(40.1) Liú Fēng 劉封

Liú Fēng was originally the Marquis of Luó’s Kòu clan’s son, Chángshā’s Liú clan’s sister’s son. When Xiān-zhǔ [Liú Bèi] arrived at Jīngzhōu, as he did not yet have an heir, he adopted Fēng as a son. When Xiān-zhǔ entered Shǔ [211] and from Jiāméng returned to attack Liú Zhāng [212], at the time Fēng was over twenty years, had military skill and talent surpassing others, and commanded troops together with Zhūgě Liàng, Zhāng Fēi, and others to go upriver and up to the west, and wherever he battled he was successful. When Yìzhōu was settled, Fēng was appointed Internal Cadet-General of the Assistant Army.

劉封者,本羅侯寇氏之子,長沙劉氏之甥也。先主至荊州,以未有繼嗣,養封為子。及先主入蜀,自葭萌還攻劉璋,時封年二十餘,有武藝,氣力過人,將兵俱與諸葛亮、張飛等泝流西上,所在戰克。益州既定,以封為副軍中郎將。


Previously, Liú Zhāng sent Mèng Dá of Fúfēng as assistant to Fǎ Zhèng, each commanding troops 2000 men, sending them to invite Xiān-zhǔ, and Xiān-zhǔ therefore ordered Dá to combine and command their armies to remain to garrison Jiānglíng. After Shǔ was pacified, Dá was appointed Administrator of Yídū.

初,劉璋遣扶風孟達副法正,各將兵二千人,使迎先主,先主因令達并領其眾,留屯江陵。蜀平後,以達為宜都太守。

Jiàn’ān twenty-fourth year [219], orders sent Dá from Zǐguī to go north to attack Fánglíng, and Administrator of Fánglíng Kuǎi Qí was by Dá’s troops killed. Dá was about to advance and attack Shàngyōng, but Xiān-zhǔ secretly feared Dá was difficult to be entrusted alone, and therefore sent Fēng to from Hànzhōng ride the Miǎn river down to join with Dá’s army, with Dá meeting at Shàngyōng. Administrator of Shàngyōng Shēn Dān led his army to surrender, sending his wives and children and clansmen to Chéngdū [as hostages]. Xiān-zhǔ added office to Dān as General Attacking the North, with office as Administrator of Shàngyōng and fief as Marquis of Yuánxiāng as before, and appointed Dān’s younger brother Yí as General Establishing Faith and Administrator of Xīchéng, and sent Fēng as General of the Assistant Army.

建安二十四年,命達從秭歸北攻房陵,房陵太守蒯祺為達兵所害。達將進攻上庸,先主陰恐達難獨任,乃遣封自漢中乘沔水下統達軍,與達會上庸。上庸太守申耽舉眾降,遣妻子及宗族詣成都。先主加耽征北將軍,領上庸太守員鄉侯如故,以耽弟儀為建信將軍、西城太守,遷封為副軍將軍。

When Guān Yǔ besieged Fánchéng and Xiāngyáng, he repeatedly called on Fēng and Dá, ordering them to send troops to assist him. Fēng and Dá declined as the mountainous prefectures were recently submitted so they could not destabilize them, and did not obey Yǔ’s orders. When Yǔ was overthrown and defeated, Xiān-zhǔ hated them. Also, Fēng and Dá angrily quarreled and were not at peace, and Fēng confiscated Dá’s drums and flutes. Dá both feared he would be condemned, and also was angry with Fēng, and therefore memorialized a farewell to Xiān-zhǔ and led those he commanded to surrender to Wèi. (1)

