(25.1) Xīn Pí 辛毗 [Zuǒzhì 佐治]

Xīn Pí appellation Zuǒzhì was a Yǐngchuān Yángdí man. His ancestors during Jiànwǔ [25-56] from Lǒngxī moved east. Pí accompanied his elder brother [Xīn] Píng in following Yuán Shào. [197] Tàizǔ became Excellency of Works, recruited Pí, but Pí could not answer the orders. [203] When Yuán Shàng attacked his elder brother [Yuán] Tán at Píngyuán, [Yuán] Tán sent Pí to ask Tàizǔ to make peace. (1)

辛毗字佐治,潁川陽翟人也。其先建武中,自隴西東遷。毗隨兄評從袁紹。太祖為司空,辟毗,毗不得應命。及袁尚攻兄譚於平原,譚使毗詣太祖求和。〔一〕

  • (1) Yīngxióngjì “Records of Heroes” states: [Yuán] Tán and [Yuán] Shàng battled outside the gates, and [Yuán] Tán’s army was defeated and fled north. Guō Tú advised [Yuán] Tán: “Now you General have a small state and few troops, your provisions are few and your power weak, and if [Yuán Shàng] Xiǎnfǔ comes you cannot match him for long. I humbly believe you can call Excellency Cáo to come attack [Yuán Shàng] Xiǎnfǔ. If Excellency Cáo comes, he will certainly first attack Yè, and [Yuán Shàng] Xiǎnfǔ will return to the rescue. You General can lead your troops and go west, and everything north of Yè can be captured. If [Yuán Shàng] Xiǎnfǔ’s army is defeated, his troops will flee and desert, and you can also take and use them to resist Excellency Cáo. Excellency Cáo resides afar and if he comes, his supply lines cannot be maintained, and he will certainly himself flee and go. At that time, everything north of Zhào-guó would be ours, and that would be enough to resist Excellency Cáo. If you do not do this, you cannot last.” [Yuán] Tán at first would not accept, but later followed this. He asked [Guō] Tú: “Who can be sent?” [Guō] Tú answered: “Xīn [Pí] Zuǒzhì can.” [Yuán] Tán therefore sent Pí to visit Tàizǔ.

〔一〕 英雄記曰:譚、尚戰於外門,譚軍敗奔北。郭圖說譚曰:「今將軍國小兵少,糧匱勢弱,顯甫之來,久則不敵。愚以為可呼曹公來擊顯甫。曹公至,必先攻鄴,顯甫還救。將軍引兵而西,自鄴以北皆可虜得。若顯甫軍破,其兵奔亡,又可斂取以拒曹公。曹公遠僑而來,糧餉不繼,必自逃去。比此之際,趙國以北皆我之有,亦足與曹公為對矣。不然,不諧。」譚始不納,後遂從之。問圖:「誰可使?」圖答:「辛佐治可。」譚遂遣毗詣太祖。

Tàizǔ was about to campaign into Jīngzhōu, and moved to Xīpíng. Pí met Tàizǔ and explained [Yuán] Tán’s intentions, and Tàizǔ was greatly pleased. After several days, he again wished to first pacify Jīngzhōu, and let [Yuán] Tán and [Yuán] Shàng destroy each other. On another day at a drinking party, Pí observed Tàizǔ‘s demeanor, knew there was a change, and said this to Guō Jiā. [Guō] Jiā informed Tàizǔ, and Tàizǔ asked Pí: “Can [Yuán] Tán be trusted? Can [Yuán] Shàng certainly be defeated or not?”

太祖將征荊州,次于西平。毗見太祖致譚意,太祖大悅。後數日,更欲先平荊州,使譚、尚自相弊。他日置酒,毗望太祖色,知有變,以語郭嘉。嘉白太祖,太祖謂毗曰:「譚可信?尚必可克不?」

Pí answered: “Your enlightened excellency has no need to ask about trust or deception, you need only discuss their power and that is all. When the Yuán brothers first attacked each other, they did not consider others capable of taking advantage, they only considered that the realm Under Heaven could be settled for themselves. Now in one morning he calls for help from your enlightened excellency, and so their situation can be known. [Yuán Shàng] Xiǎnfǔ sees [Yuán Tán] Xiǎnsī is in trouble but cannot take him, and so his strength is exhausted. Their troops are defeated outside, their strategic ministers executed inside, the brothers slander and quarrel, their state is divided into two; for years they battle and campaign, from the armor and helmets grow lice, and moreover there is drought and locusts, and famine arriving simultaneously. Their state has no granary stores, their roads no bags of grain. Natural disasters are sent from above, human affairs are destitute below, and people whether foolish or wise, all know everything is collapsing. Now is the time of Heaven destroying Yuán Shàng.

