Dǒng Zhuó appellation Zhòngyǐng was a Lǒngxī Líntáo man. (1) When young he was fond of adventuring, and once traveled among the Qiāng, and completely befriended all the various heroic commanders. Later he returned [home] to plowing in the fields, and there were heroic commanders that came to follow him, Zhuó with them all returned, killing the plowing ox to feast with them. The various heroic commanders were moved by his intentions, when returning they together gathered over a thousand livestock to give as a present to Zhuó. (2) At Hàn Emperor Huán’s end, six prefectures’ good family’s sons were made Feather Forest [Imperial Guard] Cadets. Zhuó had talent and martial ability, his strength had few that could compare, he wore two quivers, and could ride and shoot with both left and right. He became an army Major, followed Internal Cadet-General Zhāng Huàn on campaign in Bìngzhōu and had achievements, and was appointed Cadet Internal, bestowed with thick silk of 9000 pǐ. Zhuó in all cases divided it with his subordinate officials and soldiers. He was promoted to Guǎngwǔ Magistrate, Shǔjùn Northern Part Commandant, Western Regions Five-Six Colonel, and was dismissed. He was summoned and appointed Bìngzhōu Inspector, Hédōng Administrator, (3) promoted to Internal Cadet-General, suppressed Yellow Carves, his army was defeated and he was punished. Hán Suì and others rebelled in Liángzhōu, so he again became Internal Cadet-General, to the west resisted [Hán] Suì. At Wàngyuánxiá’s north, he was by Qiāng and Hú of several tens of thousands of men besieged, his provisions were exhausted. Zhuó pretended he wished to catch fish, damming his return route’s ferry water into a pond, causing the water to fill several tens of lǐ, silently followed the dam down with his army and then breached the dam. When the Qiāng and Hú became aware they pursued, but the water was already deep, and they could not cross. At the time the Six Armies was above Lǒngxī, five armies were utterly defeated, Zhuó alone preserved his army and returned, camping at Fúfēng. He was appointed Front General, with fief as Tái village marquis, and summoned to become Bìngzhōu Governor. (4)
- (1) Yīngxióngjì states: Zhuó’s father Jūnyǎ, from minor office became Yǐngchuān Lúnshì Commandant. He had three sons: eldest son Zhuó, appellation Mènggāo, died young. Next was Zhuó. Zhuó’s younger brother Mín appellation Shūyǐng.
- (2) Wúshū states: The prefecture summoned Zhuó as an official, sending him to control bandits. The Hú once set out to plunder, greatly captured people, and Liángzhōu Inspector Chéng Jiù enlisted Zhuó as Advisor, sending him to comand infantry and cavalry to suppress and capture, greatly defeating them, killing and capturing in the thousands. Bìngzhōu Inspector Duàn Jiǒng recommended Zhuó to the Offices of the Excellencies, and Excellency over the Masses Yuán Wěi recruited him as an official.
- (3) Yīngxióngjì states: Zhuó several times suppressed the Qiāng and Hú, from beginning to end over a hundred battles.
- (4) Língdìjì states: Zhōngpíng Fifth Year, they summoned Zhuó as Minister Treasurer, ordering his camps officials and soldiers to transfer to Left General Huángfǔ Sōng, and come to where [the Emperor] was. Zhuó sent up word: “Liángzhōu is in upheaval, the rebellions not yet exterminated, and this is the time for me your servant to vigorously carry out orders. The officials and soldiers are enthusiastic, appreciating [the ruler’s] grace and pondering repaying it, and each blocked my chariot, their words earnest and sorrowful, and I cannot at once depart. Thus for the time being I act over Front General affairs, with all my heart reassuring and sympathizing [with the troops], and exerting all my energy going on the battle lines.” Sixth Year, Zhuó was appointed Bìngzhōu Governor, and again ordered to have his officials and soldiers join Huángfǔ Sōng. Zhuó again sent up word: “I your servant have handled warfare for ten years, the soldiers great and small, are all close with me for a long time, are attached to the grace of I your servant’s caretaking of them, and take joy in serving the state energetically in all orders, and I beg to bring them to the province, to with energy guard the frontiers.” Zhuó again violated Imperial Order, and it happened that he was by Hé Jìn summoned.
Emperor Líng died, and the Young Emperor succeeded the throne. General-in-Chief Hé Jìn with Colonel Director of Retainers Yuán Shào plotted to execute the various eunuch officials, but the Dowager-Empress would not agree. [Hé] Jìn therefore summoned Zhuó to command troops to visit the capital, and also secretly ordered to sent up letter: “Internal Regular Attendant Zhāng Ràng and others secretly took advantage of Imperial favor, defiling and confusing within the seas. In the past Zhào Yāng raised troops at Jìnyáng, to chase away the evil beside the ruler. I your servant at once beat bells and drums at Luòyáng, to suppress [Zhāng] Ràng and the rest,” wishing to force the Dowager-Empress. Zhuó had not yet arrived, when [Hé] Jìn was defeated. (1) Internal Regular Attendant Duàn Guī and others seized the Emperor and fled to Xiǎopíngjīn, Zhuó then commanded his armies to welcome the Emperor at Běimáng, returning to the Palace. (2) At the time [Hé] Jìn’s younger brother General of Chariots and Cavalry [Hé] Miáo was by [Hé] Jìn’s army killed, (3) [Hé] Jìn’s and [Hé] Miáo’s personal troops had no one to join, and all went over to Zhuó. Zhuó also sent Lǚ Bù to kill Metal Mace Bearer Dīng Yuán, and absorbed his army. Therefore the capital’s military power was all with Zhuó. (4)
- (1) Xù Hànshū states: [Hé] Jìn appellation Suìgāo was a Nányáng man, and the Dowager-Empress’s elder brother of a different mother. [Hé] Jìn was originally a butcher family’s son, his father named [Hé] Zhēn. After [Hé] Zhēn died, [Hé] Jìn had his younger sister depend on the Yellow Gate [eunuch officials] to enter the Lateral Courts, she was favored, and Guānghé Third Year was enthroned as Empress, and [Hé] Jìn because of this became noble and favored. Zhōngpíng Inaugural Year, the Yellow Scarves rebelled, and [Hé] Jìn was appointed General-in-Chief.
Diǎnlüè records Zhuó’s memorial: “I your servant in prostration believe that the reason there have been rebellion without end, is all because Yellow Gate Regular Attendant Zhāng Ràng and the rest violate Heaven’s constant principles, seize and usurp the ruler’s orders, their fathers and sons and brothers all occupy the provinces and prefectures, and when one letter goes out the door, they at once gain a thousand gold, the capital region’s various prefectures several million fertile fields all belong to [Zhāng] Ràng and the rest, such that resentment rises up, and villains and bandits swarm. I your servant previously received Imperial Order to suppress them at Fúluó, my officers and soldiers were starving, and would not agree to cross the river, all saying they wished to go the capital to first execute the eunuchs to remove the people’s suffering, and from the terraces and pavillions ask for supplies. I your servant thus consoled them, so that there was restored calm. I your servant have heard to add water to stop boiling is not as good as extinguishing the fire and removing the fuel, and although cutting away boils is painful, it is better than letting it grow. When the water is flooding the boat, regret is too late.”
