(54.2) Lǔ Sù 魯肅 [Zǐjìng子敬]

Lǔ Sù appellation Zǐjìng, was a Línhuái Dōngchéng man. He was born and lost his father, and with his father’s mother resided. His family was wealthy with treasure, and he by nature enjoyed donating. At the time the realm Under Heaven was already in chaos, Sù did not manage family business, instead greatly distributing wealth and goods, easily selling farmland, to provide relief to the poor and make connections with scholars, and he deeply won the local town’s pleased hearts.

魯肅字子敬,臨淮東城人也。生而失父,與祖母居。家富於財,性好施與。爾時天下已亂,肅不治家事,大散財貨,摽賣田地,以賑窮弊結士為務,甚得鄉邑歡心。


Zhōu Yú became Jūcháo Chief, led several hundred men and happened to pass by Sù, and asked for supplies and grain. Sù’s family had two granaries, each with 3000 hú, and Sù therefore pointed to one granary to give to Zhōu Yú, and so [Zhōu] Yú better knew that he was special, and therefore they became close friends, in the manner of [Gōngsūn] Qiáo and [Jì] Zhá.

周瑜為居巢長,將數百人故過候肅,并求資糧。肅家有兩囷米,各三千斛,肅乃指一囷與周瑜,瑜益知其奇也,遂相親結,定僑、札之分。

Yuán Shù heard of his reputation, and appointed him Dōngchéng Chief. Sù observed that [Yuán] Shù had no law and order, and was insufficient to settle affairs, so he therefore brought along the old and weak and led valorous youths of over a hundred people, going south to Jūcháo to join [Zhōu] Yú. [Zhōu] Yú was crossing east [of the Jiāng], and therefore they traveled together, (1) leaving his [Lǔ Sù’s] family at Qū’ē. At the time his father’s mother died, and he returned to bury her at Dōngchéng.

袁術聞其名,就署東城長。肅見術無綱紀,不足與立事,乃攜老弱將輕俠少年百餘人,南到居巢就瑜。瑜之東渡,因與同行,〔一〕留家曲阿。會祖母亡,還葬東城。

  • Wúshū “History Book of Wú” states: Sù’s appearance was exceptional and unique, when young he had strength and integrity, and he was good at making unusual plans. The realm Under Heaven was about to be in chaos, and therefore he studied fencing and riding and shooting, recruited the young, giving them clothes and food, going to the southern mountains to shoot and hunt, in the dark drilling them, giving military instruction and practicing warfare. The elders all said: “The Lǔ clan is in decline, and therefore they bore this wild boy!” Later the powerful figures all rose up, the central provinces were disturbed and in chaos, and Sù therefore ordered his followers: “The central states has lost order, bandits and brigands are brutal and violent, and between the Sì and Huái there is no security. I have heard the Jiāng’s east has fertile land of ten thousand lǐ, the people are rich and the troops strong, and can avoid harm, would you like to follow me to together go to this happy land, to watch for when things change?” His followers all obeyed his command. Therefore he sent the young and weak at the front, the strong and robust at the rear, men and women of over three hundred traveling. The province sent pursuing riders that arrived, Sù and the rest walked slowly, lining up troops and drawing [bows], and said to them: “You good sirs, should understand the situation. Now the realm Under Heaven is in war and chaos, any achievements you have will not be rewarded, and not pursuing us will have no punishments, so why come after us?” He also himself planted his shield, drew his bow and shot at it, and his arrows all pierced it. The riders were already impressed with Sù’s speech, and moreover judged they could not control them, and therefore they returned. Sù crossed the Jiāng [Yángzǐ river] and went to meet [Sūn] Cè, and [Sūn] Cè was also impressed with him.