“Military strategy says that a rock hard fortress with moats and a million armored troops but with no grain cannot be defended. Now if you go attack Yè, if [Yuán] Shàng does not go return to the rescue, then he cannot defend himself. If he returns to the rescue, then [Yuán] Tán will follow at his heel. With your enlightened excellency’s power, and a destitute and weak enemy, striking weary and beaten bandits is nothing more than a fast wind shaking autumn leaves.

“Heaven has delivered [Yuán] Shàng to your enlightened excellency, but your enlightened excellency does not take him and instead attack Jīngzhōu. Jīngzhōu is plentiful and happy, and that state is not yet in trouble. Zhònghuī had the saying: ‘Capture the chaotic and ridicule the doomed.’ Now the two Yuán do not attend to distant strategy but plot against the near, and this can be called chaotic. The settled have no food and the wandering have no provisions, and this can be called doomed. In the morning they cannot plan for the evening, and the people cannot survive, but you do not pacify them, wishing to wait for another year; in another year there might be good harvest, and they might know their doom and correct and reform their virtue, and you would lose the critical opportunity to use troops. Now if because of his request for rescue you console him, your profit could not be larger. Moreover of all the bandits everywhere, none are greater than those to the [Yellow] River’s north. If the River’s north is pacified, then the Six Armies will flourish and the realm Under Heaven be shaken.”

毗對曰:「明公無問信與詐也,直當論其勢耳。袁氏本兄弟相伐,非謂他人能閒其閒,乃謂天下可定於己也。今一旦求救於明公,此可知也。顯甫見顯思困而不能取,此力竭也。兵革敗於外,謀臣誅於內,兄弟讒鬩,國分為二;連年戰伐,而介冑生蟣蝨,加以旱蝗,饑饉並臻,國無囷倉,行無裹糧,天災應於上,人事困於下,民無愚智,皆知土崩瓦解,此乃天亡尚之時也。兵法稱有石城湯池帶甲百萬而無粟者,不能守也。今往攻鄴,尚不還救,即不能自守。還救,即譚踵其後。以明公之威,應困窮之敵,擊疲弊之寇,無異迅風之振秋葉矣。天以袁尚與明公,明公不取而伐荊州。荊州豐樂,國未有釁。仲虺有言:『取亂侮亡。』方今二袁不務遠略而內相圖,可謂亂矣;居者無食,行者無糧,可謂亡矣。朝不謀夕,民命靡繼,而不綏之,欲待他年;他年或登,又自知亡而改脩厥德,失所以用兵之要矣。今因其請救而撫之,利莫大焉。且四方之寇,莫大於河北;河北平,則六軍盛而天下震。」

Tàizǔ said: “Excellent.” Therefore he permitted peace with [Yuán] Tán, and moved to Líyáng. Next year he attacked Yè, overcame it, and memorialized Pí as Consultant Cadet.

太祖曰:「善。」乃許譚平,次于黎陽。明年攻鄴,克之,表毗為議郎。


Long afterward, [217] Tàizǔ sent Regional Protector Cáo Hóng to pacify Xiàbiàn, and sent Pí and Cáo Xiū to advise him. The Order said: “In the past Gāozǔ [Liú Bāng] was greedy and lecherous, but [Zhāng] Liáng and [Chén] Píng rectified his faults. Now [Xīn Pí] Zuŏzhì’s and [Cáo Xiū] Wénliè’s worries are not light.” [219] The army returned, and he became Chief Clerk to the Chancellor.

久之,太祖遣都護曹洪平下辯,使毗與曹休參之,令曰:「昔高祖貪財好色,而良、平匡其過失。今佐治、文烈憂不輕矣。」軍還,為丞相長史。


[220] Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] succeeded, and promoted him to Internal Attendant, and gave fief as Marquis Within the Passes. At the time there was discussion to change the calendar. Pí believed: “The Wèi Clan followed the succession of Shùn and , following Heaven and obeying the people; as for Tāng and , they settled the realm Under Heaven through battle, and therefore changed the calendar. Kǒng-zǐ said: ‘Use the seasons of Xià.’ The Zuǒshìzhuàn states: ‘The Xià repeatedly used Heaven’s standards.’ Why must we oppose this?” The Emperor praised and followed this.