- (2) Zhāng Fán’s Hànjì states: The Emperor in the Eighth Moon Gēngwǔ was by the various Yellow Gate [eunuchs] seized, on foot going out Gǔ Gate [the rear gate], fleeing up the Hé. The various Yellow Gates then all threw themselves into the Hé and died. At the time the Emperor was fourteen years, the King of Chénliú nine years, and the brothers alone in the night on foot wished to return to the palace, it was dark, and they followed fireflies and went, after several lǐ they found a peasant family and rode an un-canopied a cart to travel. Xīnwèi, the Excellencies and Ministers down with Zhuó together welcomed the Emperor at Běimáng’s slope.
Xiàndì Chūnqiū states: Before this a children’s rhyme said: “Marquis not a marquis, King not a King, a thousand chariots ten thousand riders flee Běimáng.” Zhuó at the time just arrived, camping at Xiǎnyángyuàn. He heard the Emperor was about to return, and led his army to welcome the Emperor.
- Diǎnlüè states: The Emperor saw Zhuó’s troops and wept, and the various Excellencies all said to Zhuó: “There is an Imperial Order to withdraw troops.” Zhuó said: “You Excellencies and men are the state’s chief ministers, but could not rectify the ruling House, so that it caused the state to be scattered and dissolute. How can there be a withdrawing of troops?” Therefore they all entered the city.
- Xiàndìjì states: Zhuó with the Emperor spoke, but his speech was unintelligible. Therefore he again with the King of Chénliú spoke, asking how the chaos began; the King answered, from beginning to end, without any omission. Zhuó was greatly pleased, and therefore had plans to depose [the Emperor].
- Yīngxióngjì states: Hénán Central Part Official Mǐn Gòng supported the Emperor and the King of Chénliú up to Luòshě. The Emperor alone rode one horse, the King of Chénliú with [Mǐn] Gòng together rode one horse, from Luòshě going south. The Excellencies and Ministers and officials welcomed them at Běimáng’s slope, and former Excellency Commandant Cuī Liè was at the front guiding. Zhuó commanded infantry and cavalry of several thousand to come welcome, [Cuī] Liè called on them to keep away, and Zhuó abused [Cuī] Liè saying: “We day and night over three hundred lǐ came, why say to keep away? Can I not break your head?” He advanced to meet the Emperor and said: “Your Majesty ordered the Regular Attendant and Lesser Yellow Gate to create chaos so that it came to this, by fetching disaster, is the burden not small?” He also approached the King of Chénliú: “I am Dǒng Zhuó. Come to my arms.” Therefore he took the King from [Mǐn] Gòng’s arms.
- Yīngxióngjì states: One document says that the King would not be held by Zhuó, and Zhuó with the King together rode a horse and went.
- (3) Yīngxióngjì states: [Hé] Miáo was the Dowager-Empress’s elder brother of the same mother, her previous marriage to the Zhū family’s son. [Hé] Jìn’s personal troops commander Wú Kuāng, previously complained [Hé] Miáo was not with [Hé] Jìn in the same intentions, and also suspected he had with the eunuchs communicated and plotted, and therefore gave Order in the army: “The killer of the General-in-Chief was the [General of] Chariots and Cavalry.” Therefore he led troops with Zhuó’s younger brother Mín to together attack and kill [Hé] Miáo below Zhūjué watchtower.
- (4) Jiǔzhōu Chūnqiū states: When Zhuó first entered Luòyáng, his infantry and cavalry did not exceed three thousand, and he himself suspected his troops were too few and could not make the far and near submit; so every four to five days, he then in the night send troops out the four city gates, and the next day laid out banners and drums and entered, announcing: “Western troops again enter in Luò.” The people were unaware, and said Zhuó’s troops were uncountable.
Before this, [Hé] Jìn sent Cavalry Commandant Tàishān’s Bào Xìn to his homeland to recruit troops. When he arrived, [Bào] Xìn said to [Yuán] Shào: “Zhuó wields strong troops, and has disloyal intentions, now if he is not early dealt with, you will be by him taken; As he is just arrived and fatigued, if he is attacked he can be taken.” [Yuán] Shào feared Zhuó, and did not dare set out, and [Bào] Xìn therefore returned to his home town.
At the time for a long time there had been no rain, so it was ordered to dismiss Excellency of Works Liú Hóng and Zhuó replaced him, very soon was promoted to Excellency Commandant, with Acting Staff and Battle-Ax over the Tiger Elite [guard]. Therefore he deposed the Emperor to King of Hóngnóng, and soon also killed the King and Dowager-Empress Hé. He enthroned Emperor Líng’s youngest son the King of Chénliú, who was Emperor Xiàn. (1) Zhuó was promoted to Chancellor of State, with fief as Marquis of Méi, able to present without using his name, with sword and shoes ascend the palace hall, and also gave fief to Zhuó’s mother as Lady of Chíyáng, installing a Household Director and Deputy. Zhuó commanded elite troops to come, just when the Emperor’s House was in great chaos, and he gained power to depose and enthrone, occupied military stores and troops, the state’s treasures, and his authority shook all Heaven’s Under. Zhuó by nature was cruel and without benevolence, and therefore by cruel punishments threatened the masses, the slightest grudge was certain to be avenged, and the people could not defend themselves. (2) Once he sent the army to Yángchéng. At the time it happened to be the Second Moon Sacrifices, and the people were all below the altars, and they all beheaded the men, seizing their cart oxen, carrying away their women and property, and with the heads tied to the cart axles, linked together and returned to Luò, saying they had attacked rebels and greatly captured, shouting “Ten Thousand Years.” They entered Kāiyáng City Gate, burning the heads, and bestowed the women to the soldiers to be servants and concubines. He went as far as to defile and violate the Palace Women and Princesses. His viciousness and rebelliousness was like this.
- (1) Xiàndìjì states: Zhuó plotted to depose the Emperor, and met with the various ministers at the Court Hall, commenting: “Greatest is Heaven and Earth, next is Ruler and Subject, and so there is governance. Now the Emperor is ignorant and weak, and cannot support the Ancestral Temple or be ruler over the realm Under Heaven. I wish to follow Yī Yǐn’s and Huò Guāng’s precedent, and enthrone the King of Chénliú. How about it?” Secretariat Lú Zhí said: “According to the Shàngshū, Tàijiǎ when enthroned was not enlightened, Yī Yǐn exiled him to Tóng Palace. The King of Chāngyì was enthroned for twenty seven days, his crimes were over a thousand, and therefore Huò Guāng deposed him. Now the Ascended is abundant in seasons, his conduct has not yet had faults, and cannot be compared to the previous situation.” Zhuó was angry, left his seat, wishing to execute [Lú] Zhí. Internal Attendant Cài Yōng consoled him, and so it was only dismissal. Ninth Moon Jiǎxū, Zhuó again greatly gathered the various ministers saying: “The Dowager-Empress threatened the Yǒnglè Dowager-Empress, causing her to in anxiety die, and this is in opposition to the rites of a wife to her husband’s mother, without the integrity of filial obedience. Heaven’s Son is young and too feeble to rule. In the past Yī Yǐn exiled Tàijiǎ, Huò Guāng deposed [the King of] Chāngyì, this is made known in the ancient records, and all believed it good. Now the Dowager-Empress is like Tàijiǎ, the Emperor is like [the King of] Chāngyì. The King of Chénliú is benevolent and filial, and should succeed the honored Imperial Throne.