自關羽圍樊城、襄陽,連呼封、達,令發兵自助。封、達辭以山郡初附,未可動搖,不承羽命。會羽覆敗,先主恨之。又封與達忿爭不和,封尋奪達鼓吹。達既懼罪,又忿恚封,遂表辭先主,率所領降魏。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè records Dá’s farewell to Xiān-zhǔ memorial: “I bow to Your Highness who is about to establish the enterprise of Yī [Yǐn] and Lǚ [Shàng], pursue the achievement of [Qí] Huán[-gōng] and [Jìn] Wén[-gōng], the great affairs have begun, imitating the power of Wú and Chǔ, and therefore have become one who scholars deeply observe and submit with interest. I your Servant ever since submitting my pledge, accumulated up faults and violations as mountains. I your Servant am self aware, so all the more for you lord! Now the Ruling Court has risen, and great heroes surround and gather. I your Servant inside have no ability to serve as an assistant official and outside have no talent to serve as a military officer, and so standing among the accomplished ministers I am truly ashamed. I your Servant have heard that Fàn Lǐ knew his lesser state and floated across five lakes; for faults and violations he apologized for crimes, and drew back up the river. When among opportunities, I ask to resign. Why so? One wishes to make a clear dividing line to depart. Moreover, I your Servant am contemptible, and have no fundamental achievements or tremendous merits. In consideration of the times, I humbly admire previous worthies, and early think over distant disgraces. In the past Shēn Shēng was most filial but met suspicion from his parents, Zǐxū was most loyal but met execution from his lord, Méng Tián developed the border but was greatly punished, Yuè Yì defeated Qí but was slandered. Every time I your Servant reads of them in writings, never once have I not greatly wept, and imitate their affairs, valuing their injuries and loss. Why is this? Jīngzhōu was overturned and defeated, great officials lost authority, of a hundred not one returned. I your Servant considered affairs and delivered Fánglíng and Shàngyōng, and yet must resign, and be released to go outside. I submit and hope that Your Highness with sacred grace can appreciate this, mourn for your Servant’s heart and lament for your Servant’s deeds. I your Servant am truly a petty man, and cannot serve from beginning to end, and when aware of this can yet act like this and dare say I am without crime! I your Servant whenever cutting off relations do not make malicious sounds, and when leaving position as servant do not make blaiming words. I your Servant go to accept orders and teachings from a Superior Gentleman, and hope that you King will do your utmost.”

Wèi Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] admired Dá’s appearance and ability, and appointed him Cavalier Regular Attendant, General Establishing Martial ability, with fief as Marquis of Píngyáng precinct. He joined Fánglíng, Shàngyōng, and Xīchéng, three prefectures [to form Xīnchéng prefecture] and gave Dá office as Administrator of Xīnchéng. He sent General Attacking the South Xiàhóu Shàng, General of the Right Xú Huǎng together with Dá to attack Fēng.

魏文帝善達之姿才容觀,以為散騎常侍、建武將軍,封平陽亭侯。合房陵、上庸、西城三郡〔為新城郡,以〕達領新城太守。遣征南將軍夏侯尚、右將軍徐晃與達共襲封。

Dá wrote a letter to Fēng:

達與封書曰:

“The ancient peoples had a saying: ‘the distant are not placed among kin, the new are not added to the old.’ This is to say that when the superiors are bright and the subordinates upright, slander and evil thoughts do not work. If there is one who then coerces the lord and deceives the ruler, than even with worthy fathers with compassion to kin, still there are loyal officials with achievements who suffer calamity, and filial sons who harbor benevolence who are trapped in disaster. [Wén] Zhǒng, Shāng [Yāng], Bái Qǐ, Xiào Jǐ, and Bó Qí were all of this sort. That this should be so, is not that flesh and bone kin enjoy separation or family take pleasure in hatred. Some are favor moving and love changing, and also some are slander spreading between. Even a loyal official cannot move their lord, and a filial son cannot change his father. When the power-seekers are employed, they change kinsmen into enemies, so all the more for those who are not true kinsmen! That is why though Shēn Shēng, Wèi Jí, Yù Kòu, and Chǔ Jiàn were all worthy to be entrusted, and should have been successors by right, yet they all ended the same.

“Now you sir and the King of Hànzhōng [Liú Bèi] are only men who’s paths crossed and that is all. Your kinship is not true bone and flesh and yet you hold authority, and your relation is not lord and minister and yet you hold senior position. In campaigns you hold authority in supporting appointments, and in occupations you have title as assisting the army, and far and near all have heard of you. But ever since Ādǒu [Liú Shàn] was established as Heir-Apparent, there are those who note this and are on your behalf disappointed. If Shēn Shēng had followed Zǐyú’s words then he would have certainly been Tàibó; if Wèi Jí had listened to his younger brother’s plan, he would have not suffered his father’s ridicule. Moreover Xiǎobái [Qí Huán-gōng] fled into exile, but returned to become Hegemon; Chóngěr [Jìn Wén-gōng] fled over the wall, but in the end conquered and returned. From ancient times it is like this, not only now.

