(36.5) Zhào Yún 趙雲 [Zǐlóng 子龍]

Zhào Yún, appellation Zǐlóng, was a Chángshān Zhēndìng man. He originally served Gōngsūn Zàn. Zàn sent Xiān-zhǔ [Liú Bèi] to follow Tián Kǎi in resisting Yuán Shào. Yún then followed them and became commander of Xiān-zhǔ‘s cavalry. (1)

趙雲字子龍,常山真定人也。本屬公孫瓚,瓚遣先主為田楷拒袁紹,雲遂隨從,為先主主騎。〔一〕

  • (1) Yún Biézhuàn states:
    • Yún was eight chǐ [1.84 meters] tall, with beautiful face and majestic appearance. He was nominated for office by his home prefecture, and led his local officials and soldiers to join Gōngsūn Zàn. At the time Yuán Shào had become Governor of Jìzhōu. Zàn was very concerned that the people of the province would all follow Shào, and was pleased that Yún had come to join him. He mocked Yún and said: “I have heard that your esteemed province’s people all wish to join Yuán. Why do you alone sir have a different heart, and know to mend your wrong way?” Yún replied: “The realm is in confusion, and cannot yet know who is right. The people are in danger of being overturned. In our rustic province we discussed matters and decided to go where ever there was benevolent government. It is not that we are estranged from Lord Yuán or partial to you, wise General.” Thereafter he followed Zàn on campaign.
    • At the time Xiān-zhǔ had also joined Zàn, and always was with Yún, and Yún became deeply favored and trusted. Due to mourning for his elder brother, Yún resigned his position under Zàn to temporarily return home. Xiān-zhǔ knew he would not return, so he grabbed his hand and would not part with him. Yún resignedly said: “To the end I will not turn my back on virtue.” When Xiān-zhǔ fled to Yuán Shào, Yún met him at Yè. Xiān-zhǔ and Yún slept together on the same bed, and he sent Yún to secretly recruit several hundred men, who all called themselves General of the Left Liú’s personal regiment, and Shào was completely unaware. He then followed Xiān-zhǔ to Jīngzhōu.

〔一〕 雲別傳曰:雲身長八尺,姿顏雄偉,為本郡所舉,將義從吏兵詣公孫瓚。時袁紹稱冀州牧,瓚深憂州人之從紹也,善雲來附,嘲雲曰:「聞貴州人皆願袁氏,君何獨迴心,迷而能反乎?」雲答曰:「天下訩訩,未知孰是,民有倒縣之厄,鄙州論議,從仁政所在,不為忽袁公私明將軍也。」遂與瓚征討。時先主亦依託瓚,每接納雲,雲得深自結託。雲以兄喪,辭瓚暫歸,先主知其不反,捉手而別,雲辭曰:「終不背德也。」先主就袁紹,雲見於鄴。先主與雲同床眠臥,密遣雲合募得數百人,皆稱劉左將軍部曲,紹不能知。遂隨先主至荊州。

When Xiān-zhǔ was pursued by Lord Cáo at Chángbǎn in Dāngyáng [208], he abandoned his wives and children and fled south. Yún personally carried the infant son, who became Hòu-zhǔ [Liú Shàn], and protected the lady Gān, who was the mother of Hòu-zhǔ, and so they all escaped trouble. He was promoted to General of the Ivory Gate. When Xiān-zhǔ entered Shǔ, Yún remained in Jīngzhōu. (2)