文帝踐阼,遷侍中,賜爵關內侯。時議改正朔。毗以魏氏遵舜、禹之統,應天順民;至於湯、武,以戰伐定天下,乃改正朔。孔子曰「行夏之時」,左氏傳曰「夏數為得天正」,何必期於相反。帝善而從之。


The Emperor wished to relocate Jìzhōu military families of a hundred thousand households to strengthen Hénán. At the time for successive years there was locusts and famine, and the various officials believed this could not be, but the Emperor’s intentions were very definite. Pí and the Court Ministers together asked to meet, and the Emperor knew they wished to remonstrate, and with angry demeanor met them, and of all of them none dared speak.

帝欲徙冀州士家十萬戶實河南。時連蝗民饑,群司以為不可,而帝意甚盛。毗與朝臣俱求見,帝知其欲諫,作色以見之,皆莫敢言。

Pí said: “Your Majesty wishes to relocate military families, for what plan?”

The Emperor said: “You say my relocation of them is wrong?”

Pí said: “Truly it is wrong.”

The Emperor said: “I will not discuss it with you.”

Pí said: “Your Majesty does not consider me to be unworthy, installed me as an attendant, and appointed me to an office of planning and discussion, how can you not discuss it with me? My words are not personal, but for considering the State Altars, so how can you be angry at me?”

毗曰:「陛下欲徙士家,其計安出:」帝曰:「卿謂我徙之非邪?」毗曰:「誠以為非也。」帝曰:「吾不與卿共議也。」毗曰:「陛下不以臣不肖,置之左右,廁之謀議之官,安得不與臣議邪!臣所言非私也,乃社稷之慮也,安得怒臣!」

The Emperor did not answer, and rose to go inside. Pí followed and pulled his garment, but the Emperor forced his clothes away and did not return, and after a long time he then went back out, and said: “Zuǒzhì, what was so extremely urgent that you grabbed me?”

Pí said: “Now if you relocate them, then you will lose the people’s hearts, and also there are no provisions.”

The Emperor therefore relocated only half.

帝不答,起入內;毗隨而引其裾,帝遂奮衣不還,良久乃出,曰:「佐治,卿持我何太急邪?」毗曰:「今徙,既失民心,又無以食也。」帝遂徙其半。

Once he accompanied the Emperor in shooting pheasants. The Emperor said: “Shooting pheasants is so pleasant!”

Pí said: “For Your Majesty it is a deep pleasure, but for your subjects it is a deep hardship.”

The Emperor was silent, and afterward only rarely went out.

嘗從帝射雉,帝曰:「射雉樂哉!」毗曰:「於陛下甚樂,而於群下甚苦。」帝默然,後遂為之稀出。


General-in-Chief of the Upper Army Cáo Zhēn campaigned against Zhū Rán at Jiānglíng, and Pí went as Master of the Army. He returned, and was given fief as Marquis of Guǎngpíng precinct.

上軍大將軍曹真征朱然于江陵,毗行軍師。還,封廣平亭侯。

The Emperor wished to greatly raise armies to campaign against Wú. Pí remonstrated: “The people of Wú and Chǔ are behind rugged terrain and difficult to control. If principle is strong afterward they will submit, if principle is weak they will first rebel. Since ancient times there was this worry, and not only at present. Now Your Majesty rules Within the Seas, so those that do not submit, how can they last long? In the past Wèi Tuó declared himself Emperor, Zǐyáng usurped Imperial title, and within a few years, some became subjects and some were killed. Why was this? The disobedient path cannot long be preserved, but with great virtue there are none who do not submit. Right now the realm Under Heaven is newly settled, the lands broad but people few. One should first plan and afterward send out the army, and still face matters with caution, but moreover now the plans have flaws and yet you still wish to use them, and I your Servant truly cannot see the benefit. The Former Emperor [Cáo Cāo] repeatedly raised an elite army, but only reached the [Yángzǐ] River and turned back. Now the Six Armies are not stronger than back then, but you again follow that [plan], and this is not easy. For today’s plan, none is better than following Fàn Lǐ’s caring for the people, modeling after Guǎn Zhòng’s effective government, then Chōng state’s Garrison Farms, and enlightening Zhòngní’s care for the long term. Within ten years, the strong warriors will not yet be old, the young will be grown and ready for battle, the millions of people will know righteousness, the officers and soldiers will think of devoting themselves, and then afterward when you use them, then after the campaign there will not be another raising of armies.”