〔一〕 吳書曰:肅體貌魁奇,少有壯節,好為奇計。天下將亂,乃學擊劍騎射,招聚少年,給其衣食,往來南山中射獵,陰相部勒,講武習兵。父老咸曰:「魯氏世衰,乃生此狂兒!」後雄傑並起,中州擾亂,肅乃命其屬曰:「中國失綱,寇賊橫暴,淮、泗間非遺種之地,吾聞江東沃野萬里,民富兵彊,可以避害,寧肯相隨俱至樂土,以觀時變乎?」其屬皆從命。乃使細弱在前,彊壯在後,男女三百餘人行。州追騎至,肅等徐行,勒兵持滿,謂之曰:「卿等丈夫,當解大數。今日天下兵亂,有功弗賞,不追無罰,何為相偪乎?」又自植盾,引弓射之,矢皆洞貫。騎既嘉肅言,且度不能制,乃相率還。肅渡江往見策,策亦雅奇之。

Liú [Yè] Zǐyáng with Sù was friendly, and sent Sù a letter: “Now the realm Under Heaven’s powerful figures all rise up, and your ability, is well suited for today. If you quickly return and bring your aged mother, then you will have no matters remaining at Dōngchéng. Nearby is a certain Zhèng Bǎo, now at Cháohú, with an army of over ten thousand, occupying land fertile and abundant, and of Lújiāng’s remaining men most rely on and join him, so how about you join himf? Observing his current strength, it can increase further, time cannot be lost, so you sir should quickly come.” Sù answered in agreement with this plan. When the burial was complete he returned to Qū’ē, intending to go north.

劉子揚與肅友善,遺肅書曰:「方今天下豪傑並起,吾子姿才,尤宜今日。急還迎老母,無事滯於東城。近鄭寶者,今在巢湖,擁眾萬餘,處地肥饒,廬江閒人多依就之,況吾徒乎?觀其形勢,又可博集,時不可失,足下速之。」肅答然其計。葬畢還曲阿,欲北行。

At the same time [Zhōu] Yú had already moved Sù’s mother to Wú, and Sù told everything to [Zhōu] Yú. At the time Sūn Cè had already died, [Sūn] Quán occupied Wú, and [Zhōu] Yú said to Sù: “In the past Mǎ Yuán answered Guāng-̇Wǔ by saying: ‘In this present age, it is not only lords choosing their ministers, but ministers also choosing their lord.’ Now our ruler is close with the worthy and honors scholars, receiving the special and taking note of the unusual, and moreover I have heard that the foremost of the wise have secretly discussed, saying that the successors of the Liú clan, will certainly rise in the southeast. Advancing this state of affairs, in accordance with the times, in the end building the Emperor’s foundation, to assist Heaven’s judgment, this is the critical time for great hero’s to ride the dragon and join the phoenix [join the future powerful]. I have said this much, so may you sir not take anymore thought of [Liú Yè] Zǐyáng’s words.” Sù followed this advice.

會瑜已徙肅母到吳、肅具以狀語瑜。時孫策已薨,權尚住吳,瑜謂肅曰:「昔馬援答光武云『當今之世,非但君擇臣,臣亦擇君』。今主人親賢貴士,納奇錄異,且吾聞先哲祕論,承運代劉氏者,必興于東南,推步事勢,當其曆數。終搆帝基,以協天符,是烈士攀龍附鳳馳騖之秋。吾方達此,足下不須以子揚之言介意也。」肅從其言。

[Zhōu] Yú therefore recommended Sù as an ability suitable to assist the times, appropriate to widely search for those similar to him, in order to achieve their enterprise, and so could not be let go.

瑜因薦肅才宜佐時,當廣求其比,以成功業,不可令去也。


[Sūn] Quán met Sù, talked with him and was deeply pleased with him. The various guests left and retired, and Sù also said farewell to go, but he alone invited Sù back, sat together on the same couch to drink, and therefore secretly said: “Now the Hàn House is near collapse, the Four Corners are all disturbed, I carry on my father’s and elder brother’s remaining work, and thinking of reaching Huán’s and Wén’s achievement [in achieving hegemony to support the ruling house]. With your kind consideration, how would you assist this?”

權即見肅,與語甚悅之。眾賓罷退,肅亦辭出,乃獨引肅還,合榻對飲。因密議曰:「今漢室傾危,四方雲擾,孤承父兄餘業,思有桓文之功。君既惠顧,何以佐之?

