(28.3) Zhūgě Dàn 諸葛誕 [Gōngxiū 公休]

Táng Zī 唐咨


Zhūgé Dàn appellation Gōngxiū was a Lángyé Yángdū man, and Zhūgé Fēng’s descendant. He began as Secretariat Cadet, became Magistrate of Xíngyáng, (1) and entered [Court] as Official Appointment Cadet.

諸葛誕字公休,琅邪陽都人,諸葛豐後也。初以尚書郎為滎陽令,〔一〕入為吏部郎。

  • Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Dàn became Cadet, with Deputy-Supervisor Dù Jī tested a boat on the Táo river, encountered wind and capsized, and Dàn and he were both submerged. Tiger Elite [Guard] floated on the river to rescue Dàn, and Dàn said: “First save Lord Dù [Jī].” Dàn floated to the shore, fainted but was resuscitated.

〔一〕 魏氏春秋曰:誕為郎,與僕射杜畿試船陶河,遭風覆沒,誕亦俱溺。虎賁浮河救誕,誕曰:「先救杜侯。」誕飄于岸,絕而復蘇。

When someone was recommended [to him], then he would announce these words and afterward employ him, and afterward if there was a problem, then he would publicly discuss the merits and faults and pass judgement, and because of this of the officials none were inattentive in their recommendations. He was gradually promoted to Censorate Internal Deputy Secretariat, and with Xiàhóu Xuán, Dèng Yáng, and others were with each other friendly, gained reputation at Court, and the capital all knew them. Complainers believed Dàn, [Dèng] Yáng, and the others cultivated pretentiousness, gathered empty reputation, and their manner should not be encouraged. Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] detested them, and removed Dàn from office. (2)

人有所屬託,輒顯其言而承用之,後有當否,則公議其得失以為褒貶,自是群僚莫不慎其所舉。累遷御史中丞尚書,與夏侯玄、鄧颺等相善,收名朝廷,京都翕然。言事者以誕、颺等脩浮華,合虛譽,漸不可長。明帝惡之,免誕官。〔二〕

  • Shìyǔ states: At the time, the age’s eminent scholars were Cavalier Regular Attendant Xiàhóu Xuán, Secretariat Zhūgě Dàn, Dèng Yáng and their sort, together praising each other, calling [Xiàhóu] Xuán’s class of four men as “Four Clevers,” and Dàn’s group of eight men as “Eight Eminents.” Internal Documents Supervisor Liú Fàng’s son [Liú] Xī, Sūn Zī’s son [Sūn] Mì, and Appointment Division Secretariat Wèi Zhēn’s son [Wèi] Liè, three men could not compare to them, but because their fathers occupied powerful positions, were called the “Three Carefree.” Altogether these were fifteen men, the Emperor because of their rambling composition and flowery pretentiousness, dismissed them all from office.

〔二〕 世語曰:是時,當世俊士散騎常侍夏侯玄、尚書諸葛誕、鄧颺之徒,共相題表,以玄、疇四人為四聰,誕、備八人為八達,中書監劉放子熙、孫資子密、吏部尚書衛臻子烈三人,咸不及比,以父居勢位,容之為三豫,凡十五人。帝以構長浮華,皆免官廢錮。

It happened that the Emperor ended, and at the beginning of Zhèngshǐ [240-249], [Xiàhóu] Xuán and the rest all were employed. Again Dàn became Censorate Internal Deputy Secretariat, was sent out as Inspector of Yángzhōu, and promoted General Manifesting Martiality.

會帝崩,正始初,玄等並在職。復以誕為御史中丞尚書,出為揚州刺史,加昭武將軍。


Wáng Líng had secret conspiracy [251], and Grand Tutor Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng secretly led the army on eastern expedition, appointed Dàn as General Defending the East, with Acting Staff of Authority as Commander of Yángzhōu’s various military affairs, and fief as Marquis of Shānyáng precinct.

王淩之陰謀也,太傅司馬宣王潛軍東伐,以誕為鎮東將軍、假節都督揚州諸軍事,封山陽亭侯。

Zhūgé Kè rose up at Dōngguān. Dàn was sent to command the armies to suppress him, fought battle, and was unsuccessful. He returned, and was transferred to General Defending the South.