古人有言:『疏不閒親,新不加舊。』此謂上明下直,讒慝不行也。若乃權君譎主,賢父慈親,猶有忠臣蹈功以罹禍,孝子抱仁以陷難,種、商、白起、孝己、伯奇,皆其類也。其所以然,非骨肉好離,親親樂患也。或有恩移愛易,亦有讒閒其閒,雖忠臣不能移之於君,孝子不能變之於父者也。勢利所加,改親為讎,況非親親乎!故申生、衛伋、禦寇、楚建稟受形之氣,當嗣立之正,而猶如此。今足下與漢中王,道路之人耳,親非骨血而據勢權,義非君臣而處上位,征則有偏任之威,居則有副軍之號,遠近所聞也。自立阿斗為太子已來,有識之人相為寒心。如使申生從子輿之言,必為太伯;衛伋聽其弟之謀,無彰父之譏也。且小白出奔,入而為霸;重耳踰垣,卒以克復。自古有之,非獨今也。

“To be wise and noble is to escape calamity, to be bright and esteemed is to early reach out. I your lesser estimate that the King of Hànzhōng [Liú Bèi] is anxious of settling the interior, and has become suspicious of the exterior; when his anxiety is settled then his heart will be hard, when suspicions are born then his heart will be afraid, chaos and calamity will rise up and break out, and never before has this not been due to issues of abolishing the established. Privately he has resentments, which cannot but be noticed, and I fear his attendants will certainly drive this between you and the King of Hànzhōng. That being the case suspicion will become resentment, and that will be like kicking off a machine and that is all. Now you sir are far, and cannot be at ease for any time; if our great army then advances, you sir will lose your position and return, and I humbly fear you will be in danger. In the past Wēi-zǐ left Yīn, wisely leaving his own kin, leaving disaster and turning his back on calamity, and in all circumstances it is as it is now. (2)

“Now you sir leave father and mother to become another man’s descendant, and this is not propriety; you know calamity is about to arrive and yet you remain, and this is not wisdom; you meet the correct but do not follow and instead suspect it, and this is not righteousness. You call yourself a man, but with these three things, how can you be noble? If you sir use your ability and leave them to come east, you will succeed as Marquis of Luó, and this will not be turning your back on your kin; if you face north and serve the lord and by this maintain law and order, this will not be abandoning the old; though this will cause anger it will not reach the level of chaos, and you will escape danger and destruction, and this will not be futile action.

“Moreover His Majesty has newly accepted the abdication and Mandate, with modest heart attends to guests, and with virtue cherishes the distant. If you sir can quickly change your inner direction, then not only can you match rank with I your lesser, receive a 300 household fief, succeed to the Luó state and nothing more, you could instead further receive the seal of a great state and become the founding lord of a fief.

“His Majesty’s great army with metal drums shakes, and is about to recover Wǎn and Dèng. While the two enemies are not pacified, the army will never retreat. You sir should take this time to early settle on a good plan. The [jīng] has the saying ‘With rewards meet great men,’ and the Shī[jīng] has the saying ‘To rescue oneself is much fortune,’ so act. Now you sir must make an effort, and not like a fox close the gates and not come out.”

夫智貴免禍,明尚夙達,僕揆漢中王慮定於內,疑生於外矣;慮定則心固,疑生則心懼,亂禍之興作,未曾不由廢立之間也。私怨人情,不能不見,恐左右必有以閒於漢中王矣。然則疑成怨聞,其發若踐機耳。今足下在遠,尚可假息一時;若大軍遂進,足下失據而還,竊相為危之。昔微子去殷,智果別族,違難背禍,猶皆如斯〔二〕。今足下棄父母而為人後,非禮也;知禍將至而留之,非智也;見正不從而疑之,非義也。自號為丈夫,為此三者,何所貴乎?以足下之才,棄身來東,繼嗣羅侯,不為背親也;北面事君,以正綱紀,不為棄舊也;怒不致亂,以免危亡,不為徒行也。加陛下新受禪命,虛心側席,以德懷遠,若足下翻然內向,非但與僕為倫,受三百戶封,繼統羅國而已,當更剖符大邦,為始封之君。陛下大軍,金鼓以震,當轉都宛、鄧;若二敵不平,軍無還期。足下宜因此時早定良計。易有『利見大人』,詩有『自求多福』,行矣。今足下勉之,無使狐突閉門不出。

  • (2) Guóyǔ states: Zhì Xuān-zǐ was about to appoint Yáo as his descendant, and Zhì Guǒ said: “He is not as good as Xiāo.” Xuān-zǐ said: “Xiāo is too contrary.” He answered: “Xiāo is contrary to one’s face. Yáo’s worthiness to men are five, and his reasons not to be used are one. His great beard and size is worthy, his powerful shooting and driving is worthy, his outstanding skill and art is worthy, his skillful writing and eloquence is worthy, his determination and staunchness is worthy. It is this, but he is deeply not benevolent. With these five things he can dominate other men, but he acts without benevolence towards them, so who can work with him! If you indeed enthrone Yáo, then the Zhì clan will certainly be destroyed.” He did not listen. Zhì Guǒ left his clan to join the Tàishǐ clan to found the Fǔ clan. When the Zhì clan perished, only Fǔ Guǒ [formerly Zhì Guǒ] remained.

