Táng Zī 唐咨
Zhūgé Dàn appellation Gōngxiū was a Lángyé Yángdū man, and Zhūgé Fēng’s descendant. He began as Secretariat Cadet, became Magistrate of Xíngyáng, (1) and entered [Court] as Official Appointment Cadet.
- Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Dàn became Cadet, with Deputy-Supervisor Dù Jī tested a boat on the Táo river, encountered wind and capsized, and Dàn and he were both submerged. Tiger Elite [Guard] floated on the river to rescue Dàn, and Dàn said: “First save Lord Dù [Jī].” Dàn floated to the shore, fainted but was resuscitated.
When someone was recommended [to him], then he would announce these words and afterward employ him, and afterward if there was a problem, then he would publicly discuss the merits and faults and pass judgement, and because of this of the officials none were inattentive in their recommendations. He was gradually promoted to Censorate Internal Deputy Secretariat, and with Xiàhóu Xuán, Dèng Yáng, and others were with each other friendly, gained reputation at Court, and the capital all knew them. Complainers believed Dàn, [Dèng] Yáng, and the others cultivated pretentiousness, gathered empty reputation, and their manner should not be encouraged. Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] detested them, and removed Dàn from office. (2)
- Shìyǔ states: At the time, the age’s eminent scholars were Cavalier Regular Attendant Xiàhóu Xuán, Secretariat Zhūgě Dàn, Dèng Yáng and their sort, together praising each other, calling [Xiàhóu] Xuán’s class of four men as “Four Clevers,” and Dàn’s group of eight men as “Eight Eminents.” Internal Documents Supervisor Liú Fàng’s son [Liú] Xī, Sūn Zī’s son [Sūn] Mì, and Appointment Division Secretariat Wèi Zhēn’s son [Wèi] Liè, three men could not compare to them, but because their fathers occupied powerful positions, were called the “Three Carefree.” Altogether these were fifteen men, the Emperor because of their rambling composition and flowery pretentiousness, dismissed them all from office.
It happened that the Emperor ended, and at the beginning of Zhèngshǐ [240-249], [Xiàhóu] Xuán and the rest all were employed. Again Dàn became Censorate Internal Deputy Secretariat, was sent out as Inspector of Yángzhōu, and promoted General Manifesting Martiality.
Wáng Líng had secret conspiracy , and Grand Tutor Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng secretly led the army on eastern expedition, appointed Dàn as General Defending the East, with Acting Staff of Authority as Commander of Yángzhōu’s various military affairs, and fief as Marquis of Shānyáng precinct.
Zhūgé Kè rose up at Dōngguān. Dàn was sent to command the armies to suppress him, fought battle, and was unsuccessful. He returned, and was transferred to General Defending the South.
Later Guànqiū Jiǎn and Wén Qīn rebelled, sent envoy to visit Dàn, calling to recruit Yùzhōu’s troops and people. Dàn beheaded their envoy, and spread announcement to the realm Under Heaven, to let all know [Guànqiū] Jiǎn, [Wén] Qīn were treacherous. General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng campaigned east, sent Dàn as Commander of Yùzhōu’s various armies, crossing Ānfēng ford to go toward Shòuchūn. [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and [Wén] Qīn were defeated, and Dàn was first to reach Shòuchūn. Inside Shòuchūn were over a hundred thousand people, they heard [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and [Wén] Qīn were defeated, were afraid to be executed, and all broke the city gates and went out, spreading through the mountains and marshes, some scattering and fleeing to Wú. As Dàn had for a long time been south of the Huái, therefore he again became General-in-Chief Defending the East with status equal to the Three Excellencies, and Regional Commander of Yángzhōu.
Wú General-in-Chief Sūn Jùn, Lǚ Jù, Liú Zàn and others heard Huáinán was in chaos, and at the time Wén Qīn came forward, and therefore they led their armies and sent [Wén] Qīn directly toward Shòuchūn. At the time Dàn’s various armies had already arrived, the city could not be taken, so they retreated. Dàn sent General Jiǎng Bān to pursue and attack them, beheaded [Liú] Zàn, sent the head [to the capital], and captured their seals and staff. He was advanced in fief to Marquis of Gāopíng, with revenue from 3500 households, and transferred to General-in-Chief Attacking the East.