- Xiàndì Qǐjūzhù records records the document: “Emperor Xiào-Líng did not carry on Gāozōng’s long lasting blessings, and early abandoned his subjects. The Emperor succeeds, within the seas leans in hope, but the Emperor’s natural disposition is frivolous, his authority not reverent, in morning is slow and lazy, becoming feeble like before; his inauspicious virtue already manifest, his coarseness spreading out and known, disgracing the Divine Objects, shaming the Ancestral Temple. The Dowager-Empress in teaching was without a mother’s ceremony, the government was neglected and chaotic. The Yǒnglè Dowager-Empress was cruelly killed, and the masses discussed in suspicion. The Way of the Three Principles, is the Order of Heaven and Earth, but there was deficiency, and this crime is great. The King of Chénliú [Liú] Xié, has sagely virtue large and abundant, upright and honest and solemn, prospering below and above, and has the appearance of Yáo’s nature; in observing mourning he is sorrowful, his speech is not offensive, from youth quick witted, and has Zhōu [King] Chéng’s virtue. His good reputation and praise, all under Heaven has heard. he should carry on the Expansive Enterprise, be ruler over all, and can carry on the Ancestral Temple. Depose the Emperor to King of Hóngnóng. The Dowager-Empress is to return the government.” When the Secretariat finished reading the document, of the various ministers none spoke. Secretariat Dīng Gōng said: “Heaven’s disaster on the Hàn House, tragic disasters great and many. In the past Zhài Zhòng deposed Hū and enthroned Tū, the Chūnqiū said his power increased. Now the great ministers judge it appropriate for the State Altars, truly harmonizing Heaven and Man, and ask to praise Ten Thousand Years.” Zhuó because the Dowager-Empress was deposed, therefore had the Excellencies and Ministers down not wear cotton clothes, and at the burial, only wear raw silk clothes and nothing more.
- (2) Wèishū states: Zhuó’s desires were without limit, and he said to his guests: “My physiognomy is that of nobility without any superior.”
- Yīngxióngjì states: Zhuó wished to shake and awe. Attendant Censor Rǎolóng Zōng visited Zhuó to report a matter, did not remove sword, and was immediately beaten to death, and the capital was shaken. He opened Hé Miáo’s coffin, removing the corpse, broke the limbs and abandoned it by the road. He also arrested [Hé] Miáo’s mother the Lady of Wǔyáng and killed her, abandoning the body in park brambles, and did not collect it.
Previously, Zhuó trusted in Secretariat Zhōu Bì and City Gate Colonel Wǔ Qióng and others, and employed those they recommended Hán Fù, Kǒng Zhòu, Zhāng Zī, Zhāng Miǎo and others to go out and manage provinces and prefectures. But when [Hán] Fù and the rest reached office, they all gathered troops and officers to suppress Zhuó. Zhuó heard this, and believed [Zhōu] Bì and [Wǔ] Qióng and others would follow the situation to betray him, and beheaded them all. (1)
- (1) Yīngxióngjì states: [Zhōu] Bì appellation Zhòngyuǎn was a Wǔwēi man. [Wǔ] Qióng appellation Déyú was a Rǔnán man.
- Xiè Chéng’s Hòu Hànshū states: Wǔ Fú appellation Déyú when young had great integrity, and became prefecture Below the Gate Document Aide. His home village’s Chief had a crime, the Administrator sent [Wǔ] Fú to go out to discipline him, ordering the subordinate investigative officials to arrest him. [Wǔ] Fú would not go to discipline, and lying prostrate on the ground look up to admonish: “Though a ruler is not a ruler, a subject cannot not be a subject. How can you wise governor order me to discipline, and order outsiders to arrest my home village’s Chief? So I again beg the task go to another official.” The Administrator was impressed and listened to him. Later General-in-Chief Hé Jìn recruited him as East Department Associate, soon promoted to Attendant Internal, Hénán Intendant, and Surpassing Cavalry Colonel. Dǒng Zhuó created chaos, and the bureaucrats trembled in fear. [Wǔ] Fú wore small armor, in his Court dress clasped girdle knife to meet Zhuó, wishing to watch for opportunity to assassinate him. When the conversation was done and they departed, Zhuó escorted him up to the side door, and [Wǔ] Fú thus drew the knife and stabbed at him. Zhuó had abundant strength, and drew back so it did not strike, and at once seized [Wǔ] Fú. Zhuó said: “You wish to rebel?” [Wǔ] Fú greatly shouted: “You are not my master, I am not your subject, what rebellion is there? You disorder the state and usurp the ruler, your crimes abundant and evil great. Today is my death day, therefore I came only to execute a traitor, and regret I could not tear you apart with chariots in the market to apologize to the world Under Heaven.” Therefore they killed [Wǔ] Fú.
- Xiè Chéng records [Wǔ] Fú’s appellation and home prefecture, and it is with [Wǔ] Qióng the same, but the matter of his death is with [Wǔ] Fú different. It is not known if Fú is another name for [Wǔ] Qióng, or if there is another [Wǔ] Fú. It is unclear.
Hénèi Administrator Wáng Kuāng sent Tàishān troops to camp Héyáng crossing, in order to plot against Zhuó. Zhuó sent decoy troops as if he was about to cross Píngyīn, and secretly sent an elite army to cross north at Xiǎopíng, turning to strike their rear, greatly defeating them north of the crossing, killing them all. Zhuó because powerful figures east of the mountains had all risen, was afraid there would not be peace. Chūpíng Inaugural Year Second Moon, he therefore moved Heaven’s Son and the capital to Cháng’ān. He burned Luòyáng’s Palaces and Residences, excavated all the tombs, seizing the treasure. (1) Zhuó reached the Western Capital, became Grand Preceptor, and was called Esteemed Father. He rode Blue-Green Canopied Golden Flower Chariot, engravings decorating both sides, and at the time people called it Pole Grinding Chariot. (2) Zhuó’s younger brother [Dǒng] Mín became Left General, with fief as Marquis of Hù; his elder brother’s son [Dǒng] Huáng became Attendant Internal and Central Army Colonel Arranging Troops, and his clansmen patrilineal and matrilineal were all ranked in Court. (3) When Excellencies and Ministers met with Zhuó, they bowed below the Chariot, and Zhuó did not reciprocate. He called Three Terrace Secretariat and below to personally visit Zhuó’s office to report matters. (4) He built Méiwù, as tall as Cháng’ān’s city walls, amassing grain into a thirty year reserve, (5) saying if matters were successful, his power would seize the realm Under Heaven, and if not successful, he could defend enough to last to old age. Once he reached Méi to go to the fortress, the Excellencies and Ministers down [made sacrifices with him at] Ancestral Road outside Guāng Gate. Zhuó set up tents and drank, there were surrendered northern rebels of several hundred people, and while he was seated they first cut their tongues, or cut off hands and feat, or gouged out eyes, or boiled in cauldrons, and were not yet dead, lying and writhing among the cups and tables, and those at the gathering all trembled and dropped their spoons and chopsticks, but Zhuó drank and ate at ease. The Grand Scribe observed the weather, and said a great minister would be killed. Former Excellency Commandant Zhāng Wēn at the time was Minister of the Guard, and previously was not friendly with Zhuó. Zhuó in his heart resented him, and because Heaven had changes, he wished to use this to prevent misfortune, and sent someone to say [Zhāng] Wēn with Yuán Shù had communicated, and therefore whipped him to death. (6) His ordinances were severe and ruthless, good and bad both excessively punished, so people falsely accused each other, and the wrongly dead were thousands. The common people grieved, only exchanging looks on the road. (7) He destroyed the Bronze Men, Bells and Stands, and broke the wǔzhū coins, casting them into small coins, five fēn large, without engravings, without defined edge marks, without polishing. Therefore money was cheap and goods expensive, and grain of one hú reached several hundred thousand [coins]. From this afterward coins and money did not circulate.