帝欲大興軍征吳,毗諫曰:「吳、楚之民,險而難禦,道隆後服,道洿先叛,自古患之,非徒今也。今陛下祚有海內,夫不賓者,其能久乎?昔尉佗稱帝,子陽僭號,歷年未幾,或臣或誅。何則,違逆之道不久全,而大德無所不服也。方今天下新定,土廣民稀。夫廟算而後出軍,猶臨事而懼,況今廟算有闕而欲用之,臣誠未見其利也。先帝屢起銳師,臨江而旋。今六軍不增於故,而復循之,此未易也。今日之計,莫若脩范蠡之養民,法管仲之寄政,則充國之屯田,明仲尼之懷遠;十年之中,彊壯未老,童齔勝戰,兆民知義,將士思奮,然後用之,則役不再舉矣。」

The Emperor said: “Is your intention to leave the enemy for my descendants?”

帝曰:「如卿意,更當以虜遺子孫邪?」

Pí answered: “In the past Zhōu Wén-wáng left dealing with Zhòu to [Zhōu] Wǔ-wáng, only because he knew it was not time. If it is not time, how can it be successful?”

毗對曰:「昔周文王以紂遺武王,唯知時也。苟時未可,容得已乎!」

The Emperor indeed campaigned against Wú, reaching the [Yángzǐ] River and returning.

帝竟伐吳,至江而還。


[226] Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] succeeded, and advanced him to Marquis of Yǐng village, with a fief of 300 households. At the time Internal Documents Supervisor Liú Fàng and [Internal Documents] Director Sūn Zī were trusted by the ruler, they managed and decided the government at the time, and of the great ministers none did not befriend them, but Pí would not deal with them. Pí’s son [Xīn] Chǎng remonstrated: “Now Liú [Fàng] and Sūn [Zī] manage affairs, and everyone attaches to them like shadows. You should slightly yield your intentions, and get involved in the dust. Otherwise you will certainly be slandered.”

明帝即位,進封潁鄉侯,邑三百戶。時中書監劉放、令孫資見信於主,制斷時政,大臣莫不交好,而毗不與往來。毗子敞諫曰:「今劉、孫用事,眾皆影附,大人宜小降意,和光同塵;不然必有謗言。」

Pí sternly said: “Though the Ruler Above cannot yet be praised as intelligent and enlightened, he is not ignorant and inferior. I conduct myself for my own reasons. Even if I am not at peace with Liú [Fàng] and Sūn [Zī], they can only prevent me from being one of the Three Excellencies and nothing more, so what danger is there? How can there be a gentleman who out of a desire to be an Excellency destroy their high moral integrity?”

毗正色曰:「主上雖未稱聰明,不為闇劣。吾之立身,自有本未。就與劉、孫不平,不過令吾不作三公而已,何危害之有?焉有大丈夫欲為公而毀其高節者邪?」

Supplemental Followers Deputy-Director Bì Guǐ memorialized: “Secretariat Deputy-Director Wáng Sī is industrious and a long-serving official, but his loyalty and planning is not as good as Xīn Pí. Pí should replace [Wáng] Sī.”

冗從僕射畢軌表言:「尚書僕射王思精勤舊吏,忠亮計略不如辛毗,毗宜代思。」

The Emperor asked [Liú] Fàng and [Sūn] Zī, and [Liú] Fàng and [Sūn] Zī answered: “Your Majesty’s employment of [Wáng] Sī was because you truly wished to obtain his effectiveness, and not honor false reputation. Pí truly is bright and suitable, but his nature is stubborn and overspecialized. We hope your Holiness will deeply investigate this.” Therefore he was not employed, and sent out as Minister of the Guard.

帝以訪放、資,放、資對曰:「陛下用思者,誠欲取其效力,不貴虛名也。毗實亮宜,然性剛而專,聖慮所當深察也。」遂不用。出為衛尉。


The Emperor was about to repair palaces, the people were pressed into labor, and Pí sent up memorial that said: “I hear that Zhūgě Liàng is planning military action and training troops, and Sūn Quán obtaining horses from Liándōng, so judging their intentions, it seems they wish to come to the left and right. To prepare for all contingencies was the ancients’ good government, but now the palaces are greatly raised, and also for years grain and wheat are not collected. The Shī says: ‘The people already suffer labor, until it is small prosperity, with this favor to the central states, to pacify all four directions.’ May Your Majesty plan for the State Altars.”