及先主為曹公所追於當陽長阪,棄妻子南走,雲身抱弱子,即後主也,保護甘夫人,即後主母也,皆得免難。遷為牙門將軍。先主入蜀,雲留荊州。〔二〕

  • (2) Yún Biézhuàn states:
    • Previously, when Xiān-zhǔ was defeated, there was someone who said Yún had fled north. Xiān-zhǔ grabbed a hand axe and threw it at him, saying: “Zǐlóng would never abandon me!” Shortly after this, Yún arrived. He followed in the pacification of the south of the Jiāng, was appointed Vice General and Administrator of Guìyáng, replacing Zhào Fàn. Fàn’s elder brother’s widow was lady Fán, and had beauty to ruin states, and Fàn wished to wed her to Yún. Yún declined and said: “We have the same surname. Your elder brother is like my elder brother.” He firmly refused and would not permit it. At the time there were people who advised Yún to wed her, and Yún said: “Fàn was only forced to surrender, and his intentions cannot yet be trusted. And women are not rare in this world.” And so he would not accept. Fàn indeed fled and defected, and Yún was not implicated.
    • Before this, he had fought with Xiàhóu Dūn at Bówàng, and captured Xiàhóu Lán alive. Lán was from the same hometown as Yún, and from youth they had known each other. Yún advised Xiān-zhǔ to spare him, recommending Lán as a Military Rectifier because he was learned in law. Yún did not personally employ him close. His cautious and prudent nature was like this.
    • When Xiān-zhǔ entered Yìzhōu [211], Yún was left in command as camp Major. At the time Xiān-zhǔ‘s wife lady Sūn, who was Quán’s younger sister, acted arrogantly and commanded many Wú officials and troops, going about violating laws. Xiān-zhǔ believed Yún was strict and certainly able to maintain order, and so specially appointed him to command the inner household [harem] affairs. When [Sūn] Quán heard that [Liú] Bèi had gone west on campaign, he sent a great fleet to bring back his younger sister. The lady secretly wished to bring Hòu-zhǔ back with her to Wú. Yún and Zhāng Fēi led troops to intercept them on the river, and so brought Hòu-zhǔ back.

〔二〕 雲別傳曰:初,先主之敗,有人言雲已北去者,先主以手戟擿之曰:「子龍不棄我走也。」頃之,雲至。從平江南,以為偏將軍,領桂陽太守,代趙範。範寡嫂曰樊氏,有國色,範欲以配雲。雲辭曰:「相與同姓,卿兄猶我兄。」固辭不許。時有人勸雲納之,雲曰:「範迫降耳,心未可測;天下女不少。」遂不取。範果逃走,雲無纖介。先是,與夏侯惇戰於博望,生獲夏侯蘭。蘭是雲鄉里人,少小相知,雲白先主活之,薦蘭明於法律,以為軍正。雲不用自近,其慎慮類如此。先主入益州,雲領留營司馬。此時先主孫夫人以權妹驕豪,多將吳吏兵,縱橫不法。先主以雲嚴重,必能整齊,特任掌內事。權聞備西征,大遣舟船迎妹,而夫人內欲將後主還吳,雲與張飛勒兵截江,乃得後主還。

Xiān-zhǔ from Jiāméng returned to attack Liú Zhāng [212], and summoned Zhūgě Liàng. Liàng led Yún and Zhāng Fēi and others together to go up the Jiāng west, pacifying the prefectures and counties. They arrived at Jiāngzhōu, and Yún was sent separately to follow the Wài river up to Jiāngyáng, rejoining with Liàng at Chéngdū. When Chéngdū was settled, Yún was appointed General Assisting the Army. (1)

