(6.4) Liú Biǎo 劉表 [Jǐngshēng 景升]

Liú Biǎo appellation Jǐngshēng was a Shānyáng Gāopíng man. From youth he was well known, and called one of the Eight Eminences. (1) He was over eight chǐ [~1.85m] tall, and his appearance was deeply imposing. As an official of the General-in-Chief he became North Army Central Captain.

劉表字景升,山陽高平人也。少知名,號八俊。〔一〕長八尺餘,姿貌甚偉。以大將軍掾為北軍中候。

  • (1) Zhāng Fán’s Hànjì states: Biǎo with people of the same prefecture Zhāng Yǐn, Xuē Yù, Wáng Fǎng, Xuān Jìng, Gōngxù Gōng, Liú Zhī, and Tián Lín were eight friends, and some called them the Eight Watchers.
  • Hànmò Míngshì Lù says: Biǎo with Rǔnán’s Chén Xiáng appellation Zhònglín, Fàn Pāng appellation Mèngbó, Lǔ-guó’s Kǒng Yù appelation Shìyuán, Bóhǎi’s Yuàn Kāng appellation Zhòngzhēn, Shānyáng’s Tán Fū appellation Wényǒu, Zhāng Jiǎn appellation Yuánjié, Nányáng Cén Zhì appellation Gōngxiào were eight friends.
  • Xiè Chéng’s Hòuhànshū states: Biǎo received studies from the same prefecture’s Wáng Chàng. Chàng became Administrator of Nányáng, and his conduct was exceedingly frugal. Biǎo at the time was seventeen years, and went forward to remonstrate: “Extravagance not usurping superiors and frugality not exceeding inferiors is the way of the central mean. That is why Qú Bóyù was shamed to alone be a superior gentleman. If you governor do not follow the sage Kǒng’s enlightened teachings, and instead [Bó] Yí and [Shū] Qí’s final actions, that is only to show off how you separate yourself from the world!” Chàng answered: “Those who are economical but lose their way are rare. Moreover it can rectify customs.”

〔一〕 張璠漢紀曰:表與同郡人張隱、薛郁、王訪、宣靖、(公褚恭)〔公緒恭〕、劉祗、田林為八交,或謂之八顧。漢末名士錄云:表與汝南陳翔字仲麟、范滂字孟博、魯國孔昱字世元、勃海苑康字仲真、山陽檀敷字文友、張儉字元節、南陽岑晊字公孝為八友。謝承後漢書曰:表受學於同郡王暢。暢為南陽太守,行過乎儉。表時年十七,進諫曰:「奢不僭上,儉不逼下,蓋中庸之道,是故蘧伯玉恥獨為君子。府君若不師孔聖之明訓,而慕夷齊之末操,無乃皎然自遺於世!」暢答曰:「以約失之者鮮矣。且以矯俗也。」

Líng-dì ended [189], and he succeeded Wáng Ruì as Inspector of Jīngzhōu. At the time east of the mountains soldiers rose up [190], and Biǎo also gathered troops and garrisoned Xiāngyáng. (2)

靈帝崩,代王叡為荊州刺史。是時山東兵起,表亦合兵軍襄陽。〔二〕

  • (2) Sīmǎ Biāo’s Zhànlüè states:
    • When Liú Biǎo first reached Jīngzhōu, south of the Jiāng the clan bandits were flourishing, Yuán Shù camped at Lǔyáng, and commanded all the armies of Nányáng. A man of Wú, Sū Dài, succeeded as Administrator of Chángshā, Bèi Yǔ became Chief of Huáróng, and each gathered troops and rebelled. When Biǎo first arrived, he alone on one horse entered Yíchéng, and with the Yánzhōng Lú men Kuǎi Liáng and Kuǎi Yuè, and Xiāngyáng man Cài Mào together made plans.
    • Biǎo said: “The clan bandits are thoroughly flourishing, and the crowds do not join us. Yuán Shù relies on this, and disaster is now here! I wish to raise troops, but afraid they will not gather. How is this plan to be used?”
    • [Kuǎi] Liáng said: “If crowds do not join it is because your benevolence is not enough. If those that join cannot be controlled it is because your justice is not enough. If you have benevolence and justice in principle and conduct, the people will submit like water flows down. Why worry about those who do not follow and ask about raising troops for a plan?
    • Biǎo therefore asked [Kuǎi] Yuè. Yuè said: “Those governing in peace emphasize benevolence and justice. Those governing in chaos emphasize power and strategy. Armies are not in numbers but in obtaining men. Yuán Shù is valorous but not decisive. Sū Dài and Bèi Yǔ are both only fighting men, and not worth worrying about. The clan army leaders are mostly violent and cruel, and cause their subordinates to suffer. If one surpasses them in accomplishment and show they will provide great advantage, the crowds will certainly come. You sir must execute the unprincipled, and support and employ the rest, the entire province’s people will harbor happy hearts. When they hear of your flourishing virtue, they will certainly with their children on their backs arrive. Troops will gather and crowds attach. To the south occupy Jiānglíng, to the north defend Xiāngyáng, and Jīngzhōu’s eight prefectures can be gathered and settled. Though [Yuán] Shù and the rest come, there is nothing they can do.”
    • Biǎo said: “Your [Kuǎi Liáng’s] gentle advice is Yōng Jì’s discussion, and your [Kuǎi Yuè’s] unique decisive plan is Jiù Fàn’s strategy.”
    • Therefore he had [Kuǎi] Yuè send someone to entice the clan bandits, and those that came were fifty five men, and he beheaded them all. He attacked and took over their armies, and some were at once made personal retainers. Only Jiāngxià bandits Zhāng Hǔ and Chén Shēng held their armies and occupied Xiāngyáng. Biǎo therefore sent [Kuǎi] Yuè with Páng Jì to alone ride there and persuade them to surrender, and south of the Jiāng was all pacified.