〔二〕 國語曰:智宣子將以瑤為後,智果曰:「不如霄也。」宣子曰:「霄也佷。」對曰:「霄也佷在面,瑤之賢於人者五,其不逮者一也。美鬚長大則賢,射御足力則賢,技藝畢給則賢,巧文辯惠則賢,彊毅果敢則賢,如是而甚不仁;以五者賢陵人,而不仁行之,其誰能待之!若果立瑤也。智宗必滅。」不聽。智果別族于太史氏為輔氏。及智氏亡,惟輔果在焉。

Fēng did not listen to Dá’s words.

封不從達言。


Shēn Yí rebelled against Fēng, and Fēng was defeated and fled back to Chéngdū. Shēn Dān surrendered to Wèi, and Wèi brevet appointed Dān General Gathering Together and moved him to Nányáng, Yí as Administrator of Wèixīng with fief as Marquis of Yuánxiāng, garrisoning Xúnkǒu. (1)

申儀叛封,封破走還成都。申耽降魏,魏假耽懷集將軍,徙居南陽,儀魏興太守,封(真鄉侯)〔員鄉侯〕,屯洵口。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: Shēn Yí’s elder brother was named Dān appellation Yìjǔ. Previously at Xīpíng and Shàngyōng he gathered a following of several thousand families, afterward associated with Zhāng Lǔ, and also sent an envoy to Lord Cáo, and Lord Cáo added him title as a General and therefore gave office as Commandant of Shàngyōng. Reaching the end of Jiàn’ān [196-220] he was by Shǔ attacked, and so his commandery joined the west. During Huángchū [220-226] Yí again came to return, and an Imperial Order at once gave his elder brother’s former title to Yí and appointed him Administrator of Wèixīng with fief as a full Marquis. During Tàihé [227-233] Yí with Mèng Dá were not at peace, and repeatedly sent up reports that Dá had second thoughts with Shǔ. When Dá rebelled, Yí cut off the roads to Shǔ, and the sent rescue did not arrive. After Dá died, Yí visited Wǎn and met Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng, and Xuān-wáng urged him to come to Court. [Shēn] Yí arrived at the capital, and Imperial Order transferred [Shēn] Yí to General of Tower Ships, at Lǐqǐngzhōng.

〔一〕 魏略曰:申儀兄名耽,字義舉。初在西平、上庸間聚眾數千家,後與張魯通,又遣使詣曹公,曹公加其號為將軍,因使領上庸都尉。至建安末,為蜀所攻,以其郡西屬。黃初中,儀復來還,詔即以兄故號加儀,因拜魏興太守,封列侯。太和中,儀與孟達不和,數上言達有貳心於蜀,及達反,儀絕蜀道,使救不到。達死後,儀詣宛見司馬宣王,宣王勸使來朝。儀至京師,詔轉拜儀樓船將軍,在禮請中。

When Fēng arrived, Xiān-zhǔ blamed Fēng for antagonizing [Mèng] Dá and also for not rescuing [Guān] Yǔ. Zhūgě Liàng was anxious that Fēng was strong and brave, and after the change in generations [after Liú Bèi dies and Liú Shàn succeeds] would in the end be difficult to control, and urged Xiān-zhǔ to for this reason get rid of him. Therefore Fēng was bestowed with death and ordered to kill himself. Fēng sighed and said: “I regret not following Mèng Zǐdù’s advice.” Xiān-zhǔ wept for him.

封既至,先主責封之侵陵達,又不救羽。諸葛亮慮封剛猛,易世之後終難制御,勸先主因此除之。於是賜封死,使自裁。封歎曰:「恨不用孟子度之言!」先主為之流涕。

Dá’s original appellation was Zǐjìng, but to avoid [the name of] Xiān-zhǔ’s father’s younger brother [Liú] Jìng changed it. (2)

達本字子敬,避先主叔父敬,改之。〔二〕

  • (2) Fēng’s son Lín became General of the Ivory Gates. Xiánxī Inaugural Year [263] he was moved inward to Hédōng. Dá’s son Xīng became Commentator to Commander of the Army, and that year returned to Fúfēng.

〔二〕 封子林為牙門將,咸熙元年內移河東。達子興為議督軍,是歲徙還扶風。

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