先主自葭萌還攻劉璋,召諸葛亮。亮率雲與張飛等俱泝江西上,平定郡縣。至江州,分遣雲從外水上江陽,與亮會于成都。成都既定,以雲為翊軍將軍。〔一〕

  • (1) Yún Biézhuàn states:
    • When Yìzhōu was settled, at the time some suggested that the houses in Chéngdū and the mulberry and farm fields outside the city should be distributed to the officers. Yún opposed this and said: “Huò Qùbìng, because the Xiōngnú were not yet destroyed, had no use for a household. Not only are the rebels to the state like the Xiōngnú, we have not yet achieved peace. Only when the realm is completely settled and all can return to their fields and homes and plow their home soil, would this be appropriate and that is all. This is the first time that the common people of Yìzhōu have suffered from warfare, and all the fields and homes should be returned to them. Now they should be settled and return to work, and only then can they be conscripted to service, and so obtain popular support.” Xiān-zhǔ agreed and followed this.
    • After Xiàhóu Yuān was defeated [219], Lord Cáo fought for the territory of Hànzhōng, and transported grain through the northern mountains amounting to millions of sacks. Huáng Zhōng believed these could be captured. Yún’s troops followed Zhōng to capture the grain. Zhōng was gone for very long and did not return, so Yún led several tens of light riders past the camp fortification lines to search for Zhōng and the others. It happened that Lord Cáo had also sent out a large force of soldiers. Yún encountered its vanguard and was attacked, fought, but then the main force arrived and pressed hard, so he charged ahead and struck at their lines, advancing and then withdrawing. The Lord’s army was defeated but then surrounded him, but Yún broke through and returned to his camp lines. The officer Zhāng Zhù was wounded, so Yún went back and galloped hard and rescued Zhù back to the camp. The Lord’s army pursued them to the fortifications. At the time the Chief of Miǎnyáng Zhāng Yì was in Yún’s camp. Yì wanted to close the gates to defend, but Yún entered the camp and instead opened wide the gates, lowered the flags and quieted the drums. The Lord’s army suspected Yún had troops hidden in ambush, so they withdrew. Yún then beat the drums and thundered to the heavens and had the crossbows fire into the rear of the Lord’s army. The Lord’s army panicked, and trampled over each other, and many fell into the Hàn river and died. The next morning Xiān-zhǔ arrived at Yún’s camp to inspect the battlefield, and said: “Zǐlóng is all guts!” They feasted and made merry until dusk. In the army they called Yún the General with Tiger Might.
    • When Sūn Quán attacked Jīngzhōu, Xiān-zhǔ was furious and wished to attack Quán. Yún remonstrated him: “The traitor to the state is Cáo Cāo, not Sūn Quán, and once we first destroy Wèi, then Wú will surrender itself. Though Cāo has died, his son Pī has usurped and stolen power. We should follow the common will to quickly seize the land within the Passes and occupy the upper [Yellow] and Wèi rivers to attack the rebels. East of the passes righteous soldiers must rise up to welcome the rightful ruler. You should not set aside Wèi and instead first fight with Wú. Once the war begins, it will not be easy to stop.” Xiān-zhǔ did not listen and then led a campaign east, leaving Yún to command Jiāngzhōu. When Xiān-zhǔ was defeated at Zǐguī, Yún led his army to Yǒng’ān, but the Wú army had already retreated.

〔一〕 雲別傳曰:益州既定,時議欲以成都中屋舍及城外園地桑田分賜諸將。雲駮之曰:「霍去病以匈奴未滅,無用家為,令國賊非但匈奴,未可求安也。須天下都定,各反桑梓,歸耕本土,乃其宜耳。益州人民,初罹兵革,田宅皆可歸還,今安居復業,然後可役調,得其歡心。」先主即從之。夏侯淵敗,曹公爭漢中地,運米北山下,數千萬囊。黃忠以為可取,雲兵隨忠取米。忠過期不還,雲將數十騎輕行出圍,迎視忠等。值曹公揚兵大出,雲為公前鋒所擊,方戰,其大眾至,勢偪,遂前突其陳,且鬥且卻。公軍敗,已復合,雲陷敵,還趣圍。將張著被創,雲復馳馬還營迎著。公軍追至圍,此時沔陽長張翼在雲圍內,翼欲閉門拒守,而雲入營,更大開門,偃旗息鼓。公軍疑雲有伏兵,引去。雲雷鼓震天,惟以戎弩於後射公軍,公軍驚駭,自相蹂踐,墮漢水中死者甚多。先主明旦自來至雲營圍視昨戰處,曰:「子龍一身都是膽也。」作樂飲宴至暝,軍中號雲為虎威將軍。孫權襲荊州,先主大怒,欲討權。雲諫曰:「國賊是曹操,非孫權也,且先滅魏,則吳自服。操身雖斃,子丕篡盜,當因眾心,早圖關中,居河、渭上流以討凶逆,關東義士必裹糧策馬以迎王師。不應置魏,先與吳戰;兵勢一交,不得卒解。」先主不聽,遂東征,留雲督江州。先主失利於秭歸,雲進兵至永安,吳軍已退。

Jiànxīng first year [223] he was appointed Central Protector of the Army and General Attacking the South and given fief as Marquis of Yǒngchāng precinct, promoted to General Defending the East. Fifth year [227] he followed Zhūgě Liàng in garrisoning Hànzhōng. The next year Liàng led the army off, announcing he would follow the Xié valley road. Cáo Zhēn sent a great army there. Liàng ordered Yún and Dèng Zhī to go resist them while he personally went to attack Qí mountain. The troops of Yún and Zhī were weak while the enemy was strong, and were defeated at Jīgǔ, but they collected the troops and defended, and so did not suffer a great disaster. The army retreated, and he was demoted to General Defending the Army. (2)

建興元年,為中護軍、征南將軍,封永昌亭侯,遷鎮東將軍。五年,隨諸葛亮駐漢中。明年,亮出軍,揚聲由斜谷道,曹真遣大眾當之。亮令雲與鄧芝往拒,而身攻祁山。雲、芝兵弱敵彊,失利於箕谷,然斂眾固守,不至大敗。軍退,貶為鎮軍將軍。〔二〕