〔二〕 司馬彪戰略曰:劉表之初為荊州也,江南宗賊盛,袁術屯魯陽,盡有南陽之眾。吳人蘇代領長沙太守,貝羽為華容長,各阻兵作亂。表初到,單馬入宜城,而延中廬人蒯良、蒯越、襄陽人蔡瑁與謀。表曰:「宗賊甚盛,而眾不附,袁術因之,禍今至矣!吾欲徵兵,恐不集,其策安出?」良曰:「眾不附者,仁不足也,附而不治者,義不足也;苟仁義之道行,百姓歸之如水之趣下,何患所至之不從而問興兵與策乎?」表顧問越,越曰:「治平者先仁義,治亂者先權謀。兵不在多,在得人也。袁術勇而無斷,蘇代、貝羽皆武人,不足慮。宗賊帥多貪暴,為下所患。越有所素養者,使示之以利,必以眾來。君誅其無道,撫而用之。一州之人,有樂存之心,聞君盛德,必襁負而至矣。兵集眾附,南據江陵,北守襄陽,荊州八郡可傳檄而定。術等雖至,無能為也。」表曰:「子柔之言,雍季之論也。異度之計,臼犯之謀也。」遂使越遣人誘宗賊,至者五十五人,皆斬之。襲取其眾,或即授部曲。唯江夏賊張虎、陳生擁眾據襄陽,表乃使越與龐季單騎往說降之,江南遂悉平。

Yuán Shù was at Nányáng, with Sūn Jiān as an allied follower, and wished to attack and capture Biǎo’s province, and sent [Sūn] Jiān to attack Biǎo. [Sūn] Jiān was by a stray arrow hit and killed, the army defeated, and [Yuán] Shù therefore could not overcome Biǎo.

袁術之在南陽也,與孫堅合從,欲襲奪表州,使堅攻表。堅為流矢所中死,軍敗,術遂不能勝表。

Lǐ Jué and Guō Sì entered Cháng’ān, wished to ally with Biǎo to be their assistance, and therefore appointed Biǎo as General Defending the South, Governor of Jīngzhōu, fief as Marquis of Chéngwǔ, with Acting Staff of Authority. Heaven’s Son moved the capital to Xǔ [196]. Though Biǎo sent envoy to present tribute, yet to the north he with Yuán Shào together allied. Internal Manager Dèng Xī remonstrated Biǎo, but Biǎo would not listen, (3) and [Dèng] Xī claimed illness and resigned, [not holding office] to the end of Biǎo’s life.

李傕、郭汜入長安,欲連表為援,乃以表為鎮南將軍、荊州牧,封成武侯,假節。天子都許,表雖遣使貢獻,然北與袁紹相結。治中鄧羲諫表,表不聽,〔三〕羲辭疾而退,終表之世。

  • (3) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Biǎo answered Xī: “Inside not neglecting tribute duties and outside not turning back against the alliance leader, this is how the realm Under Heaven attains justice. Why are you Internal Manager alone bewildered?”

Zhāng Jì led troops to enter Jīngzhōu’s border, attacked Rángchéng, and was by a stray arrow hit and died. The Jīngzhōu officials all offered congratulations. Biǎo said: “ [Zhāng] Jì out of desperation came, we as hosts did not show courtesy, and so it came to the meeting of blades points. This was not my intention as Governor. I as Governor will accept lamentations, but will not accept congratulations.” He sent people to give supplies to the army; the army heard this and was pleased, and therefore joined and followed him.

