(58.2) Lù Kàng 陸抗 [Yòujié 幼節]

[Lù] Kàng appellation Yòujié was Sūn Cè’s daughter’s son. When [Lù] Xùn died [245], he was twenty years, appointed Establishing Martiality Colonel, commanded [Lù] Xùn’s army of 5000 men, escorted the funeral procession east and returned, and visited the capital to give thanks for Imperial favor. Sūn Quán with Yáng Zhú’s report against [Lù] Xùn of twenty incidents investigated Kàng, forbidding him to be a guest visitor, and sending Palace envoys to interview him. Kàng without any hesitation answered every charge, and [Sūn] Quán’s concerns gradually were resolved.

抗字幼節,孫策外孫也。遜卒時,年二十,拜建武校尉,領遜眾五千人,送葬東還,詣都謝恩。孫權以楊竺所白遜二十事問抗,禁絕賓客,中使臨詰,抗無所顧問,事事條答,權意漸解。

Chìwū ninth year [246] he was promoted Internal Cadet-General Establishing Integrity, and with Zhūgě Kè exchanged garrisons at Cháisāng. When Kàng was about to leave, he completed repaired all the city fortifications, renovated the buildings, and the houses and mulberries were not damaged. When [Zhūgě] Kè entered the camp, it was just like new. But [Zhūgě] Kè’s Cháisāng former camp was damaged and broken, and he was deeply because of this ashamed.

赤烏九年,遷立節中郎將,與諸葛恪換屯柴桑。抗臨去,皆更繕完城圍,葺其牆屋,居廬桑果,不得妄敗。恪入屯,儼然若新。而恪柴桑故屯,頗有毀壞,深以為慚。

Tàiyuán first year [251], he went to the capital to be treated for illness. When the illness was cured and he was about to return, [Sūn] Quán wept and with him bid farewell, saying: “I in the past followed slanderous advice, and with your father in the great principles [of a relationship] was not true, and because of this wronged you. All the investigations from beginning to end will in one fire be burned, so that none will ever see it.”

太元元年,就都治病。病差當還,權涕泣與別,謂曰:「吾前聽用讒言,與汝父大義不篤,以此負汝。前後所問,一焚滅之,莫令人見也。」

Jiànxīng Inaugural Year [252] he was appointed Exerting Authority General.

建興元年,拜奮威將軍。

Tàipíng second year [257] Wèi General Zhūgě Dàn led Shòuchūn to surrender. Kàng was appointed Commander of Cháisāng, sent to Shòuchūn, defeating the Wèi Ivory-Gate Assistant-General, and was promoted to General Attacking the North.

太平二年,魏將諸葛誕舉壽春降,拜抗為柴桑督,赴壽春,破魏牙門將偏將軍,遷征北將軍。

Yǒng’ān second year [259] he was appointed General Defending the Army, Regional Commander of Xīlíng from Guānyǔ to Báidì.

永安二年,拜鎮軍將軍,都督西陵,自關羽至白帝。

Third year [260] he was given Acting Staff of Authority.

三年,假節。

Sūn Hào succeeded [264], and promoted him to General-in-Chief Defending the Army with office as Governor of Yìzhōu.

孫皓即位,加鎮軍大將軍,領益州牧。

Jiànhéng second year [270] Marshal-in-Chief Shī Jì died. Kàng was appointed Regional Commander over all the military affairs of Xìnlíng, Xīlíng, Yídào, Lèxiāng, and Gōng’ān, with headquarters at Lèxiāng.

建衡二年,大司馬施績卒,拜抗都督信陵、西陵、夷道、樂鄉,公安諸軍事,治樂鄉。


Kàng heard that the capital’s sent down government orders had many deficiencies, his worries were deep and his anxieties far, so he therefore sent up memorial:

抗聞都下政令多闕,憂深慮遠,乃上疏曰:

“I your Servant have heard when virtue is equal then the more numerous one is victorious over the few, and when strength is equal then the stable one subdues the endangered, and that is why the Six States were conquered by the powerful Qín, and why Western Chǔ faced north [submitted] to Hàn Gāo [Liú Bāng]. Now the enemy strides and subdues all nine directions, not only the lands right [west] of the Passes; in dividing the Nine Provinces, how can they only remain west of Hónggōu and nothing more?

“The state to the outside has no allied state’s assistance, inside does not have Western Chǔ’s strength, government affairs are delayed and slow, the common people are not controlled, and yet what commentators rely on are only long rivers and high mountains to surround and defend our territory. This is defending the state’s last resort, and not what the wise place first.

“I your Servant often recall the remote past’s Warring State’s conditions of survival or perishing, the near past’s Liú’s clan indications of collapse, examining the ancient records and considering the actions and events, and in the night cannot rest and facing a meal forget to eat.