Sù answered: “In the past Gāo-dì [Liú Bāng] had the trifling wish to honor Yì-dì but could not achieve it, because Xiàng Yǔ did harm. Now this Cáo Cāo, is like the past’s Xiàng Yǔ, so General how can you act as Huán and Wén? By my humble consideration, the Hàn House cannot again be restored, and Cáo Cāo cannot be eliminated. The plan for you General, is only to form a leg of a tripod in the Jiāng’s east, to observe the realm Under Heaven’s quarrels. A plan like this, is also to have no problems yourself. Why is this? The north truly has many problems. While the north has many problems, take advantage to eliminate Huáng Zǔ, advance to attack Liú Biǎo, reach the Cháng Jīang’s utmost origin, occupy and hold it, and afterward establish Imperial title in order to plan for all the realm Under Heaven. This is the enterprise of Gāo-dì.”

肅對曰:「昔高帝區區欲尊事義帝而不獲者,以項羽為害也。今之曹操,猶昔項羽,將軍何由得為桓文乎?肅竊料之,漢室不可復興,曹操不可卒除。為將軍計,惟有鼎足江東,以觀天下之釁。規模如此,亦自無嫌。何者?北方誠多務也。因其多務,剿除黃祖,進伐劉表,竟長江所極,據而有之,然後建號帝王以圖天下,此高帝之業也。」

[Sūn] Quán said: “Now I exert all strength in this region, in order to assist the Hàn and that is all. This advice is not what I can reach.”

權曰:「今盡力一方,冀以輔漢耳,此言非所及也。」

Zhāng Zhāo blamed Sù for having insufficient modesty, and so detested and defamed him, saying that Sù was young and course and negligent, and could not be employed. [Sūn] Quán did not pay it mind, increased honor and trust in him, and bestowed on Sù’s mother clothes and curtains, and household items, so that their wealth resembled what it was before.

張昭非肅謙下不足,頗訾毀之,云肅年少麤疏,未可用。權不以介意,益貴重之,賜肅母衣服幃帳,居處雜物,富擬其舊。


[208] Liú Biǎo died. Sù advanced a proposal: “Jīng-Chǔ is adjacent to our state, its waters flow north, outside it has the Jiāng and Hàn, inside it has defenses of mountains and hills, it has the firmness of metal city walls, fertile lands of ten thousand lǐ, its scholars and people are prosperous. If it is occupied and possessed, it is an Emperor’s supply base. Now [Liú] Biǎo is newly dead, his two sons by nature are not harmonious, the various Generals in their army, each choosing a side. Moreover Liú Bèi is one of the realm Under Heaven’s ambitious and ruthless, is an enemy of [Cáo] Cāo, depended on and resided with [Liú] Biǎo, but [Liú] Biǎo feared his ability and would not employ him. If [Liú] Bèi can win over the local hearts, bringing together high and low, then it is suitable to support him, making alliance and friendship; but if there is dissent and discord, it is appropriate to separately plan against them, in order to achieve our great affairs. I ask to receive your orders to go send condolences to [Liú] Biǎo‘s two sons, while also showing appreciation to their military personnel, and persuade [Liú] Bèi to console [Liú] Biăo’s army, to be of one heart and mind, to together deal with Cáo Cāo, so [Liú] Bèi will certainly be pleased and follow orders. If this can be achieved, then the realm Under Heaven can be settled. Now if we do not quickly go, I fear we will be by [Cáo] Cāo preempted.”

劉表死。肅進說曰:「夫荊楚與國鄰接,水流順北,外帶江漢,內阻山陵,有金城之固,沃野萬里,士民殷富,若據而有之,此帝王之資也。今表新亡,二子素不輯睦,軍中諸將,各有彼此。加劉備天下梟雄,與操有隙,寄寓於表,表惡其能而不能用也。若備與彼協心,上下齊同,則宜撫安,與結盟好;如有離違,宜別圖之,以濟大事。肅請得奉命弔表二子,并慰勞其軍中用事者,及說備使撫表眾,同心一意,共治曹操,備必喜而從命。如其克諧,天下可定也。今不速往,恐為操所先。」

[Sūn] Quán at once sent Sù to go. He arrived at Xiàkǒu, heard Excellency Cáo had already headed toward Jīngzhōu, traveling morning and night. By the time they reached Nánjùn, [Liú] Biǎo’s son [Liú] Cóng had already surrendered to Excellency Cáo, [Liú] Bèi was frightened and hurriedly fled, intending to go south to cross the Jīang. Sù directly welcomed him, arrived at Chángbǎn in Dāngyáng, with [Liú] Bèi met, announced [Sūn] Quán’s intentions, and explained the Jīang’s east’s strength and firmness, advising [Liú] Bèi to with [Sūn] Quán join forces. [Liú] Bèi was deeply pleased.