張濟引兵入荊州界,攻穰城,為流矢所中死。荊州官屬皆賀,表曰:「濟以窮來,主人無禮,至于交鋒,此非牧意,牧受弔,不受賀也。」使人納其眾;眾聞之喜,遂服從。

Administrator of Chángshā Zhāng Xiàn revolted against Biǎo, (4) and Biǎo besieged him for successive years but could not defeat him.

長沙太守張羨叛表,〔四〕表圍之連年不下。

  • (4) Yīngxióngjì states: Zhāng Xiàn was a Nányáng man. Previously he was Chief of Línglíng and Guìyáng, deeply obtained the hearts between the Jiāng and Xiāng [rivers], but his nature was willful and disobedient. Biǎo despised his personal conduct and was not very courteous. [Zhāng] Xiàn therefore harbored a grudge, and therefore revolted against Biǎo.

〔四〕 英雄記曰:張羨,南陽人。先作零陵、桂陽長,甚得江、湘間心,然性屈彊不順。表薄其為人,不甚禮也。羨由是懷恨,遂叛表焉。

[Zhāng] Xiàn died of illness, and Chángshā set up his son [Zhāng] Yì. Biǎo therefore attacked and conquered [Zhāng] Yì. To the south he conquered Líng[líng] and Guì[yáng] and to the north he occupied the Hàn river, and his territory covered several thousands of lǐ, and his armored troops were over a hundred thousand. (5)

羨病死,長沙復立其子懌,表遂攻并懌,南收零、桂,北據漢川,地方數千里,帶甲十餘萬。〔五〕

  • (5) Yīngxióngjì states: The provincial borders’ various bandits were already wiped out. Biǎo therefore opened and established a scholarly office, extensively sought out classicist scholars, employing Qíwú Kǎi, Sòng Zhōng, and others to compile a Wǔjīng Zhāngjù “Five Classics Analysis,” saying it was definitive for thereafter.

〔五〕 英雄記曰:州界群寇既盡,表乃開立學官,博求儒士,使綦毋闓、宋忠等撰五經章句,謂之後定。


Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] with Yuán Shào were locked together at Guāndù [200], and [Yuán] Shào sent someone to ask for assistance. Biǎo agreed to him but did not actually go, and also did not assist Tàizǔ, intending to defend within the Jiāng and Hàn [rivers] and observe for the realm Under Heaven’s changes.

太祖與袁紹方相持于官渡,紹遣人求助,表許之而不至,亦不佐太祖,欲保江漢間,觀天下變。

Advisor Internal Cadet Hán Sōng and Camp Aide Liú Xiān advised Biǎo: “Powerful figures all fight, and these two heroes are locked together, so the duties to the realm Under Heaven are with you, General. If you General wish to establish yourself, rising up to seize on their failures is possible; if this is not so, then you undoubtedly must choose one to follow. You General gather an army of a hundred thousand, and securely sit and observe. To meet a worthy and yet not assist, ask for alliance and yet not do so, these two’s resentment will certainly gather against you General, and you General will not be able to stand neutral. By Lord Cáo’s enlightenment and wisdom, the realm Under Heaven’s worthy and eminent all join him, and he will certainly over Yuán Shào, and then afterward raise troops toward the Jiāng and Hàn, and we fear you General will not be able to resist. Therefore for you General the plan is better to lead the province to join Lord Cáo, and Lord Cáo will certainly give great importance and virtue to you General, so you will be able to for a long time enjoy comfort and prosperity, to pass down to your posterity. This is the absolutely safe plan.”

從事中郎韓嵩、別駕劉先說表曰:「豪傑並爭,兩雄相持,天下之重,在於將軍。將軍若欲有為,起乘其弊可也;若不然,固將擇所從。將軍擁十萬之眾,安坐而觀望。夫見賢而不能助,請和而不得,此兩怨必集於將軍,將軍不得中立矣。夫以曹公之明哲,天下賢俊皆歸之,其勢必舉袁紹,然後稱兵以向江漢,恐將軍不能禦也。故為將軍計者,不若舉州以附曹公,曹公必重德將軍;長享福祚,垂之後嗣,此萬全之策也。」

Biǎo’s chief General Kuǎi Yuè also urged this to Biǎo. Biǎo was suspicious, and therefore sent [Hán] Sōng to visit Tàizǔ to observe the situation. [Hán] Sōng returned, and deeply praised Tàizǔ’s authority and virtue, and advised Biǎo to send a son to enter [Court] as hostage. Biǎo suspected [Hán] Sōng of rebelling and speaking on behalf of Tàizǔ, was greatly furious, wishing to kill [Hán] Sōng. He interrogated and killed those who had accompanied [Hán] Sōng as escort, learned [Hán] Sōng had no ulterior intentions, and therefore stopped. (1)