Dàn had with [Xiàhóu] Xuán, [Dèng] Yáng, and others been very close, and also Wáng Líng’s and Guànqiū Jiǎn’s groups had all been exterminated, and so was afraid and could not be at ease, so he poured out the state treasury to give out and connect with the peoples’ hearts, and generously cared for close retainers and Yángzhōu adventurers, several thousand men, to become his To The Death Troops. (1)
- (1) Wèishū states: Dàn in bestowing rewards was excessive. For the condemned to death, he would flout regulation to save their lives.
Gānlù Inaugural Year  winter, the Wú rebels wished to attack toward Xúyè. It was calculated that Dàn’s commanded troops and horses were sufficient to resist them, but he again asked for a hundred thousand to defend Shòuchūn, and also requested to along the Huái [river] build fortifications to prepare against invasion, but secretly he wished to protect and keep Huáinán. The Court had some awareness that Dàn was suspicious of his own position, but as Dàn was a longtime minister, wished to have him enter [Court] to judge him.
Second year  fifth moon, he was summoned as Excellency of Works. Dàn received the Imperial Order letter, became more afraid, and therefore rebelled. He summoned and gathered the various armies, and himself set out and attacked Inspector of Yángzhōu Yuè Chēn, killing him. (2)
- Shìyǔ states: Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng already controlled Court and government, and his Chief Clerk Jiǎ Chōng believed it was appropriate to send Advisor Assistants to show appreciation to the Four Expedition [Armies], and therefore he sent [Jiǎ] Chōng to Shòuchūn. [Jiǎ] Chōng returned and informed [Sīmǎ Zhāo] Wén-wáng: “Dàn at Yángzhōu has authoritative military reputation, and the people look to him and follow him. Now if he is summoned, he will certainly not come, but it the problem would be small and the matter quickly handled. If he is not summoned, the problem will be enduring and become a great disaster.” Therefore he was appointed Excellency of Works. The letter arrived, and Dàn said: “If I were to become an Excellency I should be after Wáng [Chǎng] Wénshū, but now I am Excellency of Works! They did not send envoy, but someone on foot to present letter, to have me transfer my troops to Yuè Chēn. This must be [Yuè] Chēn’s doing.” Therefore he led his attendants of several hundred men to Yángzhōu. The Yángzhōu people wished to closed to gates, but Dàn scolded them: “Are you not my former officials?” He directly entered, [Yuè] Chēn fled up the tower, and at once was beheaded.
- Wèimòzhuàn states: Jiǎ Chōng with Dàn met with each other, discussed current events, and therefore he said to Dàn: “In Luò[yáng] the various worthies, all hope for a change in dynasty, and this you know. What do you say of that?” Dàn with stern expression said: “Are you not Jiǎ [Kuí] Yùzhōu‘s son? For generations you received Wèi’s favor, for what do you betray your state, and wish to hand over the Wèi house to another man? This is not what I can bear to hear. If in Luò[yáng] there is trouble, then I will die for it.” [Jiǎ] Chōng was silent. When Dàn was summoned, he invited his various Ivory Gate [officers] to set up wine in a drinking feast, called the Ivory Gate’s accompanying troops, and all were made to drink, and he said to everyone: “Previously I prepared newly made armor and weapons for a thousand men, wishing to use it to strike rebels. Now I am about to return to Luò[yáng], and not be able to use them. I wish to temporarily go out, and see everyone happy and playing, and then quickly return and that is all. You sirs may wait.” Therefore he organized and chose out officers and troops of seven hundred men and set out. Yuè Chēn heard this, and closed the [Yáng]zhōu’s gates. Dàn as he passed the south gates declared: “I am about to return to Luò[yáng], and temporarily going about to travel and play. Why has Yángzhōu closed its gates and made preparations upon seeing me?” He went ahead to the east gate, and the east gate was also closed, so he sent his troops against the city and attacked the gates, the [Yáng]zhōu’s men all fled, they used the wind to set a fire, burning the government treasury, and therefore he killed [Yuè] Chēn. Dàn memorialized: “I received from the state a heavy responsibility, to command troops in the east. Inspector of Yángzhōu Yuè Chēn was treacherous, saying that I was with Wú commnicating, and also saying he had Imperial Order to succeed my position, and was insolent for a long time. I received the state’s orders, with my death as my own pledge, to the end will have no ulterior ends. Furious that [Yuè] Chēn was not loyal, I then led infantry and cavalry of seven hundred men, on this moon’s sixth day attacked [Yuè] Chēn, and on that day beheaded him, sending the head by relay horse to pass it on. If the sagely court’s understands me, then I will be Wèi’s subject. If it does not understand me, then I will be Wú’s subject. I cannot contain my feelings this day, and earnestly send memorial explaining myself, my pain and sorrow is enough to weep blood, but I am cut off by being choked with emotion, and do not know what to do. I beg the Court to investigate that I am true.”
- Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: What Wèimòzhuàn says is all coarse and shallow. I doubt that Dàn would have a memorial be as bad as this.
He gathered from the prefectures and counties and garrison-farms south and north of the Huái over a hundred thousand officials and troops, from Yángzhōu’s newly attached strong troops of forty to fifty thousand men, stored grain to last a year’s provisions, and closed the city and defend. He sent his Chief Clerk Wú Gāng to lead his young son [Zhūgé] Jìng to go to Wú to ask for rescue. (3)
- Shìyǔ states: At the end of Huángchū, the Wú people opened the King of Chángshā Wú Ruì’s tomb, to use its bricks for setting in Línxiāng the Temple for Sūn Jiān. [Wú] Ruì’s appearance was as if still living, and his clothes were not decayed. Later one of the openers met Wú Gāng and said: “Why do you look like the King of Chángshā Wú Ruì, only a little shorter?” [Wú] Gāng was startled and said: “He was my ancestor. How have you seen him?” The witness said how, and [Wú] Gāng said: “Was he reburied or not?” The answer was: “He was immediately reburied.” From when [Wú] Ruì’s death year to when the tomb was opened was over four hundred years. [Wú] Gāng was [Wú] Ruì’s sixteenth generation descendant.
The Wú people were greatly pleased, and sent Generals Quán Yì, Quán Duān, Táng Zī, Wáng Zuò, and others, leading an army of thirty thousand, and secretly with Wén Qīn together came to answer Dàn. They appointed Dàn as Left Regional Protector, with Staff of Authority, Chief Excellency Over the Masses, General of Elite Cavalry, Governor of Qīngzhōu, and Marquis of Shòuchūn.
At the time General Defending the South Wáng Jī was first to arrive, commanded the various armies to besiege Shòuchūn, but it was not yet complete. [Táng] Zī, [Wén] Qīn, and others came from the city’s northeast and followed the mountain terrain to lead their armies to enter the city.
Sixth moon, the Imperial Chariot campaigned east, and reached Xiàng. General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng commanded the interior and exterior various armies of two hundred sixty thousand, overlooked the Huái to suppress them. The General-in-Chief garrisoned Qiūtóu, sent [Wáng] Jī and General Securing the East Chén Qiān and others to on all four sides join siege, inside and outside building double fortifications, with moats and ramparts extremely steep. He also sent Supervisor of the Army Shí Bāo, Inspector of Yǎnzhōu Zhōu Tài and others, to select elite soldiers to be a mobile army, to prepare against outer enemies.
[Wén] Qīn and others repeatedly set out to raid the barricades, and were opposed and beaten back. Wú General Zhū Yì again led the main army to support Dàn and the rest, crossing Líjiāng river, [Zhōu] Tài and the rest opposed them in battle, and every time broke their forward thrust. Sūn Chēn because [Zhū] Yì battled but could not advance, was furious and killed him.
Inside the city provisions gradually decreased, outside rescue did not arrive, and the army had nothing to rely on. Generals Jiǎng Bān and Jiāo Yí both were Dàn’s claws and teeth [henchmen] and planners, abandoned Dàn, and went over the city walls themselves to submit to the General-in-Chief. (1)
- Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Jiǎng Bān and Jiāo Yí said to Zhūgě Dàn: “Zhū Yì and the rest with a great army came but could not advance, Sūn Chēn killed [Zhū] Yì and returned to the Jiāng’s east, outside they say troops are sent, but inside they are waiting for the city’s fall, and from their withdrawal this can already be seen. Now it is appropriate to answer the firm hearts of the army, use troops wishing to be used, to unite strength to fight to the death, attack them on one side, so that even if we cannot completely overcome them, yet some can be saved.” Wén Qīn said: “The Jiāng’s east has been following up on the power of a battle victory for a long time, and has never been troubled by the northerners. Moreover your Excellency has raised an army of over ten thousand on the inside in answer, while I and Quán Duān and others all are occupying death ground, our fathers and sons and brothers are all beyond the Jiāng, so even if Sūn Chēn does not wish it, how can our ruler and our kinsmen listen to him? Moreover the central states for years have had no success, its armies and people are all tired. Now they have watched us for a year, their strength is already exhausted, unexpected circumstances will appear, and unforeseen problems will arise, so onward from now we must only watch and wait for opportunity.” [Jiǎng] Bān and [Jiāo] Yí urgently argued this, [Wén] Qīn became angry, and Dàn wished to kill [Jiǎng] Bān. The two men were afraid, and also knew that Dàn’s spirit was beaten, so in the eleventh moon, they together surrendered.