權即遣肅行。到夏口,聞曹公已向荊州,晨夜兼道。比至南郡,而表子琮已降曹公,備惶遽奔走,欲南渡江。肅徑迎之,到當陽長阪,與備會,宣騰權旨,及陳江東彊固,勸備與權併力。備甚歡悅。

At the time Zhūgě Liàng was following with [Liú] Bèi, and Sù said to [Zhūgě] Liàng: “I am [your elder brother Zhūgě Jǐn] Zǐyú’s friend,’ and so they together established friendship. [Liú] Bèi therefore arrived at Xiàkǒu, sending [Zhūgě] Liàng as envoy to [Sūn] Quán, and Sù also returned to receive orders. (1)

時諸葛亮與備相隨,肅謂亮曰「我子瑜友也」,即共定交。備遂到夏口,遣亮使權,肅亦反命。〔一〕

  • Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: Liú Bèi and [Sūn] Quán joined forces, together resisting the central states, was all Sù’s original strategy. He also said to Zhūgě Liàng: “I am Zǐyú’s friend,“ so [Zhūgě] Liàng had already frequently heard Sù’s advice. But the Biography of [Zhūgě] Liàng in the Shǔshū “History Book of Shǔ” states: “[Zhūgě] Liàng with the Horizontal Alliance strategy persuaded [Sūn] Quán, and [Sūn] Quán was therefore greatly pleased,” as if this plan was originally due to [Zhūgě] Liàng. The historians of the two states, each would record what they heard, competing in wish to praise their home state’s greatness, each claiming their achievements. Now these two histories, both came from one man [Chén Shòu], so a contradiction like this, is not the form of proper narration.

〔一〕 臣松之案:劉備與權併力,共拒中國,皆肅之本謀。又語諸葛亮曰「我子瑜友也」,則亮已亟聞肅言矣。而蜀書亮傳曰:「亮以連橫之略說權,權乃大喜。」如似此計始出於亮。若二國史官,各記所聞,競欲稱揚本國容美,各取其功。今此二書,同出一人,而舛互若此,非載述之體也。


At the same time [Sūn] Quán had received news Excellency Cáo wished to go east, discussed it with the various officers, and all urged [Sūn] Quán to submit to him, but Sù alone did not speak. [Sūn] Quán rose to change clothes [use the restroom], Sù followed him down, [Sūn] Quán knew his intentions, grasped Sù’s hand and said: “What do you wish to say?”

會權得曹公欲東之問,與諸將議,皆勸權迎之,而肅獨不言。權起更衣,肅追於宇下,權知其意,執肅手曰:「卿欲何言?」

Sù answered: “Observing everyone’s suggestions, it is a wish to deceive you General, and insufficient to plan for great affairs. Now I could simply submit to [Cáo] Cāo, but you General cannot. Why do I say this? Now if I welcome [Cáo] Cāo, [Cáo] Cāo would send me back to my hometown, grade my reputation and rank, and so I could not fail to be a lesser official and advisor, ride an ox-drawn carriage, with a following of officials and troops, befriending various scholars, and so my rank would therefore not fail to reach a province or prefecture [position]. But if you General submit to [Cáo] Cāo, where could you go? May you early settle this great matter, and use none of the crowd’s suggestions.”

肅對曰:「向察眾人之議,專欲誤將軍,不足與圖大事。今肅可迎操耳,如將軍,不可也。何以言之?今肅迎操,操當以肅還付鄉黨,品其名位,猶不失下曹從事,乘犢車,從吏卒,交游士林,累官故不失州郡也。將軍迎操,欲安所歸?願早定大計,莫用眾人之議也。」

[Sūn] Quán sighed and said: “These suggestions from everyone, deeply failed my hopes. Now your great opening plan, is exactly the same as mine. This is Heaven bestowing you onto me.” (1)