諸葛恪興東關,遣誕督諸軍討之,與戰,不利。還,徙為鎮南將軍。


Later Guànqiū Jiǎn and Wén Qīn rebelled, sent envoy to visit Dàn, calling to recruit Yùzhōu’s troops and people. Dàn beheaded their envoy, and spread announcement to the realm Under Heaven, to let all know [Guànqiū] Jiǎn, [Wén] Qīn were treacherous. General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng campaigned east, sent Dàn as Commander of Yùzhōu’s various armies, crossing Ānfēng ford to go toward Shòuchūn. [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and [Wén] Qīn were defeated, and Dàn was first to reach Shòuchūn. Inside Shòuchūn were over a hundred thousand people, they heard [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and [Wén] Qīn were defeated, were afraid to be executed, and all broke the city gates and went out, spreading through the mountains and marshes, some scattering and fleeing to Wú. As Dàn had for a long time been south of the Huái, therefore he again became General-in-Chief Defending the East with status equal to the Three Excellencies, and Regional Commander of Yángzhōu.

後毌丘儉、文欽反,遣使詣誕,招呼豫州士民。誕斬其使,露布天下,令知儉、欽凶逆。大將軍司馬景王東征,使誕督豫州諸軍,渡安風津向壽春。儉、欽之破也,誕先至壽春。壽春中十餘萬口,聞儉、欽敗,恐誅,悉破城門出,流迸山澤,或散走入吳。以誕久在淮南,乃復以為鎮東大將軍、儀同三司、都督揚州。

Wú General-in-Chief Sūn Jùn, Lǚ Jù, Liú Zàn and others heard Huáinán was in chaos, and at the time Wén Qīn came forward, and therefore they led their armies and sent [Wén] Qīn directly toward Shòuchūn. At the time Dàn’s various armies had already arrived, the city could not be taken, so they retreated. Dàn sent General Jiǎng Bān to pursue and attack them, beheaded [Liú] Zàn, sent the head [to the capital], and captured their seals and staff. He was advanced in fief to Marquis of Gāopíng, with revenue from 3500 households, and transferred to General-in-Chief Attacking the East.

吳大將孫峻、呂據、留贊等聞淮南亂,會文欽往,乃帥眾將欽徑至壽春;時誕諸軍已至,城不可攻,乃走。誕遣將軍蔣班追擊之,斬贊,傳首,收其印節。進封高平侯,邑三千五百戶,轉為征東大將軍。


Dàn had with [Xiàhóu] Xuán, [Dèng] Yáng, and others been very close, and also Wáng Líng’s and Guànqiū Jiǎn’s groups had all been exterminated, and so was afraid and could not be at ease, so he poured out the state treasury to give out and connect with the peoples’ hearts, and generously cared for close retainers and Yángzhōu adventurers, several thousand men, to become his To The Death Troops. (1)

誕既與玄、颺等至親,又王淩、毌丘儉累見夷滅,懼不自安,傾帑藏振施以結眾心,厚養親附及揚州輕俠者數千人為死士。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèishū states: Dàn in bestowing rewards was excessive. For the condemned to death, he would flout regulation to save their lives.

〔一〕 魏書曰:誕賞賜過度。有犯死者,虧制以活之。

Gānlù Inaugural Year [256] winter, the Wú rebels wished to attack toward Xúyè. It was calculated that Dàn’s commanded troops and horses were sufficient to resist them, but he again asked for a hundred thousand to defend Shòuchūn, and also requested to along the Huái [river] build fortifications to prepare against invasion, but secretly he wished to protect and keep Huáinán. The Court had some awareness that Dàn was suspicious of his own position, but as Dàn was a longtime minister, wished to have him enter [Court] to judge him.

甘露元年冬,吳賊欲向徐堨,計誕所督兵馬足以待之,而復請十萬眾守壽春,又求臨淮築城以備寇,內欲保有淮南。朝廷微知誕有自疑心,以誕舊臣,欲入度之。

Second year [257] fifth moon, he was summoned as Excellency of Works. Dàn received the Imperial Order letter, became more afraid, and therefore rebelled. He summoned and gathered the various armies, and himself set out and attacked Inspector of Yángzhōu Yuè Chēn, killing him. (2)