表大將蒯越亦勸表,表狐疑,乃遣嵩詣太祖以觀虛實。嵩還,深陳太祖威德,說表遣子入質。表疑嵩反為太祖說,大怒,欲殺嵩,考殺隨嵩行者,知嵩無他意,乃止。〔一〕

  • (1) Fùzǐ states:
    • Previously Biǎo said to [Hán] Sōng: “Now the realm Under Heaven is greatly in chaos, and it is unknown who can settle it. Lord Cáo supports Heaven’s Son in the capital Xǔ. You on my behalf go observe the situation.”
    • [Hán] Sōng replied: “Sages can shift allegiance, but the lesser must hold to allegiance. I am one who must hold to allegiance. In serving the lord, the lord and servant are settled, and to the death are held. Now my name is pledged to your list, accepting only your commands, General, and even crossing boiling water or treading fire, I die without complaint. The way I observe it, Lord Cáo reaches enlightenment, and will certainly bring relief to the realm Under Heaven. If you General are able to above obey Heaven’s Son and below join Lord Cáo, certain to receive benefit for a hundred generations and your Chǔ state to truly accept protection, you can send me. If your plans are not yet settled, and I am sent to the capital, and Heaven’s Son appoints me an official, then I would be Heaven’s Son’s servant, and only your former official and that is all. When with the lord I serve the lord, and then if I hold to Heaven’s Son’s commands, righteousness does not allow me to again for you General die. May you General heavily consider this, and do not turn against me.”
    • Biǎo then sent him, and indeed it was as he said. Heaven’s Son appointed [Hán] Sōng as Palace Attendant, promoted to Administrator of Línglíng, and he returned to praise the Court’s and Lord Cáo’s virtues. Biǎo believed he harbored petrayal, held a great assembly with officials of several hundred men, sent troops to meet [Hán] Sōng, was exceedingly furious, and grasping Staff of Authority was about to behead him, repeatedly saying: “Hán Sōng you dare betray me?”
    • Everyone was afraid, and wished to press [Hán] Sōng to apologize. [Hán] Sōng was unmoved, and said to Biǎo: “You General have turned on me, I have not turned on you General!” He explained what he had previously said.
    • Biǎo was angry without end, and his wife lady Cài remonstrated him: “Hán Sōng is who Chǔ looks toward. Moreover his words are correct, and to execute him is without reason.”
    • Biǎo therefore did not execute and only imprisoned him.

〔一〕 傅子曰:初表謂嵩曰:「今天下大亂,未知所定,曹公擁天子都許,君為我觀其釁。」嵩對曰:「聖達節,次守節。嵩,守節者也。夫事君為君,君臣名定,以死守之;今策名委質,唯將軍所命,雖赴湯蹈火,死無辭也。以嵩觀之,曹公至明,必濟天下。將軍能上順天子,下歸曹公,必享百世之利,楚國實受其祐,使嵩可也;設計未定,嵩使京師,天子假嵩一官,則天子之臣,而將軍之故吏耳。在君為君,則嵩守天子之命,義不得復為將軍死也。唯將軍重思,無負嵩。」表遂使之,果如所言,天子拜嵩侍中,遷零陵太守,還稱朝廷、曹公之德也。表以為懷貳,大會寮屬數百人,陳兵見嵩,盛怒,持節將斬之,數曰:「韓嵩敢懷貳邪!」眾皆恐,欲令嵩謝。嵩不動,謂表曰:「將軍負嵩,嵩不負將軍!」具陳前言。表怒不已,其妻蔡氏諫之曰:「韓嵩,楚國之望也;且其言直,誅之無辭。」表乃弗誅而囚之。

Though Biǎo had the outer appearance of scholarly refinement, yet his heart had many suspicions and jealousies, all of this sort.

表雖外貌儒雅,而心多疑忌,皆此類也。


Liú Bèi fled to Biǎo. Biǎo generously treated him, but could not employ him. (1)

劉備奔表,表厚待之,然不能用。〔一〕

  • (1) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: When Tàizǔ first campaigned against Liǔchéng, Liú Bèi advised Biǎo to send him to attack Xǔ, but Biǎo would not follow this. When Tàizǔ returned, he said to [Liú] Bèi: “I did not use your advice, and therefore lost this great opportunity.” [Liú] Bèi said: “Now the realm Under Heaven is divided, every day there are weapons, so in the coming of opportunities, how can it be the last? If you can respond to a later one, then this one is not worth regretting.”