- (1) Huà Jiào’s Hànshū states: Zhuó wished to move to Cháng’ān, and summoned the Excellencies and Ministers down to greatly discuss. Excellency over the Masses Yáng Biāo said: “In the past Pán Gēng moved five times, and Yīn’s people all complained, and therefore created three scrolls to explain to the realm Under Heaven’s people. Now Within the Seas is calm and steady, without reason to move the capital, and one fears the common people will be alarmed, stirring up and gathering to cause chaos.” Zhuó said: “Inside the Passes is fertile and abundant, and therefore Qín was able to absorb the Six States. Now moving to the Western Capital, if among the powerful figures east of the Passes there are those that dare move, with our powerful troops to level them, they can be driven into the azure sea.” [Yáng] Biāo said: “Within the Seas stirring up is very easy, calming is very difficult. Also Cháng’ān’s Palaces and Residences are broken and desolate, and cannot be restored.” Zhuó said: “In Wǔdì’s time residing below Dùlíng South Mountain, were roof tile kilns of several thousand, and summoning Liángzhōu’s timber and wood to go east down[stream] to make Palaces and Residences, the achievement is not difficult.” Zhuó’s intentions were not allowed, so he changed color and said: “You Excellencies wish to block my plan? Biān Zhāng and Hán Yuē have a letter come, wishing to order the Court it must move Capital. If the [enemy] main army from the east comes, we will not be able to save each other, and then you can with the Yuán clan go west.” [Yáng] Biāo said: “The west is surely the road I take, I only consider that it is unknown what the realm Under Heaven will be like!” The discussion ceased. Zhuó ordered Colonel Director of Retainers Xuān Fán to use disasters and strange events for an impeachment memorial, and so it was ordered to dismiss [Yáng] Biāo.
- Xù Hànshū states: Excellency Commandant Huáng Wǎn, Excellency over the Masses Yáng Biāo, Excellency of Works Xún Shuǎng all visited Zhuó. Zhuó said: “In the past Gāozǔ had capital Inside the Passes, Eleven Generations later there was Restoration, changing capital to Luòyáng. From Guāng-Wǔ to now is again Eleven Generations, and according to the Shíbāoshì prophecies, it is appropriate to again return the capital to Cháng’ān.” The seated were all alarmed, but none dared answer. [Yáng] Biāo said: “Moving capital and changing regulations is the realm Under Heaven’s Great Affair, and all should comply with the people’s hearts, and follow the appropriateness of the times. In the past Pán Gēng moved five times, and Yīn’s people all complained, and therefore created three scrolls to explain it. Previously Wáng Mǎng usurped and rebelled, changing to chaos the Five Constants, in the time of Gēngshǐ and the Red Brows, they burned Cháng’ān, slaughtered the common people, and people fled away, not even one out of a hundred remaining. Guāng-Wǔ received the Mandate, changed capital to Luò city, and this was appropriate. Now we have just established the Sagely Ruler, to enlighten and swell the Hàn House, and without reason abandon the Palace and Temples, discarding the Tombs, one fears the common people will be alarmed, and not understand this intention, and certainly stirring up and gathering to reach the point of disturbing and chaos. The Shíbāoshì prophecies are heterodox texts, how can it be used?” Zhuó changed color and said: “Excellency Yáng wishes to block the state’s plans? East of the Passes is about to be in chaos, where rebels rise up. Xiáohán is rugged and firm, the state’s important defense. Also from Lǒngyòu collecting timber, so the labor is not hard. Below Dùlíng South Mountain are Xiào-Wǔ’s former pottery kilns, making roof tiles, in one morning can be done. The Palaces and Residences and Government Offices, how is it enough to speak of? The common little people, how can they be enough to discuss with? If there are those that refuse to advance, I will with the great troops force them, how can they be unrestrained?” The officials were all frightened and lost color. [Huáng] Wǎn said to Zhuó: “This is a great matter, Excellency Yáng’s words, cannot be without heavy consideration!” Zhuó left his seat, and that day ordered the Director of Retainers to memorialize [Yáng] Biāo and [Huáng] Wǎn to both be dismissed from office. The Imperial Chariot went west. Zhuó’s division troops burned outside Luòyáng’s city walls for a hundred lǐ. He also commanded troops to burn the Southern and Northern Palaces and Ancestral Temples, the Treasury, the people’s homes, and inside the city walls were completely swept away and dstroyed. He also arrested all the wealthy households, citing crimes to seize their property; the innocent that died were uncountable.
- Xiàndìjì states: Zhuó captured troops east of the mountains, with hog grease soaked cloth of over ten pǐ, used them to wrap their bodies, and afterward burned them, first from the feet rising up. He captured Yuán Shào’s Yùzhōu Advisor Lǐ Yán, and boiled him to death. Zhuó had a favored Hú, who he pampered and indulged, and was by Colonel Director of Retainers Zhào Qiān killed. Zhuó was greatly angred and said: “My favored dogs all do not wish others to bother them, so all the more for my men!” Therefore he summoned the Director of Retainers to his office and beat him to death.
- (2) Wèishū states: This was to say that he compelled Heaven’s Son.
- Xiàndìjì states: When Zhuó became Grand Preceptor, he also wished to be called Esteemed Father, and asked Cài Yōng. [Cài] Yōng said: “In the past King Wǔ accepted the Mandate, Tàigōng was Preceptor, assisting the Zhōu House, to cut down those without principle, and therefore the realm Under Heaven honored him, and called him Esteemed Father. Now your Excellency’s achievements and virtues truly are towering, but it is suitable to wait for the east of the passes to all be settled, the Imperial Carriage to return east, and afterward discuss this.” Therefore he stopped. The capital had an earthquake, and Zhuó again asked [Cài] Yōng. [Cài] Yōng answered: “Earthquakes are Yīn flourishing, caused when great ministers exceed regulations. Your Excellency rides a Blue-Green Canopied Chariot, far and near believe it is not appropriate.” Zhuó followed this, and changed to riding a Gold Flower Black Canopy Chariot.
- (3) Yīngxióngjì states: Zhuó’s sons still carried by concubines, were all given fief as Marquis, and played with gold [seals] and purple [ribbons]. His son’s daughter named Bái, at the time was not yet fifteen, and given fief as Lady of Wèiyáng. At Méi city wall’s east was raised an altar, over two zhàng wide, five to six chǐ tall, and he sent Bái to ride Gold Flower Blue-Green Canopied Chariot. Commandants, Internal Cadet-Generals, Inspectors and Two Thousand dàn [salaried officials] at Méi, each were ordered to ride carriage with hairclasps, to be Bái’s escort. Reaching the altar and ascending, he sent his elder brother’s son Huáng as envoy to bestow the seal and ribbon.
