(15.1) Liú Fù 劉馥 [Yuányǐng 元穎]

Liú Jìng 劉靖 [Wéngōng 文恭]

Liú Fù appellation Yuányǐng was a Pèiguó Xiāng man. He fled the chaos to Yángzhōu, at the beginning of Jiàn’ān [196], persuaded Yuán Shù’s Generals Qī Jì and Qín Yì to lead their armies to together join Tàizǔ. Tàizǔ was pleased by this, and the Excellency over the Masses office recruited him as an official.


Later Sūn Cè’s appointed Administrator of Lújiāng Lǐ Shù attacked and killed Inspector of Yángzhōu Yán Xiàng, and Lújiāng’s Méi Qián, Léi Xù, Chén Lán and others gathered an army of several tens of thousands between the Jiāng and Huái, and the commanderies and counties were plundered and ruined. Tàizǔ was about to have difficulty with Yuán Shào, believed Fù could be appointed to manage the southeast’s affairs, and therefore memorialized him as Inspector of Yángzhōu.


When Fù accepted the orders, he alone on a horse went to Héféi’s empty city, established his provincial government, to the south caring for [Léi] Xù and the rest, all peacefully gathering them, and tribute was presented in close succession. Within several years he cultivated kindness and good conduct, the people were pleased with his government, and the wandering people from Yuè and the rivers and mountains that joined him were several tens of thousands. Therefore he gathered scholars, established schools, spread Garrison-Farms, restored and repaired Quèpí and Qiébēi, Qīmén, Wútáng, various damns in order to irrigate the rice fields, the officials and people had livestock. He also raised up the city ramparts, gathered wood and stone, weaving and making straw mats of several ten millions, increased stores of fish oil by several thousand hú, to serve as battle defense preparations.


Jiàn’ān thirteenth year [208] he died. Sūn Quán led a hundred thousand army to attack and besiege Héféi city for over a hundred days, at the time it repeatedly rained, the city walls were about to collapse, and therefore they used straw mats to cover it, in the night burned the oil to illuminate outside the city walls, observe what the enemy had built and make preparations, and the so enemy was defeated and fled. Yángzhōu’s scholars and people increased their memorial to him, believing that even Dǒng Ān’s defense at Jìnyáng could not surpass him. And the benefit of the dam ponds, to today it is used.


Fù’s son [Liú] Jìng, during Huángchū [220-226] from Yellow Gate Attendant Gentleman was promoted to Administrator of Lùjiāng, and the Imperial Order said: “Your father in the past served that province, and now you will again reside in that prefecture, and can be said to be be who can bear heavy burdens.”


He was transferred to Hénèi, promoted to the Secretariat, bestowed with fief as Marquis Within the Passes, sent out as Intendant of Hénán. Scattered Cavalry Regular Attendant Yìng Qú wrote to Jìng: “Entering you provide advice that is followed, going out you have appointment overlooking the capital. Your methods of enriching the people, daily accumulate and monthly grow. Screens high and steep, cut off intentions to break in. Five grains separately sent out, distantly relieving disasters of water and fire. Farm tools are certain to be prepared, with no insufficiency from loss of time. Silkworms and grain have mats prepared for use, with no sorry of rain or moisture. Seals and tallies direct timing, with no loitering officials. Widows and orphans, are roused and cared for by granaries. Moreover to enlighten the obscure, with seriousness maintain composition and not be disturbed, officials follow and obey the Ruling Mandate, and for a hundred lǐ bowing hands and raising up to work. Even the governance of the ancient Zhào, Zhāng and Three Kings, would not be enough to compare.” Jìng in government was of this sort. Though at first there were many problems, in the end the people accepted him, and he continued Fù’s tradition.


His mother died and he left office, later became Minister of Agriculture and Minister of the Guard, advanced in fief to Marquis of Gǎnglù precinct, with fief of 300 households.


He sent up memorial explaining the foundations of Classicist teaching: “Scholarship is the method to treat disorder, the sage’s great teaching. Since Huángchū [220-226], the establishment of the Imperial University was over twenty years ago, but few have completed it, and this is because the Academicians are frivolous in selection, the students avoid toil, the sons of powerful families, feel shamed to study, and therefore there are no scholars. Though there are the titles yet there are no people, though the teaching is established yet the achievements are not. It is suitable to highly select Academician, to obtain models for good conduct, to be teachers for appointed men, and to teach the state’s sons. Relying on the honoring of ancient methods, let the sons and grandsons of 2000 dàn [salaried officals] and above, aged above fifteen, all enter the Imperial University. Enlighten the roads of dismissal and promotions and honor and shame; those of wise conduct and learning, then can be advanced to honor and virtue; those of uncultivated teaching and negligent of work, then can be dismissed to punish wrongs; those that raise good but not taught can be encouraged, and the pretentious flatterers, without prohibition will stop themselves. Beginning great cultivation, will then pacify the not yet obedient; when all six directions are influenced, then the distant will come submit. This is the sage’s teachings, the foundation of achieving governance.”