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:太祖之始征柳城,劉備說表使襲許,表不從。及太祖還,謂備曰:「不用君言,故失此大會也。」備曰:「今天下分裂,日尋干戈,事會之來,豈有終極乎?若能應之於後者,則此未足為恨也。」

Jiàn’ān thirteenth year [208], Tàizǔ campaigned against Biǎo. Before he arrived, Biǎo of illness died.

建安十三年,太祖征表,未至,表病死。


Previously, Biǎo and his wife favored the youngest son Cóng, wished to make him successor, and Cài Mào and Zhāng Yǔn were in this faction, so therefore the eldest son Qí was sent out as Administrator of Jiāngxià, and the crowds therefore acknowledged Cóng as the successor. Qí with Cóng therefore became estranged. (1)

初,表及妻愛少子琮,欲以為後,而蔡瑁、張允為之支黨,乃出長子琦為江夏太守,眾遂奉琮為嗣。琦與琮遂為讎隙。〔一〕

  • (1) Diǎnlüè states: Biǎo was ill, and Qí returned to visit for this illness. Qí by nature was compassionate and filial, and [Cài] Mào and [Zhāng] Yǔn feared if Qí met Biǎo, father and son would be reconciled, and he would change his intentions on the succession, so they said: “The General ordered you sir to support and overlook Jiāngxià, serve as the state’s eastern defense, and this appointment is critical. Now you disperse your armies and come, and will certainly be met with reprimands and anger, injure your father’s heart and aggravate his illness. This is not filial attentiveness.” Therefore they restrained him outside the door, and would not let him meet, and Qí wept and left.

〔一〕 典略曰:表疾病,琦還省疾。琦性慈孝,瑁、允恐琦見表,父子相感,更有託後之意,謂曰:「將軍命君撫臨江夏,為國東藩,其任至重;今釋眾而來,必見譴怒,傷親之歡心以增其疾,非孝敬也。」遂遏于戶外,使不得見,琦流涕而去。

[Kuǎi] Yuè, [Hán] Sōng, and East Department Official Fù Xùn and others advised Cóng to join Tàizǔ. Cóng said: “Now if I with you sirs occupy all the lands of Chǔ, defend my late father’s work, to observe the realm Under Heaven, how is this not possible?”

越、嵩及東曹掾傅巽等說琮歸太祖,琮曰:「今與諸君據全楚之地,守先君之業,以觀天下,何為不可乎?」

[Fù] Xùn replied: “Opposition or obedience have great reasons, strength and weakness have settled situations. To be a servant and yet resist the ruler, that is opposition. To newly declare a Chǔ to resist the entire state, that situation is untenable. To join with Liú Bèi to oppose Excellency Cáo, that is also untenable. These three points are all weaknesses, so to wish to oppose the advance of the ruler’s troops is the way to certain destruction. Are you General of the same sort as Liú Bèi?”

巽對曰:「逆順有大體,彊弱有定勢。以人臣而拒人主,逆也;以新造之楚而禦國家,其勢弗當也;以劉備而敵曹公,又弗當也。三者皆短,欲以抗王兵之鋒,必亡之道也。將軍自料何與劉備?」

Cóngsaid: “I cannot compare.”

琮曰:「吾不若也。」

[Fù] Xùn said: “If in fact Liú Bèi is not enough to resist Excellency Cáo, then even defending the lands of Chǔ is not enough to preserve yourself. If in fact Liú Bèi is enough to resist Excellency Cáo, then [Liú] Bèi will not remain your subordinate. May you General have no doubts.”

巽曰:「誠以劉備不足禦曹公乎,則雖保楚之地,不足以自存也;誠以劉備足禦曹公乎,則備不為將軍下也。願將軍勿疑。」

Tàizǔ’s army arrived at Xiāngyáng, and Cóng led the province to surrender. [Liú] Bèi fled to Xiàkǒu. (2)