二年五月,徵為司空。誕被詔書,愈恐,遂反。召會諸將,自出攻揚州刺史樂綝,殺之。〔二〕

  • Shìyǔ states: Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng already controlled Court and government, and his Chief Clerk Jiǎ Chōng believed it was appropriate to send Advisor Assistants to show appreciation to the Four Expedition [Armies], and therefore he sent [Jiǎ] Chōng to Shòuchūn. [Jiǎ] Chōng returned and informed [Sīmǎ Zhāo] Wén-wáng: “Dàn at Yángzhōu has authoritative military reputation, and the people look to him and follow him. Now if he is summoned, he will certainly not come, but the problem would be small and the matter quickly handled. If he is not summoned, the problem will be enduring and become a great disaster.” Therefore he was appointed Excellency of Works. The letter arrived, and Dàn said: “If I were to become an Excellency I should be after Wáng [Chǎng] Wénshū, but now I am Excellency of Works! They did not send envoy, but someone on foot to present letter, to have me transfer my troops to Yuè Chēn. This must be [Yuè] Chēn’s doing.” Therefore he led his attendants of several hundred men to Yángzhōu. The Yángzhōu people wished to closed to gates, but Dàn scolded them: “Are you not my former officials?” He directly entered, [Yuè] Chēn fled up the tower, and at once was beheaded.
  • Wèimòzhuàn states: Jiǎ Chōng with Dàn met with each other, discussed current events, and therefore he said to Dàn: “In Luò[yáng] the various worthies, all hope for a change in dynasty, and this you know. What do you say of that?” Dàn with stern expression said: “Are you not Jiǎ [Kuí of] Yùzhōu’s son? For generations you received Wèi’s favor, for what do you betray your state, and wish to hand over the Wèi house to another man? This is not what I can bear to hear. If in Luò[yáng] there is trouble, then I will die for it.” [Jiǎ] Chōng was silent. When Dàn was summoned, he invited his various Ivory Gate [officers] to set up wine in a drinking feast, called the Ivory Gate’s accompanying troops, and all were made to drink, and he said to everyone: “Previously I prepared newly made armor and weapons for a thousand men, wishing to use it to strike rebels. Now I am about to return to Luò[yáng], and not be able to use them. I wish to temporarily go out, and see everyone happy and playing, and then quickly return and that is all. You sirs may wait.” Therefore he organized and chose out officers and troops of seven hundred men and set out. Yuè Chēn heard this, and closed the [Yáng]zhōu’s gates. Dàn as he passed the south gates declared: “I am about to return to Luò[yáng], and temporarily going about to travel and play. Why has Yángzhōu closed its gates and made preparations upon seeing me?” He went ahead to the east gate, and the east gate was also closed, so he sent his troops against the city and attacked the gates, the [Yáng]zhōu’s men all fled, they used the wind to set a fire, burning the government treasury, and therefore he killed [Yuè] Chēn. Dàn memorialized: “I received from the state a heavy responsibility, to command troops in the east. Inspector of Yángzhōu Yuè Chēn was treacherous, saying that I was with Wú commnicating, and also saying he had Imperial Order to succeed my position, and was insolent for a long time. I received the state’s orders, with my death as my own pledge, to the end will have no ulterior ends. Furious that [Yuè] Chēn was not loyal, I then led infantry and cavalry of seven hundred men, on this moon’s sixth day attacked [Yuè] Chēn, and on that day beheaded him, sending the head by relay horse to pass it on. If the sagely court’s understands me, then I will be Wèi’s subject. If it does not understand me, then I will be Wú’s subject. I cannot contain my feelings this day, and earnestly send memorial explaining myself, my pain and sorrow is enough to weep blood, but I am cut off by being choked with emotion, and do not know what to do. I beg the Court to investigate that I am true.”
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: What Wèimòzhuàn says is all coarse and shallow. I doubt that Dàn would have a memorial be as bad as this.