- (4) Shānyáng Gōng Zǎijì states: Previously Zhuó was Front General, Huángfǔ Sōng was Left General, both campaigning against Hán Suì, and each would not be subordinate to the other. Later Zhuó was summoned to be Minister Treasurer and Bìngzhōu Governor, and his troops were to transfer to [Huángfǔ] Sōng, and Zhuó was greatly furious. When he became Grand Preceptor, [Huángfǔ] Sōng was Censorate Internal Deputy, and bowed below his chariot. Zhuó asked [Huángfǔ] Sōng: “Yìzhēn have you submited or not?” [Huángfǔ] Sōng said: “How could one know your enlightened excellency would reach this!” Zhuó said: “Swans intrinsically have far reaching ambitions, only swallows do not understand.” [Huángfǔ] Sōng said: “In the past I and your enlightened excellency were both swans, but unexpectedly today you have become a phoenix.” Zhuó laughed and said: “If you had earlier submitted, today you would not need to bow.”
- Zhāng Fán’s Hànjì states: Zhuó clapped his hands and said to Huángfǔ Sōng: “Yìzhēn, are you afraid or not?” [Huángfǔ] Sōng answered: “Your enlightened excellency with virtue assists the Court, Great Celebrations have just arrived, what is there to fear? If excessive punishments were flaunted, then the realm Under Heaven would all be afraid, how would it be me alone?” Zhuó was silent, and therefore with [Huángfǔ] Sōng reconciled.
- (5) Yīngxióngjì states: Méi from Cháng’ān is 260 lǐ.
- (6) Fùzǐ states: In Líng-dì’s time sign was posted on the gates to sell offices, and therefore Excellency Commandant Duàn Jiǒng, Excellency over the Masses Cuī Liè, Excellency Commandant Fán Líng, Excellency of Works Zhāng Wēn, and their sort all submitted coins from up to ten million down to five million to purchase position in the Three Excellencies. [Duàn] Jiǒng repeatedly went on campaign and had great achievements, [Cuī] Liè in the northern provinces had great reputation, [Zhāng] Wēn had outstanding talent, [Fán] Líng had ability to adapt to the times, all were the time’s prominent scholars, yet used money to obtain their positions, so all the more for Liú Xiāo, Táng Zhēn, Zhāng Hào and their group!
- Fēngsútōng states: Director of Retainers Liú Xiāo for his association with the various Regular Attendants reached position in the Excellencies.
- Xù Hànshū states: Táng Zhēn was Internal Regular Attendant Táng Héng’s younger brother. Zhāng Hào was Internal Regular Attendant Zhāng Fèng’s younger brother.
- (7) Wèishū states: Zhuó sent Colonel Director of Retainers Liú Xiāo to register officials and people who as sons were not filial, who as subjects were not loyal, who as officials were not pure, who as younger brothers were not obedient, and all those found in compliance were all executed, their property confiscated by the government. Therefore loves and hates rose up, and of the people many were persecuted to death.
Third Year Fourth Moon, Excellency over the Masses Wáng Yǔn, Secretariat Deputy Director Shìsūn Ruì, and Zhuó’s officer Lǚ Bù together plotted to execute Zhuó. At the time, Heaven’s Son had an illness and newly recovered, and there was a great assembly at Wèiyāng Palace Hall. [Lǚ] Bù sent his same prefecture’s Cavalry Commandant Lǐ Sù and others to command personal troops of over ten people, disguised as guards defending the side door. [Lǚ] Bù in his bosom had a written Imperial Order. Zhuó arrived, [Lǐ] Sù and the rest blocked Zhuó. Zhuó in alarm cried out “Where is [Lǚ] Bù?” [Lǚ] Bù said: “There is an Imperial Order,” and therefore killed Zhuó, exterminating his clan to the third degree. Registrar Tián Jǐng rushed forward to Zhuó’s corpse, and [Lǚ] Bù also killed him; altogether the killed were three people, and of the rest none dared move. (1) Cháng’ān’s scholars and commoners all celebrated together, and all that had flattered Zhuó were all imprisoned and died. (2)
- (1) Yīngxióngjì states: At the time there was a rhyme: “Thousand lǐ of grass, how green and green, ten days divination, yet not saving life.” Also there was a “Dǒng Flees” song. Also there was a Daoist priest writing on cloth [bù] the word Lǚ to show to Zhuó, and Zhuó did not know this meant Lǚ Bù. Zhuó was about to enter the assembly, he lined up infantry and cavalry, from his camp to the palace, in court dress traveling in the middle. His horse stumbled and would not advance, and Zhuó in his heart was bewildered and wished to stop, [Lǚ] Bù urged him to continue, and therefore he wore inner armor and entered. When Zhuó died, at the time the sun and moon were clear and tranquil, and wind did not rise. [Dǒng] Mín, [Dǒng] Huáng and the rest and the clan’s old and young all were at Méi, all returned, and were by their subordiantes hacked and shot. Zhuó’s mother was ninety years, fled to the fort gate and said: “Please spare me from death,” and at once was beheaded. The Yuán clan’s disciples and former subordinates changed the burial of all the Yuán that had died at Méi, and gathered the Dǒng clan’s corpses to their side and burned them. Zhuó’s corpse was exposed in the market. Zhuó by nature was fat, and his grease flowed gradually to the ground, and the grass became red. The officials guarding the corpse in the dark made a large wick, put it in Zhuó’s navel to make a lamp, it was as bright as day, and was like this for several days. Later Zhuó’s former retainers collected the remaining ashes, gathering it into a coffin, burying it at Méi. Zhuó’s fortress inside gold had twenty to thirty thousand jīn, silver of eighty to ninety thousand jīn, pearls and jade and brocade and silk and unusual trinkets and things all in mountain heaps, and could not be counted.
- (2) Xiè Chéng’s Hòu Hànshū states: Cài Yōng was seated with Wáng Yǔn, heard Zhuó was dead, and had the sound of a sigh of pity. [Wáng] Yǔn reproached [Cài] Yōng: “Zhuó was the state’s great traitor, killing the ruler and slaughtering the ministers, who Heaven and Earth cannot tolerate, who Men and Spirits together hate. You are the ruler’s servant, for generations received the Hàn’s grace, when the state’s ruler was in danger and hardship, you already did not oppose, Zhuó received divine execution, yet you further sight in sorrow?” Then he arrested and sent him to the Minister of Justice. [Cài] Yōng apologized to [Wáng] Yǔn: “Though I am not loyal, yet I know great righteousness, ancient times to now’s safeties and dangers, my ears have often heard, my mouth has often said, so how can I turn back on the state and turn toward Zhuó? Mad undiscerning speech erroneously came out and misfortune entered, and wish to tattoo head as punishment in order to continue Hàn’s history.” The Excellencies and Ministers cherished [Cài] Yōng’s talent, and all together remonstrated [Wáng] Yǔn. [Wáng] Yǔn said: “In the past Wǔ-dì did not kill Sīmǎ Qiān, allowing him to compose slanderous documents, leaving it for later generations. Now the state’s blessings are in the middle of decline, weapons and horses in the suburbs, and we cannot flattering ministers to wield pen beside a young ruler, or later we will all suffer slanderous commentary.” Therefore they killed [Cài] Yōng.