“In the past the Xiōngnú were not yet destroyed, so [Huò] Qùbìng declined a mansion; the Hàn’s ways was not yet pure, so Jiǎ [Yì] mourned and wept. Moreover I your Servant am from the Ruling House descended, for generations received glory and favor, my body and name are not great, I with the state share the same griefs, death or life is bound together with it, justice without drifting away, morning to night worried and grieved, and ruminating to miserable feeling. To righteousness of serving the lord is to offend but not deceive [when remonstrating], the integrity of the servant is not to bow but sacrifice their life. Therefore I solemnly explain for these present times seventeen articles to the left:”

「臣聞德均則眾者勝寡,力侔則安者制危,蓋六國所以兼并於彊秦,西楚所以北面於漢高也。今敵跨制九服,非徒關右之地;割據九州,豈但鴻溝以西而已。國家外無連國之援,內非西楚之彊,庶政陵遲,黎民未乂,而議者所恃,徒以長川峻山,限帶封域,此乃守國之末事,非智者之所先也。臣每遠惟戰國存亡之符,近覽劉氏傾覆之釁,考之典籍,驗之行事,中夜撫枕,臨餐忘食。昔匈奴未滅,去病辭館;漢道未純,賈生哀泣。況臣王室之出,世荷光寵,身名否泰,與國同慼,死生契闊,義無苟且,夙夜憂怛,念至情慘。夫事君之義犯而勿欺,人臣之節匪躬是殉,謹陳時宜十七條如左。」

The seventeen articles are lost, and therefore not recorded.

十七條失本,故不載。


At the time Hé Dìng wielded power, eunuchs were advanced in government. Kàng sent up memorial:

“I your Servant have heard in founding a state and maintaining a family, petty men are not to be used. Trusting slander and using the treacherous, the Tángshū has long warned against, and therefore the poets for that reason complained and Zhòngní [Confucius] for that reason sighed.

“From the Chūnqiū [period] to Qín and Hàn, the omens of downfall have never not been by these. Petty men do not understand reason and principle, what they see is shallow, and though they may exhaust themselves for integrity, yet it is insufficient for appointment, and moreover they have treacherous hearts in their true nature, and their feelings of hate and love change easily! If they fear to lose this, there is nothing they will not do. Now if they are entrusted in appointments for intelligence, if they hold complete authority, if one hopes to create harmony and prosperity and establish pure and clear cultivation, this is not possible.

“The present seen officials, though the unique talents are few, yet some are descendants of great leaders, who from youth gradually were taught principle, and some were honest but destitute and established themselves, and their resources and ability are sufficient to be employed, and naturally can follow ability and receive office, to restrain and expel the petty, and afterward cultivation of customs can be pure, and the government will have no filth.”

時何定弄權,閹官預政;抗上疏曰:「臣聞開國承家,小人勿用,靖譖庸回,唐書攸戒,是以雅人所以怨刺,仲尼所以歎息也。春秋已來,爰及秦、漢,傾覆之釁,未有不由斯者也。小人不明理道,所見既淺,雖使竭情盡節,猶不足任,況其姦心素篤,而憎愛移易哉?苟患失之,無所不至。今委以聰明之任,假以專制之威,而冀雍熙之聲作,肅清之化立,不可得也。方今見吏,殊才雖少,然或冠冕之冑,少漸道教,或清苦自立,資能足用,自可隨才授職,抑黜群小,然後俗化可清,庶政無穢也。」


Fènghuáng Inaugural Year [272], Commander of Xīlíng Bù Chǎn occupied the city to rebel, and sent an envoy to surrender to Jìn. Kàng heard of this, in a day deployed the various armies, ordered Generals Zuǒ Yì, Wú Yàn, Cài Gòng and others to directly go to Xīlíng, ordered the army camps to repair and close up barricades, from Chìxī reached Gùshì, to inside besiege [Bù] Chǎn and outside resist the enemy, day and night urging them on, as if the enemy had already arrived, and the armies deeply suffered from this.

鳳皇元年,西陵督步闡據城以叛,遣使降晉。抗聞之,日部分諸軍,令將軍左奕、吾彥、蔡貢等徑赴西陵,敕軍營更築嚴圍,自赤谿至故市,內以圍闡,外以禦寇,晝夜催切,如敵以至,眾甚苦之。

The various Generals all remonstrated: “Now when the three armies are elite, if with urgency we attack [Bù] Chǎn, before Jìn’s rescue arrives, [Bù] Chǎn certainly can be taken. Why this business of siege and exhausting the soldiers’ and people’s strength?”

諸將咸諫曰:「今及三軍之銳,亟以攻闡,比晉救至,闡必可拔。何事於圍,而以弊士民之力乎?」

Kàng said: “This city’s position is strong and firm, its provisions and grain are also sufficient, and moreover their repaired fortifications and prepared defenses are all what I have accounted for. Now if we turn around and attack them, we cannot quickly overcome them, and moreover the northern rescue will certainly come, when they come we will have no preparations, and then we will suffer disaster, and how can we resist them?”

抗曰:「此城處勢既固,糧穀又足,且所繕修備禦之具,皆抗所宿規。今反身攻之,既非可卒克,且北救必至,至而無備,表裏受難,何以禦之?」

The various Generals all wished to attack [Bù] Chǎn, but Kàng every time would not permit it. Administrator of Yídū Léi Tán’s words were extremely sincere, and Kàng wished to placate the armies, so he agreed to order one attack. The attack indeed had no success, and in the siege preparation there was thus agreement.