〔二〕 世語曰:司馬文王既秉朝政,長史賈充以為宜遣參佐慰勞四征,于是遣充至壽春。充還啟文王:「誕再在揚州,有威名,民望所歸。今徵,必不來,禍小事淺;不徵,事遲禍大。」乃以為司空。書至,誕曰:「我作公當在王文舒後,今便為司空!不遣使者,健步齎書,使以兵付樂綝,此必綝所為。」乃將左右數百人至揚州,揚州人欲閉門,誕叱曰:「卿非我故吏邪!」徑入,綝逃上樓,就斬之。魏末傳曰:賈充與誕相見,談說時事,因謂誕曰:「洛中諸賢,皆願禪代,君所知也。君以為云何?」誕厲色曰:「卿非賈豫州子?世受魏恩,如何負國,欲以魏室輸人乎?非吾所忍聞。若洛中有難,吾當死之。」充默然。誕既被徵,請諸牙門置酒飲宴,呼牙門從兵,皆賜酒令醉,謂眾人曰:「前作千人鎧仗始成,欲以擊賊,今當還洛,不復得用,欲蹔出,將見人游戲,須臾還耳;諸君且止。」乃嚴鼓將士七百人出。樂綝聞之,閉州門。誕歷南門宣言曰:「當還洛邑,蹔出游戲,揚州何為閉門見備?」前至東門,東門復閉,乃使兵緣城攻門,州人悉走,因風放火,焚其府庫,遂殺綝。誕表曰:「臣受國重任,統兵在東。揚州刺史樂綝專詐,說臣與吳交通,又言被詔當代臣位,無狀日久。臣奉國命,以死自立,終無異端。忿綝不忠,輒將步騎七百人,以今月六日討綝,即日斬首,函頭驛馬傳送。若聖朝明臣,臣即魏臣;不明臣,臣即吳臣。不勝發憤有日,謹拜表陳愚,悲感泣血,哽咽斷絕,不知所如,乞朝廷察臣至誠。」臣松之以為魏末傳所言,率皆鄙陋。疑誕表言曲,不至於此也。

He gathered from the prefectures and counties and garrison-farms south and north of the Huái over a hundred thousand officials and troops, from Yángzhōu’s newly attached strong troops of forty to fifty thousand men, stored grain to last a year’s provisions, and closed the city and defend. He sent his Chief Clerk Wú Gāng to lead his young son [Zhūgé] Jìng to go to Wú to ask for rescue. (3)

斂淮南及淮北郡縣屯田口十餘萬官兵,揚州新附勝兵者四五萬人,聚穀足一年食,閉城自守。遣長史吳綱將小子靚至吳請救。〔三〕

  • Shìyǔ states: At the end of Huángchū, the Wú people opened the King of Chángshā Wú Ruì’s tomb, to use its bricks for setting in Lín​xiāng the Temple for Sūn​ Jiān. [Wú] Ruì’s appearance was as if still living, and his clothes were not decayed. Later one of the openers met Wú Gāng and said: “Why do you look like the King of Chángshā Wú Ruì, only a little shorter?” [Wú] Gāng was startled and said: “He was my ancestor. How have you seen him?” The witness said how, and [Wú] Gāng said: “Was he reburied or not?” The answer was: “He was immediately reburied.” From when [Wú] Ruì’s death year to when the tomb was opened was over four hundred years. [Wú] Gāng was [Wú] Ruì’s sixteenth generation descendant.

〔三〕 世語曰:黃初末,吳人發長沙王吳芮冢,以其塼於臨湘為孫堅立廟。芮容貌如生,衣服不朽。後豫發者見吳綱曰:「君何類長沙王吳芮,但微短耳。」綱瞿然曰;「是先祖也,君何由見之?」見者言所由,綱曰:「更葬否?」答曰:「即更葬矣。」自芮之卒年至冢發,四百餘年,綱,芮之十六世孫矣。

The Wú people were greatly pleased, and sent Generals Quán Yì, Quán Duān, Táng Zī, Wáng Zuò, and others, leading an army of thirty thousand, and secretly with Wén Qīn together came to answer Dàn. They appointed Dàn as Left Regional Protector, with Staff of Authority, Chief Excellency Over the Masses, General of Elite Cavalry, Governor of Qīngzhōu, and Marquis of Shòuchūn.

吳人大喜,遣將全懌、全端、唐咨、王祚等,率三萬眾,密與文欽俱來應誕。以誕為左都護、假節、大司徒、驃騎將軍、青州牧、壽春侯。

At the time General Defending the South Wáng Jī was first to arrive, commanded the various armies to besiege Shòuchūn, but it was not yet complete. [Táng] Zī, [Wén] Qīn, and others came from the city’s northeast and followed the mountain terrain to lead their armies to enter the city.

是時鎮南將軍王基始至,督諸軍圍壽春,未合。咨、欽等從城東北,因山乘險,得將其眾突入城。


Sixth moon, the Imperial Chariot campaigned east, and reached Xiàng. General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng commanded the interior and exterior various armies of two hundred sixty thousand, overlooked the Huái to suppress them. The General-in-Chief garrisoned Qiūtóu, sent [Wáng] Jī and General Securing the East Chén Qiān and others to on all four sides join siege, inside and outside building double fortifications, with moats and ramparts extremely steep. He also sent Supervisor of the Army Shí Bāo, Inspector of Yǎnzhōu Zhōu Tài and others, to select elite soldiers to be a mobile army, to prepare against outer enemies.