- Your servant Sōngzhī believes although [Cài] Yōng was closely appointed by Zhuó, his feelings were certainly not in that association. Even if he did not know of Zhuó’s treachery and viciousness, serving as the world Under Heaven’s poison, hearing of his death, logically there should be no sigh of pity. Even if it was like this, he would not have opposing speech in Wáng Yǔn’s presence. This is probably Xiè Chéng’s absurb recording. The historian [Sīmǎ] Qiān’s Annals and Biographies, are widely regarded as a special achievement in the world, yet it says Wáng Yǔn said Xiào-Wǔ should have earlier killed [Sīmǎ] Qiān; these are not a knowledgable person’s words. It was only that [Sīmǎ] Qiān did not conceal Xiào-Wǔ’s faults, recording faithfully his matters and that is all, what slander was there? Wáng Yǔn was loyal and upright, and can be said to have no remorse inside, and should have no fear of slander, and moreover if he wished to kill [Cài] Yōng, he should discuss whether [Cài] Yōng should die or not, how could he worry about defaming himself and yet unjustly kill a good man? This is all false deception and illogical to the extreme.
- Zhāng Fán’s Hànjì states: Previously, [Cài] Yōng by his speech and affairs met with followers, his reputation was heard Under Heaven, his righteousness moved willful scholars. When he returned, the inner favorites hated him. [Cài] Yōng was afraid, and therefore fled to the seaside, in his dealings relying on Tàishān’s Yáng clan, for ten years. Zhuó became Excellency Commandant, recruited him as an Associate, and as High Standard candidate became Attendant Censor Manging Documents, in three days moved to Secretariat. Later he was transferred to Bādōng Administrator, and Zhuó sent up memorial to keep him as Attendant Internal, and reaching Cháng’ān he was Left Internal Cadet General. Zhuó valued his talent, and generously treated him. Every time there was Court matters, he always ordered [Cài] Yōng prepare drafts. When [Wáng] Yǔn was about to kill [Cài] Yōng, at the time of the famous scholars many spoke for him, [Wáng] Yǔn was regretful and wished to stop, but [Cài] Yōng had already died.
Previously, Zhuó’s daughter’s husband Internal Cadet General Niú Fǔ managed troops in separate camp at Shǎn, and separately sent Colonel Lǐ Jué, Guō Sì, Zhāng Jì to plunder Chénliú’s and Yǐngchuān’s various counties. Zhuó died, and Lǚ Bù sent Lǐ Sù to Shǎn, wishing to with Imperial Order comand the execution of [Niú] Fǔ. [Niú] Fǔ and the rest opposed [Lǐ] Sù in battle, [Lǐ] Sù was defeated and fled to Hóngnóng, and [Lǚ] Bù executed [Lǐ] Sù. (1) After this in [Niú] Fǔ’s camp troops in the night there were mutineers, inside the camp was startled, [Niú] Fǔ believed all had rebelled, and therefore took gold and treasures, and alone with his close companions Hú Chì’ér and others five to six people together went, passing the city walls north to cross the Hé, [Hú] Chì’ér and the rest wished to take his gold and treasures, beheaded him and sent the head to Cháng’ān.
- (1) Wèishū states: [Niú] Fǔ feared he wold fail to defend, and could not be at ease. He always held the Recruiting Troops talley, with axe and executioner block at the side, wishing to bolster himself. When meeting guests, he first sent physiognomists to appraise them, to know if they had rebellious air or not, and also divined by straws to know good or bad luck, and after that then met with them. Internal Cadet General Dǒng Yuè came to meet [Niú] Fǔ, [Niú] Fǔ sent straw diviner for it, obtaining Swamp Down Fire Up, and the straw diviner said: “Fire overcoming Metal is the divination of the outside plotting against the inside.” He immediately killed [Dǒng] Yuè.
- Xiàndìjì says: The divination person once was by [Dǒng] Yuè flogged, and therefore in this way answered.
When [Lǐ] Jué and the rest returned, [Niú] Fǔ had already been defeated, the armies had no one to depend on, and wished to each scatter and return home. There was no pardon document, and rumor was Cháng’ān wished to completely execute Liángzhōu men, and they were afraid and did not know what to do. They used Jiǎ Xǔ’s plan, and therefore commanded their army and went west, where they went to gathered troops, and when they reached Cháng’ān, the army was over a hundred thousand, (1) and with Zhuó’s former retainers Fán Chóu, Lǐ Méng, Wáng Fāng and others surrounded Cháng’ān’s city walls. In ten days the city fell, and they with [Lǚ] Bù battled in the city, and [Lǚ] Bù was defeated and fled. [Lǐ] Jué and the rest set the troops to plunder Cháng’ān’s old and young, killing all, and the dead were wildly piled. They executed those that killed Zhuó, and exposed the corpse of Wáng Yǔn in the market. (2) They buried Zhuó at Méi. Great wind and vicious rain shook Zhuó’s tomb, water flowed into the stores, floating out the coffin. [Lǐ] Jué became Chariots and Cavalry General, Chíyáng Marquis, with office as Colonel Director of Retainers, and Acting Staff. [Guō] Sì became Rear General, Měiyáng Marquis. [Fán] Chóu became Right General, Wànnián Marquis. [Lǐ] Jué, [Guō] Sì, and [Fán] Chóu usurped the Court government. (3) [Zhāng] Jì became Elite Cavalry General, Píngyáng Marquis, and camped at Hóngnóng.
- (1) Jiǔzhōu Chūnqiū states: [Lǐ] Jué and the rest were at Shǎn, all were afraid, anxiously gathering troops to defend themselves. Hú Wéncái and Yáng Zhěngxiū were Liángzhōu great men, but Excellency over the Masses Wáng Yǔn was always with them unfriendly. When Lǐ Jué rebelled, [Wáng] Yǔn then called [Hú] Wéncái and [Yáng] Zhěngxiū to send them east to resolve it, but without friendly appearance, saying: “What do the rats east of the Passes wish to do? You go shout at them.” Therefore the two men went, but in fact gathered troops and returned.
- (2) Zhāng Fán’s Hànjì states: [Lǚ] Bù’s troops were defeated, and he stopped his horse outside Qīngsuǒ Gate, saying to [Wáng] Yǔn: “Your Excellency can go.” [Wáng] Yǔn said: “Peace for the state is my highest wish. If it cannot be obtained, then I offer myself to death. The Court’s young ruler depends on me and nothing more. Facing disaster and fleeing is not what I will do. We must with effort apologize to the sirs east of the Passes, to think of the state.” [Lǐ] Jué and [Guō] Sì entered Cháng’ān’s city walls, camping at the South Palace side gate, killing Minister Charioteer Lǔ Kuí, Minister Herald Zhōu Huàn, City Gate Colonel Cuī Liè, and Surpassing Cavalry Colonel Wáng Qí. The officials and people dead were uncountable. Excellency over the Masses Wáng Yǔn helped Heaven’s Son up Xuānpíng City Gate to flee the troops, [Lǐ] Jué and the rest below the City Gate bowed, lying prostrate and bowing head to ground. The Emperor said to [Lǐ] Jué and the rest: “You did not serve our authority and fortune, instead releasing troops everywhere, what do you wish to do?” [Lǐ] Jué and the rest said: “Dǒng Zhuó was loyal to Your Majesty, but without reason was by Lǚ Bù killed. We are avenging Zhuó, and do not dare rebel, and ask that once the matter is finished, we will go to the Minister of Justice to accept punishment.” [Wáng] Yǔn was forced out to meet [Lǐ] Jué, and [Lǐ] Jué killed [Wáng] Yǔn and his wives and children and clansmen over ten people. In Cháng’ān city of the men and women adults and children none did not shed tears. [Wáng] Yǔn appellation Zǐshī was a Tàiyuán Qí man. When young he had great integrity, Guō Tài met and was impressed with him, saying: “Student Wáng is a one day thousand lǐ, a talent to assist rulers.” Although [Guō] Tài was senior, yet he was friendly with him. The Three Excellencies all recruited him, and he was successively Yùzhōu Inspector, recruiting Xún Shuǎng and Kǒng Róng as his Advisors, transferred to Hénán Intendant, and Secretariat Director. When he was Excellency over the Masses, he assisted the ruling House, deeply had the integrity of a great minister, and from Heaven’s Son down all depended on him. Zhuó also supported and trusted him, entrusting him with the Court.