諸將咸欲攻闡,抗每不許。宜都太守雷譚言至懇切,抗欲服眾,聽令一攻。攻果無利,圍備始合。

Jìn General of Chariots and Cavalry Yáng Hù led his armies toward Jiānglíng. The various Generals all believed Kàng should not go up [against Yáng Hù]. Kàng said: “Jiānglíng city is firm and its troops sufficient, so there is nothing to fear. Supposing if the enemy can overtake, they certainly cannot defend it, and our losses will be small. But if Xīlíng can link up with them, then Nánshān’s various tribes will all be in disturbance, and then there will be something to worry over, and difficult to speak of resolution. I would rather abandon abandon Jiānglíng to hurry to Xīlíng, and moreover is not Jiānglíng secure?”

晉車騎將軍羊祜率師向江陵,諸將咸以抗不宜上,抗曰:「江陵城固兵足,無所憂患。假令敵沒江陵,必不能守,所損者小。如使西陵槃結,則南山群夷皆當擾動,則所憂慮,難可竟言也。吾寧棄江陵而赴西陵,況江陵牢固乎?」

Previously Jiānglíng was flat and open, roads easy to take, so Kàng ordered Commander of Jiānglíng Zhāng Xián to build large dams to restrain the waters, to flood the plains, to cutoff the enemy and rebels. [Yáng] Hù wished to because of the dammed water to send boats to transport provisions, and spread word he was about to destroy the dam to make way for infantry and chariots. Kàng heard of this, and sent [Zhāng] Xián to quickly destroy it. The various Generals were all confused, repeatedly remonstrated but he did not listen. [Yáng] Hù reached Dāngyáng, heard the damn was destroyed, and therefore switched his boats to transport by cart, and greatly expended and weakened his strength.

初,江陵平衍,道路通利,抗敕江陵督張咸作大堰遏水,漸漬平中,以絕寇叛。祜欲因所遏水,浮船運糧,揚聲將破堰以通步車。抗聞,使咸亟破之。諸將皆惑,屢諫不聽。祜至當陽,聞堰敗,乃改船以車運,大費損功力。

Jìn’s Bādōng Supervisor of the Army Xú Yìn led the navy against Jiànpíng, and [Jìn’s] Inspector of Jīngzhōu Yáng Zhào reached Xīlíng. Kàng ordered Zhāng Xián to firmly defend his city; Commander of Gōng’ān Sūn Zūn to patrol Nán’àn to resist [Yáng] Hù; Navy Commander Liú Lǜ and General Defending the West Zhū Wǎn to resist [Xú] Yìn; while he personally led the three armies, relying on the fortifications to oppose [Yáng] Zhào. [Wú’s] General Zhū Qiáo and Commander of Yíng Yú Zàn deserted and joined [Yáng] Zhào.

晉巴東監軍徐胤率水軍詣建平,荊州刺史楊肇至西陵。抗令張咸固守其城;公安督孫遵巡南岸禦祜;水軍督留慮、鎮西將軍朱琬拒胤;身率三軍,憑圍對肇。將軍朱喬、營都督俞贊亡詣肇。

Kàng said: “[Yú] Zàn is the army’s old official, and knows our true situation. I have always feared the foreign tribe troops are not well trained, and if the enemy attacks our encirclement, they will certainly first go there.”

抗曰:「贊軍中舊吏,知吾虛實者,吾常慮夷兵素不簡練,若敵攻圍,必先此處。」

That night he moved the tribal peoples, and all replaced them with old officers. The next day, [Yáng] Zhào indeed attacked the former tribal soldier positions. Kàng ordered the army to attack them, and arrows and stones like rain came down, and in [Yáng] Zhào’s army the wounded and dead were piled together. From [Yáng] Zhào’s arrival after a month, his plans were unsuccessful and in the night he retreated. Kàng wished to pursue them, but feared that [Bù] Chǎn would gather his strength and wait and look for an opening, that his troops were not enough to be divided, and therefore he only made calls and drums to exhort his army, as if he they were about to pursue. [Yáng] Zhào’s army was fearful, and all abandoned armor to flee. Kàng sent light troops to follow them, [Yáng] Zhào was greatly defeated, and [Yáng] Hù and the rest all led their armies back.