六月,車駕東征,至項。大將軍司馬文王督中外諸軍二十六萬眾,臨淮討之。大將軍屯丘頭。使基及安東將軍陳騫等四面合圍,表裏再重,塹壘甚峻。又使監軍石苞、兗州刺史州泰等,簡銳卒為游軍,備外寇。

[Wén] Qīn and others repeatedly set out to raid the barricades, and were opposed and beaten back. Wú General Zhū Yì again led the main army to support Dàn and the rest, crossing Líjiāng river, [Zhōu] Tài and the rest opposed them in battle, and every time broke their forward thrust. Sūn Chēn because [Zhū] Yì battled but could not advance, was furious and killed him.

欽等數出犯圍,逆擊走之。吳將朱異再以大眾來迎誕等,渡黎漿水,泰等逆與戰,每摧其鋒。孫綝以異戰不進,怒而殺之。

Inside the city provisions gradually decreased, outside rescue did not arrive, and the army had nothing to rely on. Generals Jiǎng Bān and Jiāo Yí both were Dàn’s claws and teeth [henchmen] and planners, abandoned Dàn, and went over the city walls themselves to submit to the General-in-Chief. (1)

城中食轉少,外救不至,眾無所恃。將軍蔣班、焦彝,皆誕爪牙計事者也,棄誕,踰城自歸大將軍。〔一〕

  • Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Jiǎng Bān and Jiāo Yí said to Zhūgě Dàn: “Zhū Yì and the rest with a great army came but could not advance, Sūn Chēn killed [Zhū] Yì and returned to the Jiāng’s east, outside they say troops are sent, but inside they are waiting for the city’s fall, and from their withdrawal this can already be seen. Now it is appropriate to answer the firm hearts of the army, use troops wishing to be used, to unite strength to fight to the death, attack them on one side, so that even if we cannot completely overcome them, yet some can be saved.” Wén Qīn said: “The Jiāng’s east has been following up on the power of a battle victory for a long time, and has never been troubled by the northerners. Moreover your Excellency has raised an army of over ten thousand on the inside in answer, while I and Quán Duān and others all are occupying death ground, our fathers and sons and brothers are all beyond the Jiāng, so even if Sūn Chēn does not wish it, how can our ruler and our kinsmen listen to him? Moreover the central states for years have had no success, its armies and people are all tired. Now they have watched us for a year, their strength is already exhausted, unexpected circumstances will appear, and unforeseen problems will arise, so onward from now we must only watch and wait for opportunity.” [Jiǎng] Bān and [Jiāo] Yí urgently argued this, [Wén] Qīn became angry, and Dàn wished to kill [Jiǎng] Bān. The two men were afraid, and also knew that Dàn’s spirit was beaten, so in the eleventh moon, they together surrendered.

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:蔣班、焦彝言于諸葛誕曰:「朱異等以大眾來而不能進,孫綝殺異而歸江東,外以發兵為名,而內實坐須成敗,其歸可見矣。今宜及眾心尚固,士卒思用,并力決死,攻其一面,雖不能盡克,猶可有全者。」文欽曰:「江東乘戰勝之威久矣,未有難北方者也。況公今舉十餘萬之眾內附,而欽與全端等皆同居死地,父子兄弟盡在江表,就孫綝不欲,主上及其親戚豈肯聽乎?且中國無歲無事,軍民並疲,今守我一年,勢力已因,異圖生心,變故將起,以往準今,可計日而望也。」班、彝固勸之,欽怒,而誕欲殺班。二人懼,且知誕之必敗也,十一月,乃相攜而降。

The General-in-Chief therefore sent them to spread dissent, using strange changes to persuade Quán Yì and the rest, and [Quán] Yì and the rest led their armies of several thousand men to open the gates and come out. Inside the city was shaken and afraid, and did not know what to do.

大將軍乃使反間,以奇變說全懌等,懌等率眾數千人開門來出。城中震懼,不知所為。


Third year [258] first moon, Dàn, [Wén] Qīn, [Táng] Zī, and the rest greatly prepared attack engines, day to night for five to six days attacked the southern barricades, wishing to break the barricades and go out. (1)

三年正月,誕、欽、咨等大為攻具,晝夜五六日攻南圍,欲決圍而出。〔一〕

  • Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Wén Qīn said: “Jiǎng Bān and Jiāo Yí said we could not set out and fled, Quán Duān and Quán Yì also led their armies to surrender, so this is the time when the enemy will not be prepared, and we can battle.” Dàn and Táng Zī and others all believed this was correct, and therefore together led all the army out to attack.