太祖軍到襄陽,琮舉州降。備走奔夏口。〔二〕

  • (2) Fùzǐ states: [Fù] Xùn’s son Tì, was ornate and extensive, and had understanding of men. He was recruited to the Offices of the Excellencies, appointed Secretariat Gentleman, and afterward was a guest of Jīngzhōu, in for the achievement of the advising of Liú Cóng [to surrender] was bestowed title as Marquis Within the Passes. In the reign of Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] he was Palace Attendant, and during Tàihé [227-233] died. When [Fù] Xùn was at Jīngzhōu, he classified Páng Tǒng as Half a Hero and judged that Péi Qián in the end for pure conduct would be known. [Páng] Tǒng then joined Liú Bèi and met with favor just after Zhūgé Liàng, and [Péi] Qián’s rank reached Secretariat Director and had both good reputation and virtue. When he was at the Wèi Court, Wèi Fěng for ability and wisdom was heard of, but [Fù] Xùn said he would certainly rebel, and in the end it was as he said. [Fù] Xùn’s younger brother’s son Jiǎ separately has a Biography.
  • Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Wáng Wēi advised Liú Cóng: “Cáo Cāo has already received your surrender, General, and Liú Bèi has already fled, so he will certainly be relaxed and without preparations, and lightly travels with few escort advances. If you give me cavalry and infantry of several thousand, to seize opportunity out of danger, [Cáo] Cāo can be captured. With the capture of [Cáo] Cāo you can shake the realm Under Heaven, hold and like a tiger stride, and though the central plains are wide, you can spread through and settle it, and not only follow one victory’s achievement and defending for today and nothing more. This is the opportunity of a difficult encounter, and cannot be lost.” [Liú] Cóng woudl not accept this.
  • Sōushénjì states: At the beginning of Jiàn’ān [196-220], a Jīngzhōu children’s rhyme said: “Within eight to nine years is first decline, in the thirteenth year there will be none left.” This meant that from Zhōngpíng [184-189] onward, Jīngzhōu alone was whole, and Liú Biǎo was Governor, the people also had abundance and happiness. Reaching Jiàn’ān eighth to ninth year [203-204] there first was decline. First decline meant Liú Biǎo’s wife died, and the various officers were all defeated and scattered. Thirteenth year nothing left meant that Biǎo would also die, and then it all be lost and broken. At that time in Huáróng there was a woman who called out and cried: “Jīngzhōu will have great disaster.” Her voice was very different from usual, so the county believed it was witch’s speech, bound and imprisoned her for over a month. Suddenly in the prison she wept and cried: “Liú [Biǎo of] Jīngzhōu today died.” Huáróng from the province [headquarters] was several hundred lǐ, and at once sent a horse and official to check, and Liú Biǎo indeed had died, and the county therefore let her out. Later she again sang and chanted: “Unexpectedly Lǐ Lì will become an important person.” Shortly afterward, Tàizǔ pacified Jīngzhōu, and appointed Zhuō-jùn’s Lǐ Lì appellation Jiànxián as Inspector of Jīngzhōu.

〔二〕 傅子曰:巽子公悌,瑰偉博達,有知人鑒。辟公府,拜尚書郎,後客荊州,以說劉琮之功,賜爵關內侯。文帝時為侍中,太和中卒,巽在荊州,目龐統為半英雄,證裴潛終以清行顯;統遂附劉備,見待次于諸葛亮,潛位至尚書令,並有名德。及在魏朝,魏諷以才智聞,巽謂之必反,卒如其言。巽弟子嘏,別有傳。漢晉春秋曰:王威說劉琮曰:「曹操得將軍既降,劉備已走,必解弛無備,輕行單進;若給威奇兵數千,徼之於險,操可獲也。獲操即威震天下,坐而虎步,中夏雖廣,可傳檄而定,非徒收一勝之功,保守今日而已。此難遇之機,不可失也。」琮不納。搜神記曰:建安初,荊州童謠曰:「八九年間始欲衰,至十三年無孑遺。」言自(中興)〔中平〕以來,荊州獨全,及劉表為牧,民又豐樂,至建安八年九年當始衰。始衰者,謂劉表妻死,諸將並零落也。十三年無孑遺者,表當又死,因以喪破也。是時,華容有女子忽啼呼云:「荊州將有大喪。」言語過差,縣以為妖言,繫獄月餘,忽于獄中哭曰:「劉荊州今日死。」華谷去州數百里,即遣馬吏驗視,而劉表果死,縣乃出之。續又歌吟曰:「不意李立為貴人。」後無幾,太祖平荊州,以涿郡李立字建賢為荊州刺史。


Tàizǔ appointed Cóng as Inspector of Qīngzhōu with fief as a Ranked Marquis. (1)

太祖以琮為青州刺史、封列侯。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèi Wǔ Gùshì records the Order: “Chǔ has the Jiāng’s and Hàn’s mountains and rivers for rugged terrain, was last to submit and first to rise and with Qín fought for power. Jīngzhōu is this very land. Liú [Biǎo the General] Defending the South has for a long time employed its people. After he was gone, his various sons divided like a tripod, and though in the end it would be difficult for them to last yet it could be drawn out for a while. Inspector of Qīngzhōu [Liú] Cóng, has high heart and pure intentions, deep wisdom and broad consideration, dismisses glory to emphasize justice, scant to profit to favor virtue, belittles ambitions of ruling tens of thousands of lǐ, sets aside leading multitudes of armies, sincere in fair and honest form, teaches reputed acclaim, above glorifying his later father’s legacy, below supporting the immortal blessings of the Throne. Even Bào Yǒng’s departing Bìngzhōu and Dòu Róng’s leaving five prefectures are not enough to compare. Though he has fief as full Marquis and position over a province, yet he regrets receiving this favor considering it as as inappropriate for himself, and instead presents a letter asking to return to the province. Though supervising Inspectors are honored, their official salaries are not large. Now we accept his request, and memorialize [Liú] Cóng as Critical Consultant Official and Accompanying Advisor on Military Affairs.”