即夜易夷民,皆以舊將充之。明日,肇果攻故夷兵處,抗命旋軍擊之,矢石雨下,肇眾傷死者相屬。肇至經月,計屈夜遁。抗欲追之,而慮闡畜力項領,伺視閒隙,兵不足分,於是但鳴鼓戒眾,若將追者。肇眾兇懼,悉解甲挺走,抗使輕兵躡之,肇大破敗,祜等皆引軍還。

Kàng therefore captured Xīlíng city, executed and exterminated [Bù] Chǎn’s clan as well as his chief officers and officials, and from these down, those who begged for pardon were several tens of thousands. He repaired the city walls, and returned east to Lèxiāng. His appearance had no boasting look, and he was modest as always, and therefore he obtained the favor and hearts of the officers and soldiers. (1)

抗遂陷西陵城,誅夷闡族及其大將吏,自此以下,所請赦者數萬口。脩治城圍,東還樂鄉,貌無矜色,謙沖如常,故得將士歡心。〔一〕

  • Jìnyángqiū states: Kàng with Yáng Hù exchanged friendly correspondence. Kàng once sent [Yáng] Hù wine, and Hù drank it without suspicion. When Kàng was hill, Hù sent him drugs, and Kàng also without suspicion accepted it. At the time it was believed it was like seeing Huá Yuán and [Sīmǎ] Zǐ again in the present.
  • Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: When Yáng Hù returned, he increased cultivation of virtue and faith, in order to win over the Wú people. Lù Kàng every time told his border garrisons: “They focus on virtue, we focus on cruelty, and that is why without battle we defeat ourselves. Each must defend their share of the boundary, and not seek minute advantage and nothing more. Therefore between Wú and Jìn, there was surplus grain and occupied fields but no raids, oxen and horses that wandered and crossed borders could be reported and recovered. At a Miǎnshàng hunt, Wú captured things a Jìn man had first wounded, and all were sent and returned. Kàng once was ill, and asked for drugs from [Yáng] Hù, and Hù shared some he made, saying: “This is high-quality drugs that I recently personally made, but did not have a chance to use, but as your illness is serious, so I send it.” Kàng obtained and used it, and of the various Generals some remonstrated him, but Kàng did not answer. Sūn Hào heard the two sides were at peace, and investigated Kàng. Kàng said: “If one town or one village cannot have have any men of faith or justice, then all the more for a great state? If I your Servant am not like this, then that is to only demonstrate their virtue and that is all, and [Yáng] Hù is unharmed.” Some believed Hù and Kàng had lost a servant’s moral integrity, so that both were ridiculed.
  • Xí Zuòchǐ states: Those of reason and success are those who protect the realm Under Heaven, those of faith and obedience are the exemplar for all peoples. Though great plans are in decline, righteous voice long ruined, liars and cheaters spread through the streets, pragmatic careful planning can only resolve some urgent matters, people relying on strength and following harshness, the wisdom of officials and shepherds, there are none that do not rely on these to establish achievement, and then abandon them to alone establish themselves. Therefore Jìn Wén withdrew and yet Yuánchéng asked to submit; Mù-zi besieged Gǔ and admonished them with strength; Yě Fū presented a strategy, and the Fèi men surrendered; Yuè Yì slowly attacked, but in manner was fierce and long reaching. Observing how these situations and systems led to success, how can one follow power and deception and nothing more? To now the three states have been like legs of a tripod for over forty years, the Wú men unable to cross the Huái and Miǎn and advance to take the central states, and the central state unable to cross the Chángjiāng to seize victory, for their strength was equal and their wisdom comparable, but their principles not sufficient to overcome each other. Destroying others and benefiting ourselves cannot compare to benefiting ourselves and not destroying; shaking martial power to frighten others cannot compare to spreading virtue and caring for the people. An ordinary fellow yet may not be forced to submit, so all the more for a state? Forced submission cannot compare to using virtue to bring them, so all the more in not using regulations? Therefore Yáng Hù restored a plan of great unification, considered the reasons of all soldiers, leveling all the people and uniformly granting favor, shaking righteous web to overpower Wú, understanding universal love to expel cruel customs, change what the living people looked and heard, and without battle reach beyond the Jiāng. Therefore there could be sound of the pleased and free, and with children on their back they gathered, in different adjacent alien regions, righteously yielding and liberally interacting, and from Wú’s encoutnered enemies, there were none like him. Kàng observed his state was small and his ruler cruel, while Jìn’s virtue was complete and flourishing, people gathered together by this goodness, but they themselves had no plan of firm foundation, the common people cherished the enemy’s virtue and had thoughts of abandoning the ruler. Considering how to calm and settle the people’s hearts, to finely pacify outside and inside, exert this endangerment and weakness, oppose the authority of the stronger state, nothing can compare to being familiar in conduct with principle, to match this victory, to have the other’s virtue not overcome one’s own, and instead have one’s own goodness spread and be heard, increase the greatness of the state, liberally enlighten and influence far, to break charges above the pillow and mat, win victory inside the curtain tents, overturn the enemy without the strength of armored troops, defend the state without the firmness of moats and trenches, integrity and righteousness to change the enemy, honest feeling to previous days. How can one set up lies and deception to endanger the worthy, give oneself a selfish reputation, greedy for outside treasure and not caring for one’s own, foolishly striking them and not preparing oneself? By this in discussion, if defending narrowly and protecting the border, it is only what common soldiers are capable of; to repeatedly endanger, is the affairs of a petty man; to amass deceptions to defend treasures, is the anxieties of the captured, to use power to claim security, is what the enlightened and wise disdain. Worthy men and superior gentlemen were therefore able to rescue their times and be passed down as an example, because of this and those others, their principle and greatness as the result.