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:文欽曰:「蔣班、焦彝謂我不能出而走,全端、全懌又率眾逆降,此敵無備之時也,可以戰矣。」誕及唐咨等皆以為然,遂共悉眾出攻。

The various armies atop the barricades, overlooked from up high to shoot stone catapults and fire arrows to oppose and burn and destroy their attack engines, crossbow arrows and stones like rain falling, the dead and wounded covering the ground, blood filling the moat. He returned back into the city, inside the city the provisions were gradually exhausted, and those who surrendered and went out were several tens of thousands.

圍上諸軍,臨高以發石車火箭逆燒破其攻具,弩矢及石雨下,死傷者蔽地,血流盈塹。復還入城,城內食轉竭,降出者數萬口。

[Wén] Qīn wished to completely send out the northerners, conserve provisions, and with the Wú men firmly defend, Dàn would not listen, and because of this they fought and became hateful. [Wén] Qīn by nature with Dàn had discord, in vain tried to plan together, and as the matter became more desperate they became more suspicions of one another. [Wén] Qīn met with Dàn to plan, and Dàn then killed [Wén] Qīn. [Wén] Qīn’s sons [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ commanded troops in the small city, heard [Wén] Qīn had died, ordered the troops to hurriedly go avenge him, but the army would not obey. [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ alone fled, going over the city walls out, personally submitting to the General-in-Chief. The military officials requested executing them, but the General-in-Chief’s order said: “[Wén] Qīn’s crime cannot be excused from punishments, and his sons indeed should be killed, but [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ in destitution submitted to the Mandate, and moreover the city is not yet taken, and killing them would harden their hearts.” Therefore he pardoned [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ, and sent them to command troops of several hundred riders to patrol the city, shouting to those inside the city: “[Wén] Qīn’s sons were not killed, so what do the rest of you have to fear?” He memorialized [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ as Generals, each given title as Marquis Within the Passes. Inside the city was pleased and disturbed, and also daily hungry and destitute, and Dàn and [Táng] Zī and the rest’s thinking and strength were exhausted. The General-in-Chief therefore personally overlooked the barricades, on all four sides advanced troops, at the same time beating drums and blowing horns to scale the city walls, and inside the city none dared move.

欽欲盡出北方人,省食,與吳人堅守,誕不聽,由是爭恨。欽素與誕有隙,徒以計合,事急愈相疑。欽見誕計事,誕遂殺欽。欽子鴦及虎將兵在小城中,聞欽死,勒兵馳赴之,眾不為用。鴦、虎單走,踰城出,自歸大將軍。軍吏請誅之,大將軍令曰:「欽之罪不容誅,其子固應當戮,然鴦、虎以窮歸命,且城未拔,殺之是堅其心也。」乃赦鴦、虎,使將兵數百騎馳巡城,呼語城內云:「文欽之子猶不見殺,其餘何懼?」表鴦、虎為將軍,各賜爵關內侯。城內喜且擾,又日飢困,誕、咨等智力窮。大將軍乃自臨圍,四面進兵,同時鼓譟登城,城內無敢動者。

Dàn was distressed, alone rode horse, leading his banner men to dash out the small city gates. The General-in-Chief’s Major Hú Fèn’s division troops opposed and struck, beheading Dàn, sending his head, exterminating his clan to the third degree. Dàn’s banner men of several hundred men, because they did not surrender, they were beheaded, and all said: “To die for Excellency Zhūgě is no regret!” He obtained the people’s hearts like this. (2)

誕窘急,單乘馬,將其麾下突小城門出。大將軍司馬胡奮部兵逆擊,斬誕,傳首,夷三族。誕麾下數百人,坐不降見斬,皆曰:「為諸葛公死,不恨。」其得人心如此。〔二〕

  • Gān Bǎo’s Jìnjì states: The several hundred men held hands to form a line. Every time before beheading a man, he was asked to surrender, but he did not change, all to the end. At the time people compared them to Tián Héng. Wú General Yú Quán said: “I received commands from his ruler, to lead troops to save men, and even if I cannot succeed, and am helpless before the enemy, I do not seek anything more.” Therefore he took off helmet and charged into battle and died.