Later he was promoted to Northern Defense General, with Staff of Authority to command the [Yellow] River’s north’s various army affairs. Jìng believed: “Of the constant great principles, none are better than defending, in distinguishing the people from the foreign.” Therefore he developed border defenses, and garrisons at critical rough terrain. He also repaired and expanded Lìlíng canal’s great dam, to irrigate to the Jì’s north and south; planting the three types of rice crops, and the people benefited from it.


Jiāpíng sixth year [254] he died, and was posthumously promoted Northern Campaign General, advanced in fief to Marquis of Jiànchéng village, posthumous name Jǐng-hóu “Visionary Marquis.” His son [Liú] Xī succeeded. (1)


  • Jìnyángqiū states: Liú Hóng appellation Shūhé, was [Liú] Xī’s younger brother. Hóng with Jìn Shìzǔ [Sīmǎ Yán] were the same age, resided in the same neighborhood, and because of this old favor frequently ascended to high rank. From [Liú] Jìng to Hóng, he did not lose reputation, and had government ability. At the end of Jìn’s Western Court, Hóng became Chariots and Cavalry General-in-Chief Open Office, Inspector of Jīngzhōu, with Staff of Authority to command Jīng, Jiāo, and Guǎng province’s various army affairs, with fief as Duke of Xīngchéng commandery. When he was at the Jiāng and Hàn, the Ruling House had many hardships, and he was able to maintain command over one region, using all his ability, electing his honest subordinates, to severely follow public righteousness, simplifying punishments, encouraging agriculture and silk. Every time there was uprising, he hand wrote to the commandery, raising alarm secretly, and therefore none were not pleased, and the upturned and wandering, all said: “Receiving Lord Liú’s one letter is better than ten divisions of followers.” At the time the Emperor was at Cháng’ān, and ordered that Hóng be allowed to appoint his own officials and Administrators. Soldier Wǔ Cháo of Wǔlíng was high and noble in matters, and Ivory Gate General Pí Chū had achievements at the Jiāng and Hàn, and Hóng appointed [Wǔ] Cháo as Administrator of Línglíng and [Pí] Chū as Administrator of Xiāngyáng. Imperial Order letter said Xiāngyáng was an important commandery, and [Pí] Chū’s resources and reputation were light and shallow, and appointed Hóng’s son-in-law Xiàhóu Zhì to Xiāngyáng instead. Hóng said: “The one to rule the realm Under Heaven should have the same heart as the realm Under Heaven. The one to govern the whole state must pursue truth with the whole state. I govern Jīngzhōu’s ten prefectures. Must I obtain ten daughter’s husbands before I can govern it?” Therefore he memorialized: “[Xiàhóu] Zhì is a relative by marriage, and in the old system these should not supervise one another. [Pí] Chū’s achievements should be rewarded.” This answer was followed, and everyone increased their admiration for his fairness. Administrator of Guǎnghàn Xīn Rǎn because Heaven’s Son was covered in dust [in trouble], the Four Corners shaken and disturbed, advanced plans for independent rule to Hóng, Hóng was furious and beheaded him, and of the people of the time none did not praise him.
  • Jìn Zhūgōng Zàn states: At the time though the realm Under Heaven was in chaos, Jīngzhōu was secure and safe. Hóng had Liú [Biǎo] Jǐngshēng’s ambition to guard the Jiāng and Hàn, and did not join Grand Tutor Sīmǎ Yuè. [Sīmǎ] Yuè deeply resented him. At the time Hóng died of illness. His son Fán was North Internal Cadet-General.

〔一〕 晉陽秋曰:劉弘字叔和,熙之弟也。弘與晉世祖同年,居同里,以舊恩屢登顯位。自靖至弘,世不曠名,而有政事才。晉西朝之末,弘為車騎大將軍開府,荊州刺史,假節都督荊、交、廣州諸軍事,封新城郡公。其在江、漢,值王室多難,得專命一方,盡其器能。推誠群下,厲以公義,簡刑獄,務農桑。每有興發,手書郡國,丁寧款密,故莫不感悅,顛倒奔赴,咸曰「得劉公一紙書,賢於十部從事也」。時帝在長安,命弘得選用宰守。徵士武陵伍朝高尚其事,牙門將皮初有勳江漢,弘上朝為零陵太守,初為襄陽太守。詔書以襄陽顯郡,初資名輕淺,以弘婿夏侯陟為襄陽。弘曰:「夫統天下者當與天下同心,治一國者當與一國推實。吾統荊州十郡,安得十女婿,然後為治哉!」乃表「陟姻親,舊制不得相監臨事,初勳宜見酬」。報聽之,眾益服其公當。廣漢太守辛冉以天子蒙塵,四方雲擾,進從橫計於弘。弘怒斬之,時人莫不稱善。晉諸公贊曰:于時天下雖亂,荊州安全。弘有劉景升保有江漢之志,不附太傅司馬越。越甚銜之。會弘病卒。子璠,北中郎將。

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