〔一〕 晉陽秋曰:抗與羊祜推僑、札之好。抗嘗遺祜酒,祜飲之不疑。抗有疾,祜饋之藥,抗亦推心服之。于時以為華元、子反復見於今。漢晉春秋曰:羊祜既歸,增脩德信,以懷吳人。陸抗每告其邊戍曰:「彼專為德,我專為暴,是不戰而自服也。各保分界,無求細益而已。」於是吳、晉之閒,餘糧栖畝而不犯,牛馬逸而入境,可宣告而取也。沔上獵,吳獲晉人先傷者,皆送而相還。抗嘗疾,求藥於祜,祜以成合與之,曰:「此上藥也,近始自作,未及服,以君疾急,故相致。」抗得而服之,諸將或諫,抗不答。孫皓聞二境交和,以詰於抗,抗曰:「夫一邑一鄉,不可以無信義之人,而況大國乎?臣不如是,正足以彰其德耳,於祜無傷也。」或以祜、抗為失臣節,兩譏之。習鑿齒曰:夫理勝者天下之所保,信順者萬人之所宗,雖大猷既喪,義聲久淪,狙詐馳於當塗,權略周乎急務,負力從橫之人,臧獲牧豎之智,未有不憑此以創功,捨茲而獨立者也。是故晉文退舍,而原城請命;穆子圍鼓,訓之以力;冶夫獻策,而費人斯歸;樂毅緩攻,而風烈長流。觀其所以服物制勝者,豈徒威力相詐而已哉!自今三家鼎足四十有餘年矣,吳人不能越淮、沔而進取中國,中國不能陵長江以爭利者,力均而智侔,道不足以相傾也。夫殘彼而利我,未若利我而無殘;振武以懼物,未若德廣而民懷。匹夫猶不可以力服,而況一國乎?力服猶不如以德來,而況不制乎?是以羊祜恢大同之略,思五兵之則,齊其民人,均其施澤,振義網以羅彊吳,明兼愛以革暴俗,易生民之視聽,馳不戰乎江表。故能德音悅暢,而襁負雲集,殊鄰異域,義讓交弘,自吳之遇敵,未有若此者也。抗見國小主暴,而晉德彌昌,人積兼己之善,而己無固本之規,百姓懷嚴敵之德,闔境有棄主之慮,思所以鎮定民心,緝寧外內,奮其危弱,抗權上國者,莫若親行斯道,以侔其勝。使彼德靡加吾,而此善流聞,歸重邦國,弘明遠風,折衝於枕席之上,校勝於帷幄之內,傾敵而不以甲兵之力,保國而不浚溝池之固,信義感於寇讎,丹懷體於先日。豈設狙詐以危賢,徇己身之私名,貪外物之重我,闇服之而不備者哉!由是論之,苟守局而保疆,一卒之所能;協數以相危,小人之近事;積詐以防物,臧獲之餘慮;威勝以求安,明哲之所賤。賢人君子所以拯世垂範,舍此而取彼者,其道良弘故也。


He was increased to Regional Protector. He heard Commander of Wǔchāng’s left part Xuē Yíng was summoned back and imprisoned. Kàng sent up memorial:

加拜都護。聞武昌左部督薛瑩徵下獄,抗上疏曰:

“Talented governors are the state’s great treasures, the State Altar’s precious resources, the reason the government can achieve order and the four directions can be calmed and purified. Former Minister of Agriculture Lóu Xuán, Scattered-Cavalry Palace Regular Attendant Wáng Fān, Minister Treasurer Lǐ Xù, were all the previous generation’s exceptionally gifted, the time’s famous talents, received at first favor, then received positions, but then all received execution and death, some with their clans exterminated to end their linage, some cast off into the desolate frontiers.

“The Zhōulǐ has standards for pardoning the worthy, the Chūnqiū has the doctrine of forgiving the good, and the Shū states: ‘Rather than kill the innocent, it is better to deviate from standards.’ But [Wáng] Fān’s and the rest’s guilt was not yet settled, were given the greatest punishment, and though their hearts harbored loyalty and righteousness, their bodies suffered the supreme penalty; how is this not sorrowful? Moreover they already died by execution, and undoubtedly had nothing left to feel, but were then burned into ash and discarded on the river bank, and one fears that this is not the upright standards of the former rulers or how the first lords gave admonishment.

“Therefore the common people are sorrowful and alarmed, scholars and people together grieve. [Wáng] Fān and [Lǐ] Xù are forever gone, and even regret is too late. I sincerely hope that Your Majesty will pardon and release Lóu Xuán, but have recently heard that Xuē Yíng has suddenly been arrested.

“[Xuē] Yíng’s father Zōng gave advice to the former Emperor [Sūn Quán], taught and assisted [your father] Wén-huáng[ Sūn Hé], and when [Xuē] Yíng continued this legacy, inside he strictly observed reputation and conduct, so now his position and crime can be forgiven. I your Servant fear that the officials are unclear on the situation, and if again there is execution, it will increase the loss of the people’s hopes, so I beg of your Heavenly grace, hope for the pardon of [Xuē] Yíng’s crime, take pity on his imprisonment, purify and loosen the law’s web, and then the realm Under Heaven will benefit deeply!”