- Huà Jiào states: A scholar to establish uprightness, to plan to bring relief, to with righteousness succeed, if Wáng Yǔn supported Dǒng Zhuó and shared his power, watching in the meantime and reporting his crimes, then at this time, the realm Under Heaven’s difficulties would be resolved. By nature all are loyal and righteous, and therefore supporting Zhuó would not be to lose uprightness, sharing power would not be injustice, watching in the meantime would not be treachery, and so planning to bring relief would achieve righteousness, and return to uprightness.
- (3) Yīngxióngjì states: [Lǐ] Jué was a Běidì man. [Guō] Sì was a Zhāngyè man, also named [Guō] Duō.
That year, Hán Suì, Mǎ Téng, and others surrendered, leading their armies to visit Cháng’ān. So [Hán] Suì became Defending West General, sent to return to Liángzhōu, [Mǎ] Téng became Campaigning West General, to camp at Méi. Attendant Internal Mǎ Yǔ with Remonstration Commentator Grandee Zhǒng Shào, Left Internal Cadet General Liú Fàn and others plotted, wishing to have [Mǎ] Téng attack Cháng’ān, with themselves on the inside answering, to execute [Lǐ] Jué and the rest. [Mǎ] Téng led troops to Chángpíng Watchtower, [Mǎ] Yǔ and the rest’s plot leaked, and they fled to Huáilǐ. [Fán] Chóu struck [Mǎ] Téng, [Mǎ] Téng was defeated and fled, returning to Liángzhōu; [Fán Chóu] also attacked Huáilǐ, and [Mǎ] Yǔ and the rest all died. At the time the Three Auxiliaries people were several hundred thousand households, [Lǐ] Jué and the rest released troops to rob and plunder, attacking Piāochéng town, the people were hungry and destitute, and within two years they were eating each other and completely wiped out. (1)
- (1) Xiàndìjì states: At the time the capital was newly moved, of the Palace people many lacked clothes, and the Emperor wished to give out the goverment office silk fabrics to them, [Lǐ] Jué did not wish this and said: “Inside the palace there are clothes, why make more?” Imperial Order sold stable horses of over a hundred, government office of the Minister of Finance to send out miscellaneous fbrics of twenty thousand pǐ, to go with income from the sold stable horses, to bestow on the Excellencies and Ministers down and poor people who could not care for themselves. Lǐ Jué said: “My residence’s stores are few,” and therefore conveyed it all to his camp. Jiǎ Xǔ: “This is the Ascended’s intentions, and cannot be opposed.” [Lǐ] Jué would not listen to this.
The various Generals fought for power, so [Lǐ Jué] killed [Fán] Chóu, and absorbed his army. (1) [Guō] Sì with [Lǐ] Jué became suspicious of each other, and battled within Cháng’ān. (2) [Lǐ] Jué took Heaven’s Son as hostage in his camp, burning down the palace and city gates, plundering the government offices, completely seizing the chariots and clothes and government property to his house. (3) [Lǐ] Jué sent the Excellencies and Ministers to visit [Guō] Sì to ask for peace, and [Guō] Sì seized them all. (4) They attacked each other for successive moon, and the dead were in the tens of thousands. (5)
- (1) Jiǔzhōu Chūnqiū states: Mǎ Téng and Hán Suì were defeated, and Fán Chóu pursued them to Chéncāng. [Hán] Suì said to [Fán] Chóu: “Heaven and Earth’s changes [in dynasty] cannot yet be known. Originally our quarrel was not due to personal resentment, but the Ruling House’s matter and that is all. I share with you the same province and hometown, now though there are small disagremeements, in important things we are in great agreeement, and wish to exchange friendly words at departure. If by chance in one out of ten thousand things are not as wished, later we can meet again!” Both rode forward joining horses, linked arms supporting each other, and together talked for a long while and departed. [Lǐ] Jué’s elder brother’s son [Lǐ] Lì accompanied [Fán] Chóu, [Lǐ] Lì returned and reported to [Lǐ] Jué that Hán [Suì] and Fán [Chóu] had met horses to speak, it was unknown what about, but they appeared friendly and very secretive. [Lǐ] Jué because of this suspected [Fán] Chóu with Hán Suì had made private peace and had ulterior intentions. [Fán] Chóu wished to command his troops east to go out through the passes, and followed [Lǐ] Jué in searching to recruit soldiers, so [Lǐ Jué] invited [Fán] Chóu to a meeting, and took advantage to kill [Fán] Chóu.
- (2) Diǎnlüè states: [Lǐ] Jué several times set up liquor and invited [Guō] Sì, sometimes keeping [Guō] Sì for the night. [Guō] Sì’s wife feared [Lǐ] Jué had given [Guō] Sì a concubine who would take his favor, and pondered how to drive them apart. It happened that [Lǐ] Jué sent food, the wife then used fermented beans as a drug, [Guō] Sì was about to eat, the wife said: “Food coming from outside, might cause something!” Then she took out the drugs and showed him, saying: “one perch cannot have two powers, I firmly doubt you General’s trust in Excellency Lǐ [Jué].” On another day [Lǐ] Jué again invited [Guō] Sì. Greatly intoxicated, [Guō] Sì suspected [Lǐ] Jué had drugged him, strained manure juice and drank it and it was resolved. Therefore there was born hostility, and they led troops to attack each other.