權歎息曰:「此諸人持議,甚失孤望;今卿廓開大計,正與孤同,此天以卿賜我也。」〔一〕

  • Wèishū “History Book of Wèi” and Jiǔzhōu Chūnqiū “Nine Provinces Chronicles” state: Excellency Cáo campaigned against Jīngzhōu, Sūn Quán was greatly afraid, Lǔ Sù truly wished to urge [Sūn] Quán to resist Excellency Cáo, and therefore fiercely advised [Sūn] Quán: “Excellency Cáo is truly a severe enemy. He has newly conquered Yuán Shào, his troops and horses are very elite, he is following up on the power of a victory, cutting down a state in confusion, and his success is certain. It is better to send troops to assist him, and also send your family to Yè; otherwise you will be in danger.” [Sūn] Quán was greatly furious, wished to behead Sù, and Sù therefore said: “Now the situation is already urgent, so if you have another plan, why not send troops to assist Liú Bèi, instead of wishing to behead me?” [Sūn] Quán agreed with this, and therefore sent Zhōu Yú to assist [Liú] Bèi.
  • Sūn Shèng states: According to Wúshū and Jiāngbiǎozhuàn, Lǔ Sù in the first meeting with Sūn Quán immediately advised resisting Excellency Cáo and discussed a plan for becoming Emperor. When Liú Biǎo died, he also asked to be sent to watch for changes, so in no way could he have instead fiercely advised and urged for welcoming Excellency Cáo. Also at the time those urging welcoming were many, but it says that he only wished to behead Sù, which makes no sense.

〔一〕 魏書及九州春秋曰:曹公征荊州,孫權大懼,魯肅實欲勸權拒曹公,乃激說權曰:「彼曹公者,實嚴敵也,新并袁紹,兵馬甚精,乘戰勝之威,伐喪亂之國,克可必也。不如遣兵助之,且送將軍家詣鄴;不然,將危。」權大怒,欲斬肅,肅因曰:「今事已急,即有他圖,何不遣兵助劉備,而欲斬我乎?」權然之,乃遣周瑜助備。孫盛曰:吳書及江表傳,魯肅一見孫權便說拒曹公而論帝王之略,劉表之死也,又請使觀變,無緣方復激說勸迎曹公也。又是時勸迎者眾,而云獨欲斬肅,非其論也。


At the time Zhōu Yú had been sent to Póyáng, and Sù urged sending summons for [Zhōu] Yú to return. Therefore [Zhōu] Yú was appointed to handle affairs, with Sù as Colonel Supporting the Army, to assist in making plans. Excellency Cáo was defeated and fled, Sù at once was first to return, and [Sūn] Quán greatly gathered all the officers to welcome Sù. Sù was about to enter the pavilion to bow, and [Sūn] Quán rose to pay respects to him, and therefore said: “Zǐjìng, I grasp saddle and dismount horse to welcome you, is it enough to honor you or not?”

時周瑜受使至鄱陽,肅勸追召瑜還。遂任瑜以行事,以肅為贊軍校尉,助畫方略。曹公破走,肅即先還,權大請諸將迎肅。肅將入閤拜,權起禮之,因謂曰:「子敬,孤持鞍下馬相迎,足以顯卿未?」

Sù hurriedly advanced and said: “It is not.” Everyone heard this, and none were not amazed. When they were seated, he slowly raised whip and said: “I hope when your honored virtuous authority gains the Four Seas, envelops the Nine Provinces, achieving the Emperor’s enterprise, you then use a light wheel carriage to summon me; only then will it be enough to honor me.” [Sūn] Quán grasped his hand and happily laughed.

肅趨進曰:「未也。」眾人聞之,無不愕然。就坐,徐舉鞭言曰:「願至尊威德加乎四海,總括九州,克成帝業,更以安車〈車耎〉輪徵肅,始當顯耳。」權撫掌歡笑。


Later [Liú] Bèi visited their headquarters to meet [Sūn] Quán, asked to command Jīngzhōu, and only Sù urged [Sūn] Quán to lend it, to together resist Excellency Cáo. (1) When Excellency Cáo heard [Sūn] Quán was giving the territory to establish [Liú] Bèi, he was about to write, and the pen fell to the ground [due to his surprise].