〔二〕 干寶晉紀曰:數百人拱手為列,每斬一人,輒降之,竟不變,至盡,時人比之田橫。吳將于詮曰:「大丈夫受命其主,以兵救人,既不能克,又束手於敵,吾弗取也。」乃免冑冒陳而死。

Táng Zī, Wáng Zuò, and the various Assistant Generals all bound themselves to surrender. The [captured] Wú troops were ten thousand, the weapons and supplies piled up like a mountain.

唐咨、王祚及諸裨將皆面縛降,吳兵萬眾,器仗軍實山積。


Previously in the siege of Shòuchūn, of the commentators most wished to urgently attack it, but the General-in-Chief believed: “The city is firm and its army many, attacking it will certainly exhaust our strength, and if there are outside enemies, both inside and outside will face enemies, and this is a dangerous path. Now the three rebels are gathering together isolated inside the city, and if Heaven permits perhaps we can kill them all together. I will completely plan to tie them together, to wait and take them.”

初圍壽春,議者多欲急攻之,大將軍以為:「城固而眾多,攻之必力屈,若有外寇,表裏受敵,此危道也。今三叛相聚於孤城之中,天其或者將使同就戮,吾當以全策縻之,可坐而制也。」

Dàn in the second year [257] fifth moon rebelled, in the third year [258] second moon was defeated and destroyed. The Six Armies held firm, with deep ditches and high ramparts, but Dàn exhausted himself, and indeed without attacking they overcame him. (1)

誕以二年五月反,三年二月破滅。六軍按甲,深溝高壘,而誕自困,竟不煩攻而克。〔一〕

  • Gān​ Bǎo’s Jìnjì states: Previously, Shòuchūn every year had heavy rain, the Huái river flooded, frequently submerging cities and towns. Therefore when [Sīmǎ Zhāo] Wén-wáng built encircling fortifications, Dàn laughed at it and said: “Those without needing to be attacked will themselves collapse.” When the main army attacked, there was severe drought for several years. When the city walls had already fallen, on that very day there was great rain, and the encircling fortifications all collapsed.
  • Dàn’s son [Zhūgé] Jìng appellation Zhòngsī. When Wú was pacified he returned to Jìn.
  • [Zhūgé] Jìng’s son [Zhūgé] Huī appellation Dàomíng, his rank reached Director of the Secretariat, and was posthumously titled Left Grandee Opening Office.

〔一〕 干寶晉紀曰:初,壽春每歲雨潦,淮水溢,常淹城邑。故文王之築圍也,誕笑之曰:「是固不攻而自敗也。」及大軍之攻,亢旱踰年。城既陷,是日大雨,圍壘皆毀。誕子靚,字仲思,吳平還晉。靚子恢,字道明,位至尚書令,追贈左光祿大夫開府。

When Shòuchūn was taken, the commentators also believed that south of the Huái was still in rebellion, and the Wú soldiers’s families were south of the Jiāng, and so could not be controlled, and so they should all be exterminated. The General-in-Chief believed: “The ancients in using troops, preserving the state is best, so kill the leaders and nothing more. Should the Wú soldiers escape and flee back, then they can report the greatness of the central states.” Not one was killed, and they were divided in the three prefectures about the Hé to peacefully settle them.

及破壽春,議者又以為淮南仍為叛逆,吳兵室家在江南,不可縱,宜悉坑之。大將軍以為古之用兵,全國為上,戮其元惡而已。吳兵就得亡還,適可以示中國之弘耳。一無所殺,分布三河近郡以安處之。


Táng Zī was originally a Lìchéng man. During Huángchū [220-226], Lìchéng prefecture rebelled, killing their Administrator Xú Jī, and nominating Zī as their leader. Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] sent the various armies to suppress and defeated them, Zī fled to the sea, and therefore fled to Wú, office reaching General of the Left, with fief as Marquis, and Wielding Staff. Dàn and [Wén] Qīn were killed, and Zī was also captured alive. The three rebels were all taken, and the realm Under Heaven was calmed. (1)

唐咨本利城人。黃初中,利城郡反,殺太守徐箕,推咨為主。文帝遣諸軍討破之,咨走入海,遂亡至吳,官至左將軍,封侯、持節。誕、欽屠戮,咨亦生禽,三叛皆獲,天下快焉。〔一〕

  • Fùzǐ states: Sòng Jiàn with a great ox offered sacrifices, and in the end burned and destroyed himself. Wén Qīn every day made sacrifices to Heaven, and was beheaded by another’s hand. Zhūgě Dàn and his wife gathered with shamans, excessively sacrificing to seek good fortune, and became corpses south of the Huái, their clans exterminated. These all Under Heaven can together see, and is sufficient to for enlightened reflection.