「夫俊乂者,國家之良寶,社稷之貴資,庶政所以倫敘,四門所以穆清也。故大司農樓玄、散騎中常侍王蕃、少府李勖,皆當世秀穎,一時顯器,既蒙初寵,從容列位,而並旋受誅殛,或圮族替祀,或投棄荒裔。蓋周禮有赦賢之辟,春秋有宥善之義,書曰:『與其殺不辜,寧失不經。』而蕃等罪名未定,大辟以加,心經忠義,身被極刑,豈不痛哉!且已死之刑,固無所識,至乃焚爍流漂,棄之水濱,懼非先王之正典,或甫侯之所戒也。是以百姓哀聳,士民同慼。蕃、勖永已,悔亦靡及,誠望陛下赦召玄出,而頃聞薛瑩卒見逮錄。瑩父綜納言先帝,傅弼文皇,及瑩承基,內厲名行,今之所坐,罪在可宥。臣懼有司未詳其事,如復誅戮,益失民望,乞垂天恩,原赦瑩罪,哀矜庶獄,清澄刑網,則天下幸甚!」


At the time the armies were still on the move, the common people were exhausted. Kàng sent up memorial that said:

時師旅仍動,百姓疲弊,抗上疏曰:

“I your Servant have heard that the esteems adapting to the times, the Zhuàn praises observing for opportunities, and therefore when Xià had many crimes then Yīn Tāng used military force, when Zhòu was excessively oppressive then Zhōu took up the Battle-Ax. When it was not the time, the Jade Tower still had [Tāng] worrying in distress, and Mèngjīn had the army [of ]turning its banners back.

“Now we do not focus affairs on building a wealthy state with strong troops, energetic farmers raising livestock and grain, enabling civil and military talents to fully develop their use, government offices without neglect of duties, clearly dismissing or promoting with strict administration, carefully examining punishment to demonstrate permissions and prohibitions, instructing all officials with virtue, and comforting the common people with benevolence, then follow the inheritance of Heaven’s Mandate, take advantage of opportunity, engulf all the world; but instead follow the various General’s seeking reputation, exhaust troops in senseless war, moving and expending countless amounts, the soldiers are exhausted and distressed, the enemy is not weakened, but we are already in critical danger!

“Now to strive for the sovereign’s titles, and be distracted by minuscule gains, this is the treachery of officials, not good planning for the state. In the past Qí and Lǔ fought three battles, the Lǔ men won twice but were destroyed before the turn of a heel. Why was this? It was the large and small’s difference in power. Moreover now what the army overcomes and captures, it is not enough to compensate for the losses! Furthermore to have troops but no support, the ancients clearly warns against, so truly it is suitable to temporarily cease small plans of advances and captures, to raise up the strength of the troops and people, observe for opportunities and gaps, and there will be no regrets.”

「臣聞易貴隨時,傳美觀釁,故有夏多罪而殷湯用師,紂作淫虐而周武授鉞。苟無其時,玉臺有憂傷之慮,孟津有反旆之軍。今不務富國強兵,力農畜穀,使文武之才效展其用,百揆之署無曠厥職,明黜陟以厲庶尹,審刑罰以示勸沮,訓諸司以德,而撫百姓以仁,然後順天乘運,席卷宇內,而聽諸將徇名,窮兵黷武,動費萬計,士卒彫瘁,寇不為衰,而我已大病矣!今爭帝王之資,而昧十百之利,此人臣之姦便,非國家之良策也。昔齊魯三戰,魯人再克而亡不旋踵。何則?大小之勢異也。況今師所克獲,不補所喪哉?且阻兵無眾,古之明鑒,誠宜蹔息進取小規,以畜士民之力,觀釁伺隙,庶無悔吝。」


Second year [273] spring, he was appointed Marshal-in-Chief and Governor of Jīngzhōu.

二年春,就拜大司馬、荊州牧。

Third year [274] summer, he was critically ill, and sent up memorial that said:

三年夏,疾病,上疏曰:

“Xīlíng and Jiànpíng are the state’s defensive screens, both located at the lower river courses, and are faced with the enemy on two sides. If the enemy rides ships to follow the river, sterns and bows across a thousand lǐ, like a star falling or electricity striding, in an instant they can arrive, and we cannot rely on other divisions to rescue overrun counties. This then is the State Altar’s critical point between safety and danger, and is not a border encroachment small threat.

“I your Servant’s father [Lù] Xùn in the past in the west handed down and explained these words, believing Xīlíng is the state’s Western Gate, and though it is said to be easy to defend, it is also easy to lose. If it is not defended, not only is it the loss of a commandery, then Jīngzhōu will no longer belong to Wú. If there is such an occurence, then at once the state should contest it. I your Servant have been at Xīlíng, and followed [Lù] Xùn’s legacy, previously asked for elite troops of thirty thousand, but the officials followed regulations and would not permit so many to go.