後備詣京見權,求都督荊州,惟肅勸權借之,共拒曹公。〔一〕曹公聞權以土地業備,方作書,落筆於地。

  • Hàn-Jìn Chūnqiū states: Lǚ Fàn urged the detaining of [Liú] Bèi, but Sù said: “It cannot be. Though you General have divine military power to command the age, yet Excellency Cáo’s power is truly great. We are newly overlooking Jīngzhōu, our favor and faith are not yet made known, so it is appropriate to lend it to [Liú] Bèi, in order to comfort and secure it. Increasing [Cáo] Cāo’s enemies, while also cultivating our own group of allies, this is the best plan.” [Sūn] Quán followed this.

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:呂範勸留備,肅曰:「不可。將軍雖神武命世,然曹公威力實重,初臨荊州,恩信未洽,宜以借備,使撫安之。多操之敵,而自為樹黨,計之上也。」權即從之。


Zhōu Yú was severely ill, and sent up memorial: “Presently the realm Under Heaven is occupied with warfare, and this is what my heart morning and night worries for. I hope that your honor will first think over what will come, and afterward be in peace and happiness. Now we both have Cáo Cāo as an enemy, and Liú Bèi nearby at Gōng’ān, and with the borders this close, and the common people not yet attached, it is suitable to obtain elite Generals to subdue and comfort them. Lǔ Sù is wise in planning and sufficient for appointment, and I ask that he succeed me, so that on the day I perish, I will be at ease.” (1)

周瑜病困,上疏曰:「當今天下,方有事役,是瑜乃心夙夜所憂,願至尊先慮未然,然後康樂。今既與曹操為敵,劉備近在公安,邊境密邇,百姓未附,宜得良將以鎮撫之。魯肅智略足任,乞以代瑜。瑜隕踣之日,所懷盡矣。」〔一〕

  • Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: Previously [Zhōu] Yú was seriously ill, and wrote letter to [Sūn] Quán: “Though I am of ordinary ability, in the past I happened to receive [General] Punishing Rebels [Sūn Cè]’s special favor, was entrusted like stomach and heart [most intimate official], and therefore held responsibility in honored positions, commanded troops and horses, grasping whip to command, exerting myself in military affairs. I had planned to settle Bā-Shǔ, and then capture Xiāngyáng, and relying on your authority and prestige, it could be said to be within grasp. But because I was not careful, I encountered this terrible illness, yesterday I received medical treatment, but today there is no remission. In life there must be death, the shortness of life is decided, and truly it is not enough to begrudge, but I regret my small ambition is not achieved, and that I can no longer fulfill your commands and that is all. Now Excellency Cáo is to the north, the borders are not yet tranquil, Liú Bèi lodges near, like raising a tiger. The realm Under Heaven’s affairs, cannot be know in how they develop, and this is the season for Court scholars to eat late [work hard], the day to deeply think hard for your honor. Lǔ Sù is loyal and ardent, in overlooking affairs he is not lax, and he can succeed me. When a man is about to die, his words are indeed true. If this is heeded, I will not die in vain.”
  • Comparing this letter to the base biography’s record, though the meaning is the same, the words are very different.

〔一〕 江表傳載:初瑜疾困,與權牋曰:「瑜以凡才,昔受討逆殊特之遇,委以腹心,遂荷榮任,統御兵馬,志執鞭弭,自效戎行。規定巴蜀,次取襄陽,憑賴威靈,謂若在握。至以不謹,道遇暴疾,昨自醫療,日加無損。人生有死,修短命矣,誠不足惜,但恨微志未展,不復奉教命耳。方今曹公在北,疆埸未靜,劉備寄寓,有似養虎,天下之事,未知終始,此朝士旰食之秋,至尊垂慮之日也。魯肅忠烈,臨事不苟,可以代瑜。人之將死,其言也善,儻或可採,瑜死不朽矣。」案此牋與本傳所載,意旨雖同,其辭乖異耳。

At once Sù was appointed Exerting Martiality Colonel, succeeding command of [Zhōu] Yú’s troops. [Zhōu] Yú’s army of over four thousand men, and its supporting fief of four counties, were all given [to Lǔ Sù]. Chéng Pǔ was given [Zhōu Yú’s former] office as Administrator of Nánjùn [instead of Lǔ Sù]. Sù first occupied Jiānglíng, and afterward went down[stream] to garrison Lùkǒu. His authority and grace greatly spread, his army increased to over ten thousand, and he was appointed Administrator of Hànchāng and Supporting General.