帝方脩殿舍,百姓勞役,毗上疏曰:「竊聞諸葛亮講武治兵,而孫權巿馬遼東,量其意指,似欲相左右。備豫不虞,古之善政,而今者宮室大興,加連年穀麥不收。詩云:『民亦勞止,迄可小康,惠此中國,以綏四方。』唯陛下為社稷計。」

The Emperor answered: “When the two rebels are not yet destroyed but palaces are repaired, is the time for those with direct criticism to establish their names. The Ruler’s capital should be managed at the same time as the people labor, so that later generations have no need to again add to it; this was Xiāo Hé’s plan for Hàn’s regulations. Now you sir are Wèi’s important minister, and also should understand this great planning.”

帝報曰:「二虜未滅而治宮室,直諫者立名之時也。夫王者之都,當及民勞兼辦,使後世無所復增,是蕭何為漢規摹之略也。今卿為魏重臣,亦宜解其大歸。」

The Emperor also wished to flatten Běimáng [mountain], to atop it establish a watchtower, to overlook Mèngjīn. Pí remonstrated: “The nature of Heaven and Earth is to have the high be high and low be low. Now to oppose this, is both to be wrong in reason, and also to waste people’s strength, and the people cannot bear the labor. Moreover if the Nine Rivers should overflow, and its flood cause harm, and the hills are all razed, then what can resist it?” The Emperor therefore stopped. (1)

帝又欲平北芒,令於其上作臺觀,則見孟津。毗諫曰:「天地之性,高高下下,今而反之,既非其理;加以損費人功,民不堪役。且若九河盈溢,洪水為害,而丘陵皆夷,將何以禦之?」帝乃止。〔一〕

  • Wèilüè “Summary of Wèi” states: Zhūgě Liàng encircled Qí mountain, could not overcome it, and retreated. Zhāng Hé pursued him, and was by a stray arrow hit and died. The Emperor begrudged losing [Zhāng] Hé, held Court and sighed saying: “Shǔ is not yet pacified but [Zhāng] Hé is dead, what can be done?” Excellency of Works Chén Qún said: “[Zhāng] Hé was truly an elite General, what the state depended upon.” Pí in his heart believed that thought [the loss of Zhāng] Hé was unfortunate, but he was already dead, and it was inappropriate to inside show the Ruler’s weak intentions, and show to the outside lack of greatness. Therefore he opposed [Chén] Qún: “Excellency Chén, what speech is this? At the end of Jiàn’ān [220] the realm Under Heaven could not be a day without Wǔ Huángdì [Cáo Cāo], but after the state lost him, yet Wén Huángdì [Cáo Pī] accepted the Mandate, and in the age of Huángchū [220-226], it could also be said that it could not be without Wén Huángdì. But when he left the realm Under Heaven, yet Your Majesty’s Dragon rose. Now what the state is lacking, is it Zhāng Hé?” Chén Qún said: “It is as Xīn Pí says.” The Emperor laughed and said: “Excellency Chén can be said to be quick to change.”
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: In comparing people there must be coherence, to take examples to show categories. Therefore the superior gentleman in their words are not careless and that is all. Pí wished to improve the Ruler’s intentions, and should have brought up someone in the category of Zhāng Liáo. How could the death of one General be compared against the examples of the Imperial Ancestors? It was very inappropriate words, and nothing can surpass it. Advancing it violates category, and withdrawing it seems flattery. [Xīn Pí] Zuǒzhì was honest and upright, and should not have been like this. Wèilüè is already difficult to trust, but Mister Xí [Zuòchǐ] also followed and passed on this, and I humbly say this man’s received falsehoods were not few.