〔一〕 傅子曰:宋建椎牛禱賽,終自焚滅。文欽日祠祭事天,斬于人手。諸葛誕夫婦聚會神巫,淫祀求福,伏尸淮南,舉族誅夷。此天下所共見,足為明鑒也。

Zī was appointed General Securing the Distant, his various Assistant Generals all were increased in title and rank, and the [captured] Wú army was pleased and submitted. The east of the Jiāng was moved by this, and all did not execute their families. The south of the Huái’s officers and officials and soldiers and people who were by Dàn coerced, only the leaders of rebellion were executed, and the rest were all pardoned.

拜咨安遠將軍,其餘裨將咸假號位,吳眾悅服。江東感之,皆不誅其家。其淮南將吏士民諸為誕所脅略者,惟誅其首逆,餘皆赦之。

For [Wén] Yāng and [Wén] Hǔ collecting [Wén] Qīn’s body, they were given carriage and oxen, to bury it in their old mausoleum. (2)

聽鴦、虎收斂欽喪,給其車牛,致葬舊墓。〔二〕

  • Xí Zuòchǐ states: From this, the realm Under Heaven fears authority and appreciates virtue. The gentleman says that General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Zhāo] in this campaign, can be said to be able to use virtue to conquer. The establishment of enterprise is all different, each having their own values, and cannot contain everything. Therefore heroes of exhaustive warfare die without benevolence, and states of accumulated righteousness decline in timidity. Now in one campaign he took three rebels, greatly capturing the Wú army, engulfing the Huái’s shores, imprisoning over a hundred thousand, and can be said to be powerful. But he did not calmly sit, mourned for Wáng Jī’s achievement, cultivated kindness with the Wú men, connected feelings with the enemies, gave favor to [Wén] Yāng to bury [Wén] Qīn, and forgetting past grievances, not blaming Dàn’s army, so that Yáng[zhōu]’s soldiers were ashamed, his achievements were high yet people were happy for his achievement, his enterprise expanded yet the enemy appreciated his virtue, his martial ability manifest and pervasive, his civil ability calculating and extensive. By promoting these principles, who in the realm Under Heaven can oppose him?
  • For the mourning of Wáng Jī, the story is in Jī’s biography.
  • [Wén] Yāng was originally named Chù.
  • Jìn Zhūgōng Zàn states: [Wén] Chù later became a General, defeated Liángzhōu bandits, and his name was heard across the realm Under Heaven. During Tàikāng [280-290] he became Colonel over Eastern Foreigners, with Staff of Authority. But at his appointment, he entered to pay respects to Wǔ-dì [Sīmǎ Yán], the Emperor met and hated him, and used another matter to dismiss [Wén] Chù from office.
  • Duke of Dōng’ān [Sīmǎ] Yáo was Zhūgě’s daughter’s son, wished to kill [Wén] Chù, and at the execution of Yáng Jùn falsely accused [Wén] Chù of plotting rebellion, and therefore he was executed and his clan exterminated to the third degree.

〔二〕 習鑿齒曰:自是天下畏威懷德矣。君子謂司馬大將軍於是役也,可謂能以德攻矣。夫建業者異矣,各有所尚,而不能兼并也。故窮武之雄斃于不仁,存義之國喪于懦退,今一征而禽三叛,大虜吳眾,席卷淮浦,俘馘十萬,可謂壯矣。而未及安坐,喪王基之功,種惠吳人,結異類之情,寵鴦葬欽,忘疇昔之隙,不咎誕眾,使揚士懷愧,功高而人樂其成,業廣而敵懷其德,武昭既敷,文算又洽,推此道也,天下其孰能當之哉?喪王基,語在基傳。鴦一名俶。晉諸公贊曰,俶後為將軍,破涼州虜,名聞天下。太康中為東夷校尉、假節。當之職,入辭武帝,帝見而惡之,託以他事免俶官。東安公繇,諸葛誕外孫,欲殺俶,因誅楊駿,誣俶謀逆,遂夷三族。

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s