即拜肅奮武校尉,代瑜領兵。瑜士眾四千餘人,奉邑四縣,皆屬焉。令程普領南郡太守。肅初住江陵,後下屯陸口,威恩大行,眾增萬餘人,拜漢昌太守、偏將軍。

Nineteenth year [214], he followed [Sūn] Quán in capturing Huànchéng, and was transferred to General Across the Jiāng.

十九年,從權破皖城,轉橫江將軍。


Before this, Governor of Yìzhōu Liú Zhāng’s governance was declining and slackening, and Zhōu Yú and Gān Níng both urged [Sūn] Quán to capture Shǔ. [Sūn] Quán consulted [Liú] Bèi, [Liú] Bèi inside wished to take it for himself, and so falsely replied: “I and [Liú] Zhāng are of the Imperial Clan, and hope to rely on the [ancestral] spirits, to rectify the Hàn Court. Now [Liú] Zhāng has offended your attendants, and I can only be afraid, and not dare listen, and hope you may pardon him. If you do not accept this plea, I will resign and go into the mountains and forests.”

先是,益州牧劉璋綱維頹弛,周瑜、甘寧並勸權取蜀,權以咨備,備內欲自規,仍偽報曰:「備與璋託為宗室,冀憑英靈,以匡漢朝。今璋得罪左右,備獨竦懼,非所敢聞,願加寬貸。若不獲請,備當放髮歸於山林。」

Later [Liú] Bèi went west to plan against [Liú] Zhāng, leaving Guān Yǔ to defend, and [Sūn] Quán said: “This sly bandit dares threaten and cheat me!”

後備西圖璋,留關羽守,權曰:「猾虜乃敢挾詐!」

When [Guān] Yǔ was neighboring Sù, he was repeatedly suspicious, the borders were disordered and confused, but Sù always was friendly to comfort him. When [Liú] Bèi had settled Yìzhōu, [Sūn] Quán requested Chángshā, [Líng]líng, and Guì[yáng], but [Liú] Bèi would not agree, and [Sūn] Quán sent Lǚ Méng to lead an army to advance and capture them. [Liú] Bèi heard this, and personally returned to Gōng’ān, sending [Guān] Yǔ to contest the three commanderies. Sù occupied Yìyáng, and resisted [Guān] Yǔ.

及羽與肅鄰界,數生狐疑,疆埸紛錯,肅常以歡好撫之。備既定益州,權求長沙、零、桂,備不承旨,權遣呂蒙率眾進取。備聞,自還公安,遣羽爭三郡。肅住益陽,與羽相拒。

Sù invited [Guān] Yǔ to meet in person, with each side halted troops and horses a hundred bù away, while the Generals alone carrying swords met. Sù therefore repeatedly reproached [Guān] Yǔ: “Our state only originally lent territory to your group, because your army was defeated and from afar came, with nothing to support itself. Now you have already obtained Yìzhōu, with no intention of returning thanks, and even when requesting three commanderies, you also will not comply.” He was not yet finished talking, when someone seated said: “Territory should belong to the virtuous, how can it constantly be held?” Sù sternly yelled at him, his words and face deeply cutting. [Guān] Yǔ grasped sword and rose and said: “This is the state’s affairs, how can a common man understand it?”, glared and causing him to leave. (1)

肅邀羽相見,各駐兵馬百步上,但請將軍單刀俱會。肅因責數羽曰:「國家區區本以土地借卿家者,卿家軍敗遠來,無以為資故也。今已得益州,既無奉還之意,但求三郡,又不從命。」語未究竟,坐有一人曰:「夫土地者,惟德所在耳,何常之有!」肅厲聲呵之,辭色甚切。羽操刀起謂曰:「此自國家事,是人何知!」目使之去。〔一〕