The General-in-Chief therefore sent them to spread dissent, using strange changes to persuade Quán Yì and the rest, and [Quán] Yì and the rest led their armies of several thousand men to open the gates and come out. Inside the city was shaken and afraid, and did not know what to do.
Third year  first moon, Dàn, [Wén] Qīn, [Táng] Zī, and the rest greatly prepared attack engines, day to night for five to six days attacked the southern barricades, wishing to break the barricades and go out. (1)
- Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Wén Qīn said: “Jiǎng Bān and Jiāo Yí said we could not set out and fled, Quán Duān and Quán Yì also led their armies to surrender, so this is the time when the enemy will not be prepared, and we can battle.” Dàn and Táng Zī and others all believed this was correct, and therefore together led all the army out to attack.
The various armies atop the barricades, overlooked from up high to shoot stone catapults and fire arrows to oppose and burn and destroy their attack engines, crossbow arrows and stones like rain falling, the dead and wounded covering the ground, blood filling the moat. He returned back into the city, inside the city the provisions were gradually exhausted, and those who surrendered and went out were several tens of thousands.
[Wén] Qīn wished to completely send out the northerners, conserve provisions, and with the Wú men firmly defend, Dàn would not listen, and because of this they fought and became hateful. [Wén] Qīn by nature with Dàn had discord, in vain tried to plan together, and as the matter became more desperate they became more suspicions of one another. [Wén] Qīn met with Dàn to plan, and Dàn then killed [Wén] Qīn. [Wén] Qīn’s sons [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ commanded troops in the small city, heard [Wén] Qīn had died, ordered the troops to hurriedly go avenge him, but the army would not obey. [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ alone fled, going over the city walls out, personally submitting to the General-in-Chief. The military officials requested executing them, but the General-in-Chief’s order said: “[Wén] Qīn’s crime cannot be excused from punishments, and his sons indeed should be killed, but [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ in destitution submitted to the Mandate, and moreover the city is not yet taken, and killing them would harden their hearts.” Therefore he pardoned [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ, and sent them to command troops of several hundred riders to patrol the city, shouting to those inside the city: “[Wén] Qīn’s sons were not killed, so what do the rest of you have to fear?” He memorialized [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ as Generals, each given title as Marquis Within the Passes. Inside the city was pleased and disturbed, and also daily hungry and destitute, and Dàn and [Táng] Zī and the rest’s thinking and strength were exhausted. The General-in-Chief therefore personally overlooked the barricades, on all four sides advanced troops, at the same time beating drums and blowing horns to scale the city walls, and inside the city none dared move.
Dàn was distressed, alone rode horse, leading his banner men to dash out the small city gates. The General-in-Chief’s Major Hú Fèn’s division troops opposed and struck, beheading Dàn, sending his head, exterminating his clan to the third degree. Dàn’s banner men of several hundred men, because they did not surrender, they were beheaded, and all said: “To die for Excellency Zhūgě is no regret!” He obtained the people’s hearts like this. (2)
- Gān Bǎo’s Jìnjì states: The several hundred men held hands to form a line. Every time before beheading a man, he was asked to surrender, but he did not change, all to the end. At the time people compared them to Tián Héng. Wú General Yú Quán said: “I received commands from his ruler, to lead troops to save men, and even if I cannot succeed, and am helpless before the enemy, I do not seek anything more.” Therefore he took off helmet and charged into battle and died.
Táng Zī, Wáng Zuò, and the various Assistant Generals all bound themselves to surrender. The [captured] Wú troops were ten thousand, the weapons and supplies piled up like a mountain.
Previously in the siege of Shòuchūn, of the commentators most wished to urgently attack it, but the General-in-Chief believed: “The city is firm and its army many, attacking it will certainly exhaust our strength, and if there are outside enemies, both inside and outside will face enemies, and this is a dangerous path. Now the three rebels are gathering together isolated inside the city, and if Heaven permits perhaps we can kill them all together. I will completely plan to tie them together, to wait and take them.”