〔一〕 魏略曰:諸葛亮圍祁山,不克,引退。張郃追之,為流矢所中死。帝惜郃,臨朝而歎曰:「蜀未平而郃死,將若之何!」司空陳群曰:「郃誠良將,國所依也。」毗心以為郃雖可惜,然已死,不當內弱主意,而示外以不大也。乃持群曰:「陳公,是何言歟!當建安之末,天下不可一日無武皇帝也,及委國祚,而文皇帝受命,黃初之世,亦謂不可無文皇帝也,及委棄天下,而陛下龍興。今國內所少,豈張郃乎?」陳群曰:「亦誠如辛毗言。」帝笑曰:「陳公可謂善變矣。」臣松之以為擬人必於其倫,取譬宜引其類,故君子於其言,無所苟而已矣。毗欲弘廣主意,當舉若張遼之疇,安有於一將之死而可以祖宗為譬哉?非所宜言,莫過於茲,進違其類,退似諂佞,佐治剛正之體,不宜有此。魏略既已難信,習氏又從而載之,竊謂斯人受誣不少。


Qīnglóng second year [234] Zhūgě Liàng led armies out against Wèinán. Before this General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng repeatedly requested to battle [Zhūgě] Liàng, but Míng-dì to the end would not listen. That year he was afraid he could not restrain him, and therefore sent Pí as Master of the Army to the General-in-Chief, and Envoy Wielding Staff of Authority. The Six Armies were all respectful, obeyed Pí’s authority and judgements, and none dared disobey. (1)

青龍二年,諸葛亮率眾出渭南。先是,大將軍司馬宣王數請與亮戰,明帝終不聽。是歲恐不能禁,乃以毗為大將軍軍師,使持節;六軍皆肅,準毗節度,莫敢犯違。〔一〕

  • Wèilüè states: [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng repeatedly wished to advance to attack, but Pí prohibited it and would not listen. Though [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng was willful in conduct, yet he always submitted to Pí.

〔一〕 魏略曰:宣王數數欲進攻,毗禁不聽。宣王雖能行意,而每屈於毗。

[Zhūgě] Liàng died. He again returned as Minister of the Guard. He died, posthumous name Sù-hóu “Solemn Marquis.” His son Chǎng succeeded, and during Xiánxī [264-265] became Administrator of Hénèi. (2)

亮卒,復還為衛尉。薨,諡曰肅侯。子敞嗣,咸熙中為河內太守。〔二〕

  • Shìyǔ states: Chǎng appellation Tàiyōng, his office reached Minister of the Guard. Pí’s daughter Xiànyīng wed Minister of Ceremonies Yáng Dān of Tàishān. Her daughter’s son Xiàhóu Zhàn made her a Biography:
    • Xiànyīng was intelligent and had ability in appraisal. Previously Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] and Chén Sī-wáng [Cáo Zhí] competed to become Heir-Apparent, and afterward when Wén-dì was chosen [217], he hugged [Xīn] Pí’s neck and joyfully said: “Lord Xīn do you know how happy I am?” [Xīn] Pí told this to Xiànyīng, and Xiànyīng sighed and said: “The Heir Apparent succeeds the Ruler, Ancestral Temples, and State Altars. In succeeding the Ruler he cannot be not sorrowful, in ruling the state he cannot be not fearful. When he should be sorrowful he is happy, how can he last long? Is this Wèi’s misfortune?”
    • Her younger brother [Xīn] Chǎng became General-in-Chief Cáo Shuǎng’s Military Advisor. [249] Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng wished to execute [Cáo] Shuǎng, and because [Cáo] Shǎng had gone out, closed the city gates. Major to the General-in-Chief Lǔ Zhī commanded [Cáo] Shuǎng’s troops, broke the gate and chopped the bars, and went out the city gates to join [Cáo] Shuǎng, and came to call on Chǎng to go with them. Chǎng was afraid, and asked Xiànyīng: “Heaven’s Son is outside, the Grand Tutor [Sīmǎ Yì] closes the city gates, and people say he is about to harm the state. In this matter what can be done?”
    • Xiànyīng said: “The world Under Heaven has things that cannot be known, but from my judgment of this, the Grand Tutor was forced to have no choice but to act thus. When Míng Huángdì was about to perish, he grasped the Grand Tutor’s arm, and entrusted later affairs to him, and this story is still told among the Court ministers and that is all. Moreover Cáo Shuǎng and the Grand Tutor both received trusted appointments, but [Cáo Shuǎng] alone seized power, acted proud and extravagant, was not loyal to the Ruling House, not upright in humane principle. This uprising is only to execute Cáo Shuǎng and nothing more.”
    • Chǎng said: “That being the case will the matter be successful?”
    • Xiànyīng said: “How can it not be successful? [Cáo] Shuǎng’s ability is no match for the Grand Tutor’s.”
    • Chǎng said: “That being the case then can I not go out?”
    • Xiànyīng said: “How can you not go out? Duty is man’s great righteousness. When an ordinary man is in difficulty, yet others pity them. If you wield staff for another but then abandon this matter, it is inauspicious, and cannot be. Moreover dying for another, accepting appointment for another, is the duty of the trusted aide. You must follow the army and nothing more.”
    • Chǎng therefore went out. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng indeed executed [Cáo] Shuǎng. After the matter was settled, Chǎng sighed and said: “If I had not planned with my elder sister, I would have failed to act righteously.”
    • [262] When Zhōng Huì became Western Defense General, Xiànyīng said to her nephew Yáng Hù: “Why is Zhōng [Huì] Shìjì setting out west?”
    • [Yáng] Hù said: “He wishes to destroy Shǔ.”
    • Xiànyīng said: “[Zhōng] Huì in handling affairs is without restraint, and this is not the way to last long as a subordinate. I fear he has other ambitions.”
    • [Yáng] Hù said: “Aunt, please say no more.”
    • Afterward [Zhōng] Huì invited her son [Yáng] Xiù to be his Military Advisor, and Xiànyīng was worried and said: “On another day when I see Zhōng Huì set out, I worried for the state. Today the trouble reaches my family, but this is the state’s great affair, and I cannot stop it.”
    • [Yáng] Xiù firmly asked to resign to Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng, but Wén-wáng would not listen. Xiànyīng said to [Yáng] Xiù: “It has already happened. Protect yourself. The ancient superior gentlemen, when entering [home] were filial to their parents, when going out were moral to their state. When in office think of your responsibilities, when in challenge think of your position, and do not leave suffering for your father and mother and nothing more. When among the army, what can save you, is only benevolence and forgiveness! You be careful of that!” [Yáng] Xiù indeed survived.
    • Xiànyīng at seventy nine years, in Tàishǐ fifth year [269] died.