〔一〕 魏武故事載令曰:「楚有江、漢山川之險,後服先疆,與秦爭衡,荊州則其故地。劉鎮南久用其民矣。身沒之後,諸子鼎峙,雖終難全,猶可引日。青州刺史琮,心高志潔,智深慮廣,輕榮重義,薄利厚德,蔑萬里之業,忽三軍之眾,篤中正之體,教令名之譽,上耀先君之遺塵,下圖不朽之餘祚;鮑永之棄并州,竇融之離五郡,未足以喻也。雖封列侯一州之位,猶恨此寵未副其人;而比有牋求還州。監史雖尊,秩祿未優。今聽所執,表琮為諫議大夫,參同軍事。」

Kuǎi Yuè and the rest became Marquis, fifteen men.

蒯越等侯者十五人。

[Kuǎi] Yuè became Minister of Merits. (2)

越為光祿勳;〔二〕

  • (2) Fùzǐ states: [Kuǎi] Yuè was Kuǎi Tōng’s descendant, deep in understanding and sufficient in wisdom, an exceptional hero with impressive appearance. General-in-Chief Hé Jìn heard of his reputation, and summoned him as East Department Official. [Kuǎi] Yuè urged [Hé] Jìn to execute all the eunuch officials, but [Hé] Jìn was hesitant and indecisive. [Kuǎi] Yuè knew [Hé] Jìn would certainly be defeated, and asked to be sent out as Magistrate of Rǔyáng. He assisted Liú Biǎo in pacifying and settling within the borders, and [Liú] Biǎo from this became powerful and great. Written Imperial Order appointed him Administrator of Zhānglíng, with fief as Marquis of Fán precinct. When Jīngzhōu was pacified, Tàizǔ wrote a letter to Xún Yù that said: “I am not pleased to obtain Jīngzhōu, I am pleased to obtain Kuǎi Yìdù and that is all.” Jiàn’ān nineteenth year [214] he died. When he was near the end, he wrote a letter to Tàizǔ, to entrust his family. Tàizǔ wrote a reply letter that said: “The dead should live. The living are not worthy of it. You brought up little but did much.  If you after you are gone you remain a spirit, you will also hear my words.”

〔二〕 傅子曰:越,蒯通之後也,深中足智,魁傑有雄姿。大將軍何進聞其名,辟為東曹掾。越勸進誅諸閹官,進猶豫不決。越知進必敗,求出為汝陽令,佐劉表平定境內,表得以彊大。詔書拜章陵太守,封樊亭侯。荊州平,太祖與荀彧書曰:「不喜得荊州,喜得蒯異度耳。」建安十九年卒。臨終,與太祖書,託以門戶。太祖報書曰:「死者反生,生者不愧。孤少所舉,行之多矣。魂而有靈,亦將聞孤此言也。」

[Hán] Sōng became Minister Herald. (3)

嵩,大鴻臚;〔三〕

  • (3) Xiānxián Xíngzhuàng states:[Hán] Sōng appellation Dégāo was a man of Yìyáng. From youth he was good at his studies, was poor but did not turn from integrity. He knew the world was about to be in chaos, did not answer the orders of the Three Excellencies, and with his good friends several men in seclusion lived in Lìxī mountain. When the Yellow Scarves rose up, Sōng fled to the south. Liú Biǎo compelled him to become his Camp Aide, then transferred to Advisor Palace Gentleman. Biǎo in the outskirts sacrificed to Heaven and Earth [an Imperial prerogative], and Sōng uprightly remonstrated and wold not follow, and gradually became disobedient. He was sent as envoy Xǔ, the matter is in the previous note. When Jīngzhōu was pacified, Sōng was ill, and at that time was appointed and awarded the Minister Herald’s seals and ribbons.

〔三〕 先賢行狀曰:嵩字德高,義陽人。少好學,貧不改操。知世將亂,不應三公之命,與同好數人隱居于酈西山中。黃巾起,嵩避難南方,劉表逼以為別駕,轉從事中郎。表郊祀天地,嵩正諫不從,漸見違忤。奉使到許,事在前注。荊州平,嵩疾病,就在所拜授大鴻臚印綬。

[Dèng] Xī became Attendant Internal. (4)

〔三〕羲,侍中;

  • [Dèng] Xī was a Zhānglíng man.