“From Bù Chǎn afterward, there has been increase in wear and decline. Now I your Servant manages a thousand lǐ, suffering enemies everywhere, outside resisting strong opposition, inside suffering numerous barbarian tribes, but from top to bottom the soldiers and resources are several tens of thousands, and have weakened and declined daily for a long time, and it is difficult to deal with changes. I your Servant humbly believes the various Kings are young and immature, have never managed state affairs, and so there should be tutors and ministers, to instruct and guide them to worthiness, and there is no use for soldiers or horses, to hinder important affairs. Also the Yellow Gate eunuchs have begun to personally recruit, so soldiers and people fearing conscription, flee and join them.

“I ask for special Imperial Order to simplify inspection, for everything to by situation be set out, to repair where the border receives frequent enemy occupation, allow I your Servant’s command to be over eighty thousand, economize and reduce the multitude of affairs, restore faith in reward and punishment, and though Hán [Xìn] and [Bái] Qǐ were again living, there would be no way to use their schemes. If soldiers are not increased, and these regulations are not revised, though one may wish to overcome and achieve great affairs I your Servant am deeply grieved about this. If after I your Servant die, I beg to take the west as important. May Your Majesty consider and look over I your Servant’s words, and then I your Servant can die but not be gone.”

「西陵、建平,國之蕃表,既處下流,受敵二境。若敵汎舟順流,舳艫千里,星奔電邁,俄然行至,非可恃援他部以救倒縣也。此乃社稷安危之機,非徒封疆侵陵小害也。臣父遜昔在西垂陳言,以為西陵國之西門,雖云易守,亦復易失。若有不守,非但失一郡,則荊州非吳有也。如其有虞,當傾國爭之。臣往在西陵,得涉遜跡,前乞精兵三萬,而(至)〔主〕者循常,未肯差赴。自步闡以後,益更損耗。今臣所統千里,受敵四處,外禦彊對,內懷百蠻,而上下見兵財有數萬,羸弊日久,難以待變。臣愚以為諸王幼沖,未統國事,可且立傅相,輔導賢姿,無用兵馬,以妨要務。又黃門豎宦,開立占募,兵民怨役,逋逃入占。乞特詔簡閱,一切料出,以補疆埸受敵常處,使臣所部足滿八萬,省息眾務,信其賞罰,雖韓、白復生,無所展巧。若兵不增,此制不改,而欲克諧大事此臣之所深慼也。若臣死之後,乞以西方為屬。願陛下思覽臣言,則臣死且不朽。」


That autumn he died, his son Yàn succeeded. Yàn and his younger brothers Jǐng, Xuán, Jī, and Yún divided command of Kàng’s troops.

秋遂卒,子晏嗣。晏及弟景、玄、機、雲、分領抗兵。

Yàn became Assistant General and Supervisor of Yídào. Tiānjì fourth year [280] the Jìn armi invaded Wú, Dragon Rising General Wáng Jùn followed the river eastward downstream, wherever he reached was then overcome, and in the end it was as Kàng had feared.

晏為裨將軍、夷道監。天紀四年,晉軍伐吳,龍驤將軍王濬順流東下,所至輒克,終如抗慮。

Jǐng appellation Shìrén, because he had been honored with a princess [in marriage] was appointed Cavalry Commandant, fief as Marquis of Pílíng, and also commanded Kàng’s troops, appointed Deputy General, Commander of Zhōngxià. He cultivated himself and was good at his studies, and wrote books of several tens of scrolls. (1)

景字士仁,以尚公主拜騎都尉,封毗陵侯,既領抗兵,拜偏將軍、中夏督,澡身好學,著書數十篇也。〔一〕

  • (1) Wénshìzhuàn “Literary Scholars Biographies” states: Lù Jǐng’s mother was Zhāng Chéng’s daughter, Zhūgé Kè’s nephew. When [Zhūgé] Kè was executed, Jǐng’s mother was dismissed. Jǐng as a child was by his paternal grandmother cared for and raised. When his paternal grandmother died, Jǐng for her mourned for three years.

〔一〕 文士傳曰:陸景母張承女,諸葛恪外生。恪誅,景母坐見黜。景少為祖母所育養,及祖母亡,景為之心喪三年。

Second moon rénxū [Mar 22], Yàn was by Wáng Jùn’s separate division killed. Guǐhài [Mar 23], Jǐng also came to harm, at the time aged thirty-one years. Jǐng’s wife was Sūn Hào’s full younger sister, and with Jǐng were both Zhāng Chéng’s daughters’ children. (2)