  • (2) Yún Biézhuàn states: Liàng said: “When the army at Jiētíng retreated, the soldiers and officers all became confused and mixed together. When the army at Jīgǔ retreated, the soldiers and officers did not become lost. Why was this?” Zhī answered: “Yún personally settled the rear, so that none of the military materials were abandoned, and the soldiers and officers had no opportunity to become lost.” Yún’s military supplies had remaining fabric, and Liàng wished to distribute it to the officers and soldiers, but Yún said: “In battle we were unsuccessful. Why give rewards? These should enter the government treasury, and in the tenth moon distributed as winter supplies.” Liàng greatly praised him.

〔二〕 雲別傳曰:亮曰:「街亭軍退,兵將不復相錄,箕谷軍退,兵將初不相失,何故?」芝答曰:「雲身自斷後,軍資什物,略無所棄,兵將無緣相失。」雲有軍資餘絹,亮使分賜將士,雲曰:「軍事無利,何為有賜?其物請悉入赤岸府庫,須十月為冬賜。」亮大善之。

Seventh year he died, and was given posthumous title as Shùn-Píng-hóu “Obedient and Just Marquis.”

七年卒,追諡順平侯。

Previously in the time of Xiān-zhǔ only Fǎ Zhèng received posthumous title. In the time of Hòu-zhǔ, Zhūgě Liàng’s achievements and virtue were unrivaled, Jiǎng Wǎn and Fèi Yī bore the responsibilities for the state, and so also received posthumous title. Chén Zhī was a favored attendant and received many special rewards and honors, and Xiàhóu Bà came from afar to join the state, so they also obtained posthumous names. As a result Guān Yǔ, Zhāng Fēi, Mǎ Chāo, Páng Tǒng, Huáng Zhōng, and Yún were therefore given posthumous title, and at the time this was said to be an honor. (1)

初,先主時,惟法正見諡;後主時,諸葛亮功德蓋世,蔣琬、費禕荷國之重,亦見諡;陳祗寵待,特加殊獎,夏侯霸遠來歸國,故復得諡;於是關羽、張飛、馬超、龐統、黃忠及雲乃追諡,時論以為榮。〔一〕

  • (1) Yún Biézhuàn records Hòu-zhǔ‘s edict: “Yún in the past followed the former Emperor, and his achievements accumulated to renown. We when an infant passed through great danger, depended on his loyalty and obedience, and so escaped from danger. As posthumous names are used to commemorate past great men, suggestions were made for an appropriate posthumous name for Yún. General-in-Chief Jiāng Wéi and others commented, believing: Yún in the past followed the former Emperor, his labors and merits accumulated to renown, he managed the realm in faithful accordance to law, and his achievements can be remembered. His service at Dāngyáng is engraved upon metal and stone. His loyalty defended those above, and the lord remembers this reward. His courtesy was generous to those below, and the servants forget this death. The dead are aware and remain. The living give thanks and depart. According to the Shìfǎ ‘Method of Posthumous Names’: Gentle Worthiness and Compassionate Kindness is called Obedient. Performing duties with teams is called Just. Overcoming and settling calamity and chaos is called Just. Therefore the posthumous name of Yún is Shùn-Píng-hóu “Obedient and Just Marquis.”

〔一〕 雲別傳載後主詔曰:「雲昔從先帝,功積既著。朕以幼沖,涉塗艱難,賴恃忠順,濟於危險。夫諡所以敘元勳也,外議雲宜諡。」大將軍姜維等議,以為雲昔從先帝,勞績既著,經營天下,遵奉法度,功效可書。當陽之役,義貫金石,忠以衛上,君念其賞,禮以厚下,臣忘其死。死者有知,足以不朽;生者感恩,足以殞身。謹按諡法,柔賢慈惠曰順,執事有班曰平,克定禍亂曰平,應諡雲曰順平侯。

Yún’s son Tǒng succeeded, his office reached Gentleman of the Palace Tiger Guard, and his command Acting Supervisor of the Army. The next son Guǎng was Officer of the Ivory Gate and followed Jiāng Wéi to Tàzhōng and died in battle.

雲子統嗣,官至虎賁中郎,督行領軍。次子廣,牙門將,隨姜維沓中,臨陳戰死。

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