Dàn in the second year  fifth moon rebelled, in the third year  second moon was defeated and destroyed. The Six Armies held firm, with deep ditches and high ramparts, but Dàn exhausted himself, and indeed without attacking they overcame him. (1)
- Gān Bǎo’s Jìnjì states: Previously, Shòuchūn every year had heavy rain, the Huái river flooded, frequently submerging cities and towns. Therefore when [Sīmǎ Zhāo] Wén-wáng built encircling fortifications, Dàn laughed at it and said: “Those without needing to be attacked will themselves collapse.” When the main army attacked, there was severe drought for several years. When the city walls had already fallen, on that very day there was great rain, and the encircling fortifications all collapsed.
- Dàn’s son [Zhūgé] Jìng appellation Zhòngsī. When Wú was pacified he returned to Jìn.
- [Zhūgé] Jìng’s son [Zhūgé] Huī appellation Dàomíng, his rank reached Director of the Secretariat, and was posthumously titled Left Grandee Opening Office.
When Shòuchūn was taken, the commentators also believed that south of the Huái was still in rebellion, and the Wú soldiers’s families were south of the Jiāng, and so could not be controlled, and so they should all be exterminated. The General-in-Chief believed: “The ancients in using troops, preserving the state is best, so kill the leaders and nothing more. Should the Wú soldiers escape and flee back, then they can report the greatness of the central states.” Not one was killed, and they were divided in the three prefectures about the Hé to peacefully settle them.
Táng Zī was originally a Lìchéng man. During Huángchū [220-226], Lìchéng prefecture rebelled, killing their Administrator Xú Jī, and nominating Zī as their leader. Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] sent the various armies to suppress and defeated them, Zī fled to the sea, and therefore fled to Wú, office reaching General of the Left, with fief as Marquis, and Wielding Staff. Dàn and [Wén] Qīn were killed, and Zī was also captured alive. The three rebels were all taken, and the realm Under Heaven was calmed. (1)
- Fùzǐ states: Sòng Jiàn with a great ox offered sacrifices, and in the end burned and destroyed himself. Wén Qīn every day made sacrifices to Heaven, and was beheaded by another’s hand. Zhūgě Dàn and his wife gathered with shamans, excessively sacrificing to seek good fortune, and became corpses south of the Huái, their clans exterminated. These all Under Heaven can together see, and is sufficient to for enlightened reflection.
Zī was appointed General Securing the Distant, his various Assistant Generals all were increased in title and rank, and the [captured] Wú army was pleased and submitted. The east of the Jiāng was moved by this, and all did not execute their families. The south of the Huái’s officers and officials and soldiers and people who were by Dàn coerced, only the leaders of rebellion were executed, and the rest were all pardoned.
For [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ collecting [Wén] Qīn’s body, they were given carriage and oxen, to bury it in their old mausoleum. (2)
- Xí Zuòchǐ states: From this, the realm Under Heaven fears authority and appreciates virtue. The gentleman says that General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Zhāo] in this campaign, can be said to be able to use virtue to conquer. The establishment of enterprise is all different, each having their own values, and cannot contain everything. Therefore heroes of exhaustive warfare die without benevolence, and states of accumulated righteousness decline in timidity. Now in one campaign he took three rebels, greatly capturing the Wú army, engulfing the Huái’s shores, imprisoning over a hundred thousand, and can be said to be powerful. But he did not calmly sit, mourned for Wáng Jī’s achievement, cultivated kindness with the Wú men, connected feelings with the enemies, gave favor to [Wén] Yāng to bury [Wén] Qīn, and forgetting past grievances, not blaming Dàn’s army, so that Yáng[zhōu]’s soldiers were ashamed, his achievements were high yet people were happy for his achievement, his enterprise expanded yet the enemy appreciated his virtue, his martial ability manifest and pervasive, his civil ability calculating and extensive. By promoting these principles, who in the realm Under Heaven can oppose him?
- For the mourning of Wáng Jī, the story is in Jī’s biography.
- [Wén] Yāng was originally named Chù.
- Jìn Zhūgōng Zàn states: [Wén] Chù later became a General, defeated Liángzhōu bandits, and his name was heard across the realm Under Heaven. During Tàikāng [280-290] he became Colonel over Eastern Foreigners, with Staff of Authority. But at his appointment, he entered to pay respects to Wǔ-dì [Sīmǎ Yán], the Emperor met and hated him, and used another matter to dismiss [Wén] Chù from office.
- Duke of Dōng’ān [Sīmǎ] Yáo was Zhūgě’s daughter’s son, wished to kill [Wén] Chù, and at the execution of Yáng Jùn falsely accused [Wén] Chù of plotting rebellion, and therefore he was executed and his clan exterminated to the third degree.