二月壬戌,晏為王濬別軍所殺。癸亥,景亦遇害,時年三十一。景妻,孫皓適妹,與景俱張承外孫也。〔二〕

  • (2) Jǐng’s younger brothers were Jī appellation Shìhéng, and Yún appellation Shìlóng.
  • Jī Yún Biézhuàn states:
    • At the end of Jìn’s Tàikāng [280-289], both entered Luò[yáng], met the Excellency of Works Zhāng Huá, and Huá in one meeting was impressed with them, saying: “The campaign against Wú’s benefit was obtaining these two talents.” Therefore he for them spread praise, and recommended them to the various lords.
    • Grand Tutor Yáng Jùn recruited Jī as Libationer, transferred to Heir-Apparent Clear Herald and Secretariat Writing Gentleman. Yún became the King of Wú’s Palace Gentlemen Director, sent out as Minister over Jùnyí, deeply had kind government, the officials and people cared for him, and while he was still living established a shrine. Later they both served in prominent positions.
    • Jī was naturally gifted and thoroughly practiced, his writing was elegant and beautiful, and he alone dominated the time. Yún also was good at writing prose, though his purity and novelty did not reach Jī, but in verbal debate and discussion he surpassed him.
    • At the time the Court had many problems, and Jī and Yún both joined with the King of Chéngdū [Sīmǎ] Yǐng. Yǐng employed Jī as Chancellor of Píngyuán, Yún as Qīnghé Inner Scribe. Later Yún was transferred to Right Major, and deeply met with use.
    • Very soon [Sīmǎ Yǐng] with King of Chángshā [Sīmǎ Yì] became estranged, and therefore raised troops to attack Luò[yáng], appointing Jī as Acting General of the Rear, to command Wáng Cuì, Qiān Xiù and others various armies of two hundred thousand, [Lù Yún] Shìlóng composed Nánzhēngfù ‘Southern Campaign Rhapsody’ to praise this event.
    • Jī was a Wú man, resided and traveled with eunuchs, was placed to the right [junior] of the various scholars, and so often was not obeyed. Jī repeatedly fought battle without success, and the dead and scattered were over half.
    • Previously, the eunuch Mèng Jiǔ, was [Sīmǎ] Yǐng’s trusted favorite, and due to favor gained authority. Yún repeatedly spoke of his shortcomings, but [Sīmǎ] Yǐng would not accept this, and [Mèng] Jiǔ also therefore slandered him. During the campaign, [Mèng] Jiǔ’s younger brother Chāo also commanded armies together with Jī, and would not accept the army’s orders. Jī arrested him by law, and [Mèng] Chāo declared: “Lù Jī will rebel,” and Qiān Xiù and others slandered Jī to [Sīmǎ] Yǐng, claiming he was communicating with both sides, [Mèng] Jiǔ also supported this inside. [Sīmǎ] Yǐng trusted this, and arrested Jī, and also arrested Yún and their younger brother Dān, and all were executed.
    • Jī and his brothers were the south of the Jiāng’s exceptional talents, and also were celebrated and famed in the heartlands, all without guilt were massacred, and the realm Under Heaven lamented for them. Jī’s essays were by the world heavily valued, and Yún’s writings were also passed down to the world.
    • Previously, when Kàng overcame Bù Chǎn, executing down to the infants, one who knew the Way very well said of this: “His later generations will certainly suffer the same calamity!” When Jī was executed, his clan was exterminated to the third degree without omission. Sūn Huì with Zhū Dàn wrote a letter: “Mǎ Yuán choosing his master, common people have heard of. Unexpectedly three Chancellor Lù [Xùn, Kàng, Jī] served cruel Courts, destroying themselves and injuring their reputation, and one can for them lament and sigh.”
    • This matter is also in Jìnshū.

〔二〕 景弟機,字士衡,雲字士龍。機雲別傳曰:晉太康末,俱入洛,造司空張華,華一見而奇之,曰:「伐吳之役,利在獲二雋。」遂為之延譽,薦之諸公。太傅楊駿辟機為祭酒,轉太子洗馬、尚書著作郎。雲為吳王郎中令,出宰浚儀,甚有惠政,吏民懷之,生為立祠。後並歷顯位。機天才綺練,文藻之美,獨冠於時。雲亦善屬文,清新不及機,而口辯持論過之。于時朝廷多故,機、雲並自結於成都王穎。穎用機為平原相,雲清河內史。尋轉雲右司馬,甚見委仗。無幾而與長沙王搆隙,遂舉兵攻洛,以機行後將軍,督王粹、牽秀等諸軍二十萬,士龍著南征賦以美其事。機吳人,羇旅單宦,頓居群士之右,多不厭服。機屢戰失利,死散過半。初,宦人孟玖,穎所嬖幸,乘寵豫權,雲數言其短,穎不能納,玖又從而毀之。是役也,玖弟超亦領眾配機,不奉軍令。機繩之以法,超宣言曰陸機將反。及牽秀等譖機於穎,以為持兩端,玖又搆之於內,穎信之,遣收機,并收雲及弟耽,並伏法。機兄弟既江南之秀,亦著名諸夏,並以無罪夷滅,天下痛惜之。機文章為世所重,雲所著亦傳於世。初,抗之克步闡也,誅及嬰孩,識道者尤之曰:「後世必受其殃!」及機之誅,三族無遺,孫惠與朱誕書曰:「馬援擇君,凡人所聞,不意三陸相攜暴朝,殺身傷名,可為悼歎。」事亦並在晉書。

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