〔二〕 世語曰:敞字泰雍,官至衛尉。毗女憲英,適太常泰山羊耽,外孫夏侯湛為其傳曰:「憲英聰明有才鑒。初文帝與陳思王爭為太子,既而文帝得立,抱毗頸而喜曰:『辛君知我喜不?』毗以告憲英,憲英歎曰:『太子代君主宗廟社稷者也。代君不可以不戚,主國不可以不懼,宜戚而喜,何以能久?魏其不昌乎!』弟敞為大將軍曹爽參軍。司馬宣王將誅爽,因爽出,閉城門。大將軍司馬魯芝將爽府兵,犯門斬關,出城門赴爽,來呼敞俱去。敞懼,問憲英曰:『天子在外,太傅閉城門,人云將不利國家,於事可得爾乎?』憲英曰:『天下有不可知,然以吾度之,太傅殆不得不爾!明皇帝臨崩,把太傅臂,以後事付之,此言猶在朝士之耳。且曹爽與太傅俱受寄託之任,而獨專權勢,行以驕奢,於王室不忠,於人道不直,此舉不過以誅曹爽耳。』敞曰:『然則事就乎?』憲英曰:『得無殆就!爽之才非太傅之偶也。』敞曰:『然則敞可以無出乎?』憲英曰:『安可以不出。職守,人之大義也。凡人在難,猶或恤之;為人執鞭而棄其事,不祥,不可也。且為人死,為人任,親昵之職也,從眾而已。』敞遂出。宣王果誅爽。事定之後,敞歎曰:『吾不謀於姊,幾不獲於義。』逮鍾會為鎮西將軍,憲英謂從子羊祜曰:『鍾士季何故西出?』祜曰:『將為滅蜀也。』憲英曰:『會在事縱恣,非特久處下之道,吾畏其有他志也。』祜曰:『季母勿多言。』其後會請子琇為參軍,憲英憂曰:『他日見鍾會之出,吾為國憂之矣。今日難至吾家,此國之大事,必不得止也。』琇固請司馬文王,文王不聽。憲英語琇曰:『行矣,戒之!古之君子,入則致孝於親,出則致節於國,在職思其所司,在義思其所立,不遺父母憂患而已。軍旅之間,可以濟者,其惟仁恕乎!汝其慎之!』琇竟以全身。憲英年至七十有九,泰始五年卒。」

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