(43.5) Wáng Píng 王平 [Zǐjūn 子均]

Wáng Píng appellation Zǐjūn was a Bāxī Dàngqú man. Originally he was adopted by his maternal relatives the Hé clan, and later returned to his surname Wáng. He followed Dù Huò, Piáo Hú to visit Luòyáng, was brevet Colonel, followed Excellency Cáo on campaign to Hànzhōng, and because he surrendered to Xiān-zhǔ [Liú Bèi] was appointed Ivory Gate General and Supplementary General.

王平字子均,巴西宕渠人也。本養外家何氏,後復姓王。隨杜濩、朴胡詣洛陽,假校尉,從曹公征漢中,因降先主,拜牙門將、裨將軍。

Jiànxīng sixth year [228] he was part of Army Advisor Mǎ Sù’s vanguard. [Mǎ] Sù left water to go up a mountain, the action was disruptive, Píng repeatedly remonstrated [Mǎ] Sù, but [Mǎ] Sù would not agree, and was greatly defeated at Jiētíng. The army was completely scattered, and only Píng’s command of a thousand men, shouted and drummed to maintain themselves, and Wèi General Zhāng Hé suspected there were hidden troops, and did not pursue. Therefore Píng slowly gathered the scattered camps to escape, leading the officers and soldiers back. Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng executed Mǎ Sù and Generals Zhāng Xiū and Lǐ Shèng, took away General Huáng Xí’s and other’s troops, but Píng specially met with honor and praise, was appointed Army Advisor, to manage the five divisions and also camp affairs, and was advanced in rank to Suppressing Bandits General, with fief as a precinct Marquis.

建興六年,屬參軍馬謖先鋒。謖舍水上山,舉措煩擾,平連規諫謖,謖不能用,大敗於街亭。眾盡星散,惟平所領千人,鳴鼓自持,魏將張郃疑其伏兵,不往偪也。於是平徐徐收合諸營遺迸,率將士而還。丞相亮既誅馬謖及將軍張休、李盛,奪將軍黃襲等兵,平特見崇顯,加拜參軍,統五部兼當營事,進位討寇將軍,封亭侯。

Ninth year [231], [Zhūgě] Liàng besieged Qíshān, and Píng separately defended Nánwéi. Wèi General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng attacked [Zhūgě] Liàng, Zhāng Hé attacked Píng, Píng firmly defended and did not move, and [Zhāng] Hé could not overcome him.

九年,亮圍祁山,平別守南圍。魏大將軍司馬宣王攻亮,張郃攻平,平堅守不動,郃不能克。

Twelfth year [234], [Zhūgě] Liàng died at Wǔgōng, the army retreated back, Wèi Yán rebelled, in one battle was defeated, and this was Píng’s achievement. He was promoted to Rear Manager of the Army, Calming Hàn General, and assistant to Chariots and Cavalry General Wú Yī campaign at Hànzhōng, and also office as Administrator of Hànzhōng.

十二年,亮卒於武功,軍退還,魏延作亂,一戰而敗,平之功也。遷後典軍、安漢將軍,副車騎將軍吳壹住漢中,又領漢中太守。

Fifteenth year [237], he was advanced in fief to Marquis of Ānhàn, and succeeded [Wú] Yī in commanding Hànzhōng.

十五年,進封安漢侯,代壹督漢中。

Yánxī first year [238] General-in-Chief Jiǎng Wǎn stationed at Miǎnyáng, Píng was moved to Front Protector of the Army, to manage [Jiǎng] Wǎn’s office affairs.

延熙元年,大將軍蔣琬住沔陽,平更為前護軍,署琬府事。

Sixth year [243], [Jiǎng] Wǎn returned to station at Fú, and appointed Píng as Front Supervisor of the Army, Northern Defense General-in-Chief, with command of Hànzhōng.

六年,琬還住涪,拜平前監軍、鎮北大將軍,統漢中。


Seventh year [244] spring, Wèi General-in-Chief Cáo Shuǎng led infantry and cavalry of over a hundred thousand toward the Hàn river, and the vanguard was already at Luò valley. At the time Hànzhōng’s defending troops were not even thirty thousand, and all the officers were greatly alarmed.

七年春,魏大將軍曹爽率步騎十餘萬向漢川,前鋒已在駱谷。時漢中守兵不滿三萬,諸將大驚。

Someone said: “Now our strength is not sufficient to resist the enemy, and we should firmly defend the two cities of Hàn and Yuè, when encountering the enemy let them pass, and then when ready, the Fú army can be enough to rescue the pass.”

或曰:「今力不足以拒敵,聽當固守漢、樂二城,遇賊令入,比爾間,涪軍足得救關。」

Píng said: “Not so. Hànzhōng to Fú is a thousand lǐ. If the enemy takes the pass, then it will be a disaster. Now it is proper to first send Army Protector Liú [Mǐn] and Army Advisor Dù to occupy Xīngshì, while I serve as the rear guard. If the enemy sends a division toward Huángjīn, I will lead a thousand men down to face them, and when ready the Fú army will arrive. This is the best plan.”

平曰:「不然。漢中去涪垂千里。賊若得關,便為禍也。今宜先遣劉護軍、杜參軍據興勢,平為後拒;若賊分向黃金,平率千人下自臨之,比爾間,涪軍行至,此計之上也。」

Only Army Protector Liú Mǐn agreed with Píng’s plan, and immediately put it in place. Fú’s various armies and General-in-Chief Fèi Yī from Chéngdū followed and arrived, the Wèi army retreated, as Píng had originally planned.

惟護軍劉敏與平意同,即便施行。涪諸軍及大將軍費禕自成都相繼而至,魏軍退還,如平本策。

At the time, Dèng Zhī was in the east, Mǎ Zhōng in the south, Píng at the northern border, and all had famous legacies.

是時,鄧芝在東,馬忠在南,平在北境,咸著名跡。


Píng spent his life on military campaign, could not hand write, and the words he knew were not more than ten, but he orally dictated documents, and all were well reasoned and logical. He had people read the Shǐ[] and Hàn[shū]’s various Annals and Biographies, listened to them, and knew their overall meaning, and gradually he could discuss them without making mistakes. He strictly obeyed the law, in his words he did not make jokes, and from morning to night, he sat upright all day, without the appearance of a military General, but by nature he was narrow-minded and suspicious, in conduct he took himself lightly, and because of this decreased his own reputation.

平生長戎旅,手不能書,其所識不過十字,而口授作書,皆有意理。使人讀史、漢諸紀傳,聽之,備知其大義,往往論說不失其指。遵履法度,言不戲謔,從朝至夕,端坐徹日,〈忄畫〉無武將之體,然性狹侵疑,為人自輕,以此為損焉。

Eleventh year [248] he died, his son Xùn succeeded.

十一年卒,子訓嗣。


Previously, Gōu Fú of Hànchāng in the same prefecture as Píng was loyal and brave and magnanimous, repeatedly had battle achievements, and his achievements and fame and rank were second to Píng, his office reached Left General, with fief as Marquis of Dàngqú. (1)

初,平同郡漢昌句扶句古候反忠勇寬厚,數有戰功,功名爵位亞平,官至左將軍,封宕渠侯。〔一〕

  • Huáyáng Guǒzhì states: Later Zhāng Yì, Liào Huà both were General-in-Chief. At the time people said: “Previously there was Wáng [Píng] and Gōu [Fú], later there was Zhāng [Yì] and Liào [Huà].

〔一〕 華陽國志曰:後張翼、廖化並為大將軍,時人語曰:「前有王、句,後有張、廖。」

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