  • Wúshū states: Sù wished to meet with [Guān] Yǔ to talk, the various officers were suspicious and feared treachery, and said he could not go. Sù said: “In today’s affairs, it is appropriate to deal with them openly. Liú Bèi betrayed our state, the quarrel is not yet settled, so how can [Guān] Yǔ dare seriously wish to act wrongly?” Therefore he hurried to meet [Guān] Yǔ. [Guān] Yǔ said: “In the Wūlín campaign, the General of the Left [Liú Bèi] personally went about, when lying down not shedding his armor, joining strength to defeat Wèi. How can he toil without even one piece of land, and yet you sir have come wishing to take the land?” Sù said: “Not so. When I first saw [Liú Bèi of] Yùzhōu at Chángbǎn, Yùzhōu’s army was not even one battalion, his plans were exhausted and his anxiety was extreme, his ambitions and power broken and weak, and he wished to flee far away, with no other hope. Our ruler pitied Yùzhōu, who had no place to go, did not begrudge giving land and people, to allow him to protect himself and relieve his suffering, but Yùzhōu has only selfish intentions, violating virtue and overthrowing good. Now he has already seized the western province, and also wishes to combine with it the land of Jīngzhōu. This is what a common man could not bear to do, so all the more for a ruler of men! I have heard that the greedy who abandon righteousness, will certainly come to disaster. You my good sir have heavy responsibility, but do not understand principle and discipline, to with righteousness assist the times, and instead depend on your weak army to plan to fight hard. When you always do evil, how can you achieve success?” [Guān] Yǔ had no answer.

〔一〕 吳書曰:肅欲與羽會語,諸將疑恐有變,議不可往。肅曰:「今日之事,宜相開譬。劉備負國,是非未決,羽亦何敢重欲干命!」乃趨就羽。羽曰:「烏林之役,左將軍身在行間,寢不脫介,戮力破魏,豈得徒勞,無一塊壤,而足下來欲收地邪?」肅曰:「不然。始與豫州觀於長阪,豫州之眾不當一校,計窮慮極,志勢摧弱,圖欲遠竄,望不及此。主上矜愍豫州之身,無有處所,不愛土地士人之力,使有所庇廕以濟其患,而豫州私獨飾情,愆德隳好。今已藉手於西州矣,又欲翦并荊州之土,斯蓋凡夫所不忍行,而況整領人物之主乎!肅聞貪而棄義,必為禍階。吾子屬當重任,曾不能明道處分,以義輔時,而負恃弱眾以圖力爭,師曲為老,將何獲濟?」羽無以答。

[Liú] Bèi therefore divided territory with the Xiāng river as border, and then withdrew the army.

備遂割湘水為界,於是罷軍。


Sù at forty six years, Jiàn’ān twenty-second year [217] died. [Sūn] Quán led mourning for him, and also oversaw his burial. Zhūgě Liàng also mourned him. (1)

肅年四十六,建安二十二年卒。權為舉哀,又臨其葬。諸葛亮亦為發哀。〔一〕

  • Wúshū states: Sù as a man was upright and stern, never made false excuses, inside and outside was frugal, and did not act coarsely in affairs. In commanding the army he was orderly, his prohibitions were certain to be followed, and though he was among the army, his hand did not set down books. He was also good at debate, able to compose prose, his thinking and judgment great and far-reaching, and his wisdom surpassed other men. After Zhōu Yú died, Sù was the greatest.

〔一〕 吳書曰:肅為人方嚴,寡於玩飾,內外節儉,不務俗好。治軍整頓,禁令必行,雖在軍陳,手不釋卷。又善談論,能屬文辭,思度弘遠,有過人之明。周瑜之後,肅為之冠。

When [Sūn] Quán claimed Imperial Title, he faced the altar, and looked back to say to the Excellencies and Ministers: “In the past Lǔ Zǐjìng once predicted this. He can be said to have understood the state of affairs.”

權稱尊號,臨壇,顧謂公卿曰:「昔魯子敬嘗道此,可謂明於事勢矣。」

When Sù’s posthumous son [Lǔ] Shū was grown, Commander of Rúxū Zhāng Chéng said in the end he would be successful. During Yǒng’ān [258-264] he became Manifesting Martiality General, Marquis of a capital precinct, and Commander of Wǔchāng. During Jìanhéng [269-271] he was given Staff of Authority and transferred to Commander of Xiàkǒu. Wherever he was he was orderly, and acted well. Fénghuáng third year [274] he died. His son [Lǔ] Mù inherited title, and commanded troops and horses.

肅遺腹子淑既壯,濡須督張承謂終當到至。永安中,為昭武將軍、都亭侯、武昌督。建衡中,假節,遷夏口督。所在嚴整,有方幹。鳳皇三年卒。子睦襲爵,領兵馬。

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