droppings be broken open, and inside the droppings were dry. Liàng greatly laughed and said to Xuán and Bīn: “If the droppings were freshly placed in the honey, both inside and out would be moist. Now the droppings are moist outside and dry inside, so it must certainly be the Yellow Gate’s doing. The Yellow Gate confessed, and among the attendants none were not startled.
  • Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: Liàng sent the Yellow Gate attendant with a silver bowl and lid to the palace storehouse to fetch sugar syrup sent from Jiāozhōu. The Yellow Gate had a grudge against the storehouse official, placed rat droppings in the syrup, and said that the storehouse official was negligent. Liàng called over the official to bring the syrup container, and asked him: “This container is covered and moreover is filled to the top, so there was no opportunity for this to happen. Does the Yellow Gate have a grudge against you?” The official bowed his head to the ground and said: “Once he asked for mats from the Palace. The Palace mats are counted, so I did not dare agree.” Liàng said: “This must be it.” He again asked the Yellow Gate, who confessed, and was immediately shaved of hair and beaten, and sent to the outer bureau.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes that if the rat droppings were new, then both outside and inside would be moist. If the Yellow Gate used new droppings then his crime would never have been found. He had to use dry droppings in order to demonstrate Liàng’s intelligence. Therefore what Wúlì states here is not as accurate as Jiāngbiǎozhuàn.

〔一〕 吳歷曰:亮數出中書視孫權舊事,問左右侍臣:「先帝數有特制,今大將軍問事,但令我書可邪!」亮後出西苑,方食生梅,使黃門至中藏取蜜漬梅,蜜中有鼠矢,召問藏吏,藏吏叩頭。亮問吏曰:「黃門從汝求蜜邪?」吏曰:「向求,實不敢與。」黃門不服,侍中刁玄、張邠啟:「黃門、藏吏辭語不同,請付獄推盡。」亮曰:「此易知耳。」令破鼠矢,矢裏燥。亮大笑謂玄、邠曰:「若矢先在蜜中,中外當俱濕,今外濕裏燥,必是黃門所為。」黃門首服,左右莫不驚悚。江表傳曰:亮使黃門以銀碗并蓋就中藏吏取交州所獻甘蔗餳。黃門先恨藏吏,以鼠矢投餳中,啟言藏吏不謹。亮呼吏持餳器入,問曰:「此器既蓋之,且有掩覆,無緣有此,黃門將有恨於汝邪?」吏叩頭曰:「嘗從某求宮中莞席,宮席有數,不敢與。」亮曰:「必是此也。」覆問黃門,具首伏。即於目前加髡鞭,斥付外署。臣松之以為鼠矢新者,亦表裏皆濕。黃門取新矢則無以得其姦也,緣遇燥矢,故成亮之慧。然猶謂吳歷此言,不如江表傳為實也。


Fifth moon, Wèi General-in-Chief Attacking the East Zhūgě Dàn led the armies of Huáinán to defend Shòuchūn city and sent General Zhū Chéng to present a memorial to pledge fealty [to Wú]. He also sent his son Jìng, Chief Clerk Wú Gāng and all the younger relatives of his Standard as hostages. Sixth moon, Wén Qīn, Táng Zī, Quán Duān, and others led thirty thousand infantry and cavalry to rescue Dàn. Zhū Yì led his army from Hǔlín to attack Xiàkǒu. Commander of Xiàkǒu Sūn Yī defected to Wèi. Autumn seventh moon, Chēn led his army to rescue Shòuchūn, and arrived at Huòlǐ. Zhū Yì came from Xiàkǒu, and Chēn sent Yì to command the front, with Dīng Fèng and others to lead fifty thousand armored troops to break the siege.

五月,魏征東大將軍諸葛誕以淮南之眾保壽春城,遣將軍朱成稱臣上疏,又遣子靚、長史吳綱諸牙門子弟為質。六月,使文欽、唐咨、全端等步騎三萬救誕。朱異自虎林率眾襲夏口,夏口督孫壹奔魏。秋七月,綝率眾救壽春,次于鑊里,朱異至自夏口,綝使異為前部督,與丁奉等將介士五萬解圍。

Eighth moon, Kuàijī’s southern part rebelled, killing the [commandery’s] Commandant. The people of Póyáng and Xīndū rebelled. Minister of Justice Dīng Mì, Infantry Colonel Zhèng Zhòu, and General Zhōnglí Mù led their armies to suppress them. Zhū Yì because his army’s food supplies were exhausted retreated. Chēn was furious. Ninth moon, beginning on jǐsì [Sep 26], [Sūn Chēn] killed Yì at Huòlǐ. Xīnwèi [Sep 28], Chēn returned from Huòlǐ to Jiànyè. Jiǎshēn [Oct 11], a Great Amnesty was issued.

八月,會稽南部反,殺都尉。鄱陽、新都民為亂,廷尉丁密、步兵校尉鄭冑、將軍鍾離牧率軍討之。朱異以軍士乏食引還,綝大怒,九月朔己巳,殺異於鑊里。辛未,綝自鑊里還建業。甲申,大赦。

Eleventh moon, Quán Xù’s sons Yī and Yí with their mother defected to Wèi. Twelfth moon, Quán Duān, [Quán] Yì, and others went from Shòuchūn city to surrender to Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng.

十一月,全緒子禕、儀以其母奔魏。十二月,全端、懌等自壽春城詣司馬文王。


Third year [258] spring, first moon, Zhūgě Dàn killed Wén Qīn. Third moon, Sīmǎ Wén-wáng overcame Shòuchūn. Dàn and his attendants died in battle. The officers and officials down all surrendered. Autumn seventh moon, former King of Qí [Sūn] Fèn was given fief as Marquis of Zhāng’ān. An Imperial Order was sent to the provinces and prefectures to send timber for a palace.

三年春正月,諸葛誕殺文欽。三月,司馬文王克壽春,誕及左右戰死,將吏已下皆降。秋七月,封故齊王奮為章安侯。詔州郡伐宮材。

From the eighth moon there were rain clouds without rain for over forty days. Liàng, because Chēn acted without restraint, plotted with Minister of Ceremonies Quán Shàng and General Liú Chéng to execute Chēn. Ninth moon wùwǔ [Sep 9], Chēn led troops to arrest Shàng, and sent his younger brother [Sūn] Ēn to attack and kill Chéng outside Cānglóng “Blue Dragon” Gate. He summoned all the chief officials to a meeting outside the palace gates, and deposed Liàng to King of Kuàijī. At the time [Sūn Liàng] was aged sixteen years.

自八月沈陰不雨四十餘日。亮以綝專恣,與太常全尚,將軍劉丞謀誅綝。九月戊午,綝以兵取尚,遣弟恩攻殺丞於蒼龍門外,召大臣會宮門,黜亮為會稽王,時年十六。

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