[Liú] Xiān became Secretariat Director. Of the rest many reached great office. (5)

先,尚書令;其餘多至大官。〔五〕

  • (5) Línglíng Xiānxián Zhuàn “Biography of Línglíng’s Past Worthies” states:
    • [Liú] Xiān appellation Shǐzōng, was extensively learned with strong memory, was outstandingly good at discussing Huáng-Lǎo yán, and enlightened and studied the Hàn House’s classical stories. He was Liú Biǎo’s Camp Aide, presented message to Xǔ, and met Tàizǔ.
    • At the time the guests gathered in a meeting, and Tàizǔ asked Xiān: “Why does Governor Liú sacrifice to Heaven?” [an Imperial prerogative]
    • Xiān replied: “Governor Liú was entrusted as the Hàn House’s internal official, occupies the Governor’s position, but by misfortune the Ruler’s Principle is not yet settled, the various criminals block the roads, he holds jade and silk [tribute] but has no way to present it to the government, prepared letters and memorials but they do not reach through, and therefore he sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, to manifest and declare his utter sincerity.”
    • Tàizǔ said: “Who are these various criminals?”
    • Xiān said: “Raise your eyes and they all are.”
    • Tàizǔ said: “Now I have fierce and valient warriors, infantry and cavalry a hundred thousand, accepted orders to cut down the guilty. Who dares not obey?”
    • Xiān said: “Hàn’s principles are weak and broken and everyone haggard and withered, and there are no loyal and righteous warriors to assist and support Heaven’s Son, sooth and calm Within the Seas, and cause all lands to obey virtue, and instead they block with troops and emphasize restrictions, saying that if not for them, then Chī Yóu and Zhì Bó would again be present.”
    • Tàizǔ was completely silent, and appointed Xiān Administrator of Wǔlíng. When Jīngzhōu was pacified, Xiān first joined the Hàn Secretariat, and later became Wèi state’s Secretariat Director. Xiān’s sister’s son of the same prefecture Zhōu Bùyí, appellation Yuánzhí, was a Línglíng man.
  • Xiānxián Zhuàn says [Zhōu] Bùyí when young had extraordinary talent, intelligent and quick in communication. Tàizǔ wished to wed a daughter to him, but Bùyí did not dare accept. Tàizǔ’s favored son Cāngshū [Cáo Chōng], from the beginning had genius and wisdom, and it was said he with Bùyí could be companions. When Cāngshū died, Tàizǔ in his heart was envious of Bùyí, and wished to eliminate him. Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] remonstrated that this could not be. Tàizǔ said: “This man is not someone you can control.” Therefore he sent an assassin to kill him.
  • Zhì Yú’s Wénzhāngzhì states: When Bùyí died he was seventeen years. He wrote essays in four articles.
  • Shìyǔ states: Over eighty years after Biǎo died, it was during Jìn’s Tàikāng [280-289], and Biǎo’s tomb was dug up. Biǎo and his wife’s bodies looked as if they were living, and the fragrance was smelled within several lǐ.

〔五〕 零陵先賢傳曰:先字始宗,博學彊記,尤好黃老言,明習漢家典故。為劉表別駕,奉章詣許,見太祖。時賓客並會,太祖問先:「劉牧如何郊天也?」先對曰:「劉牧託漢室肺腑,處牧伯之位,而遭王道未平,群凶塞路,抱玉帛而無所聘頫,修章表而不獲達御,是以郊天祀地,昭告赤誠。」太祖曰:「群凶為誰?」先曰:「舉目皆是。」太祖曰:「今孤有熊羆之士,步騎十萬,奉辭伐罪,誰敢不服?」先曰:「漢道陵遲,群生憔悴,既無忠義之士,翼戴天子,綏寧海內,使萬邦歸德,而阻兵安忍,曰莫己若,既蚩尤、智伯復見于今也。」太祖嘿然。拜先武陵太守。荊州平,先始為漢尚書,後為魏國尚書令。先甥同郡周不疑,字元直,零陵人。先賢傳稱不疑幼有異才,聰明敏達,太祖欲以女妻之,不疑不敢當。太祖愛子倉舒,夙有才智,謂可與不疑為儔。及倉舒卒,太祖心忌不疑,欲除之。文帝諫以為不可,太祖曰:「此人非汝所能駕御也。」乃遣刺客殺之。摯虞文章志曰:不疑死時年十七,著文論四首。世語曰:表死後八十餘年,至晉太康中,表冢見發。表及妻身形如生,芬香聞數里。

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s