- (3) Xiàndì Qǐjū zhù states: Previously, [Guō] Sì plotted to invite Heaven’s Son to visit his camp, in the night a deserter reported this to [Lǐ] Jué, and [Lǐ] Jué sent his elder brother’s son [Lǐ] Xiān to command several thousand troops to surround the palace, with three chariots to welcome Heaven’s Son. Yáng Biāo said: “Since ancient times Emperors and Kings have never been in a subject’s house. Enacting affairs should be in accordance with the realm Under Heaven’s intentions. You sirs in this are not right.” [Lǐ] Xiān said: “The General’s plans are already settled.” Therefore Heaven’s Son was in one carriage, Noble Lady Fú in one carriage, Jiǎ Xǔ and Zuǒ Líng in one carriage, and the rest all on foot followed. That day, [Lǐ] Jué again moved the carriages to visit the north fortress, sending a Colonel to supervise the fortress gates, and inside and outside were disconnected. The various attendants and minsiters all looked hungry, the time was high summer, and the people were completely disheartened. The Emperor begged for rice of five hú and ox bones of five to bestow on his followers, [Lǐ] Jué said: “Every morning and evening food is sent up, what use is rice for?” and therefore gave rotten ox bones, all stinking and uneatable. The Emperor was greatly furious, and wished to reproach him. Attendant Internal Yáng Qí sent up letter: “[Lǐ] Jué is a frontier man, accustomed to foreign customs, now he is also self aware of his violations, always has discontented appearance, and wishes to force the Imperial Carriage to visit Huángbáichéng to relieve his indignation. I your servant hopes Your Majesty can tolerate this, as we cannot yet make known his crimes.” The Emperor accepted this. Previously, [Lǐ] Jué camped at Huángbáichéng, and therefore had plans wishing to move there. [Lǐ] Jué because Excellency over the Masses Zhào Wēn was not in agreement with him, therefore kept [Zhào] Wēn inside the fortress. [Zhào] Wēn heard [Lǐ] Jué wished to move the chariots, and sent letter to [Lǐ] Jué that said: “Your Excellency previously justified yourself as avenging Excellency Dǒng [Zhuó], but in fact slaughtered and seized the Ruler’s City, massacreing the great ministers, and the realm Under Heaven cannot be explained to household by household. Now you fight over a crack in the corner of the eye, becoming a thousand times greater feud, the people are in utter missery, each unable to earn a living, yet you do not correct yourself, and continue creating calamity and chaos. The Court yet sent down Enlightened Imperial Order, wishing to have you make peace [with Guō Sì], but the Imperial Order you do not follow, so that Imperial Favor [for you] daily decreases, but you again wish to have the chariots go to Huángbáichéng, and this is truly what I cannot understand. According to the Yì, one [violating] pass is to pass, again is to wade in, three without correction is to drown to your head, and this is terrible. It is not as good as early making peace, leading troops back to their camps, above calming the Ten Thousand Chariots, below securing the people’s lives, would that not be utmostly fortunate!” [Lǐ] Jué was greatly angry, and wished to send someone to harm [Zhào] Wēn. His younger cousin [Lǐ] Yìng, was [Zhào] Wēn’s former subordinate official, and remonstrated him for several days and so he stopped. The Emperor heard of [Zhào] Wēn’s letter to [Lǐ] Jué, and asked Attendant Internal Cháng Qià: “[Lǐ] Jué does not know good from wrong, [Zhào] Wēn’s words are too blunt, and makes one cold in heart [scared for him].” [Cháng Qià] answered: “Lǐ Yìng already saved him.” The Emperor was therefore pleased.
- (4) Huà Jiào’s Hànshū states: [Guō] Sì feasted the Excellencies and Ministers, discussing his wish to attack [Lǐ] Jué. Yáng Biāo said: “The various subjects together fighting, one man seizing Heaven’s Son, one man taking hostage the Excellencies and Ministers, can this be right?” [Guō] Sì was angry, and wished to with wield blade against him, Internal Cadet General Yáng Mì and the attendants repeatedly remonstrated, and [Guō] Sì therefore released him.
- (5) Xiàndì Qǐjū zhù states: [Lǐ] Jué by nature liked occult and heterodox ways, and always had Daoists and witches sing and beat drums to call down spirits, sacrificed Six Morsels, written charms and occult objects, with nothing not done. He also outside the Court Gate for Dǒng Zhuó made a Spirit Seat, repeatedly with cattle and sheep sacrificed to it, and when finished, entered the Court side gates to ask about daily affairs, requesting to enter to meet. [Lǐ] Jué’s belt wore three sabers, and his hands also held whip and one blade. Attendant Internals and Attendant Cadets saw [Lǐ] Jué had brought weapons, and all were afraid, and also belted swords and grasped sabers, first going to the Emperor’s side. [Lǐ] Jué faced the Emperor, and sometimes said: “Your Enlightened Majesty,” sometimes said: “Enlightened Emperor,” to the Emperor speaking of Guō Sì’s insolence, and the Emperor also followed his meanings in answering him. [Lǐ] Jué was pleased, and spoke out: “Your Enlightened Majesty is truly a worthy and sacred ruler,” and his thoughts thus became self confident, and he said of himself that he had greatly won Heaven’s Son’s favor. However, he did not wish to have the close ministers wear swords beside the Emperor, and said to someone: “Do these department boys wish to plot against me? Yet they all wield sabers.” Attendant Internal Lǐ Zhēn was from [Lǐ] Jué’s province and hometown, and previously with [Lǐ] Jué had interacted, and said to [Lǐ] Jué: “The reason they wield sabers, is that within the army they cannot but do so, and this is the state’s old precedent.” [Lǐ] Jué’s thoughts were therefore resolved. Heaven’s Son because Visitor Deputy-Director Huángfǔ Lì was of a Liángzhōu old surname. and had rectification ability, sent him to order peace between [Lǐ] Jué and [Guō] Sì. [Huángfǔ] Lì first visited [Guō] Sì, and [Guō] Sì accepted the Imperial Order. He visisted [Lǐ] Jué, and [Lǐ] Jué would not accept, saying: “I have the achievement of suppressing Lǚ Bù, assisted the governance for four years, the Three Adjuncts are tranquil, and the realm Under Heaven knows this. Guō Duō is only a horse thief, how dare he yet wish to be of my level? I certainly wish to execute him. You are a Liángzhōu man, have observed my strategies and armies, are they enough to deal with [Guō] Duō or not? [Guō] Duō also seized and took hostage the Excellencies and Ministers. He is like this, but if you wish to benefit Guō Duō, I Lǐ Jué have the guts to know it.” [Huángfǔ] Lì said: “In the past Yǒuqióng Hòuyì relied on his greatness in shooting, did not ponder difficulties, so that in the end he died. Recently Excellency Dǒng [Zhuó] was powerful, and you Enlightened General with your own eye saw, inside his lordship [Dǒng Zhuó] was the inner master, outside were Dǒng Mín, [Dǒng] Chéng, and [Dǒng] Huáng as his venom barbs, but Lǚ Bù received favor but turned and plotted against him, and in a short while, his head was atop a pole; this is to have valor but no planning. Now you General are yourself the highest General, wielding Battle-Ax and Staff, your posterity hold power, your clansmen carry Imperial favor, the state’s high ranks all accord with you. Now Guō Duō seizes and takes hostage the Excellencies and Ministers, you Generaly coerce the Utmost Honored, whose crime is greater? Zhāng Jì with Guō Duō and Yáng Dìng have plans, and also have capped and belted [scholars] attached to them. Yáng Fèng is only the Báibō [bandits] commander and that is all, yet knows you General are in the wrong, and although you respect and favor him, yet he will not agree to strive hard for you.” [Lǐ] Jué would not accept [Huángfǔ] Lì’s words, and huffed at him to get out. [Huángfǔ] Lì went out, visisted the Court Gates, and reported that [Lǐ] Jué would not agree to follow the Imperial Order, and that his words were disobedient. Attendant Internal Hú Miǎo was by [Lǐ] Jué favored, and called on the messenger to conceal these words. He also said to [Huángfǔ] Lì: “General Lǐ as not been ungenerous to you, and also your Excellency Huángfǔ become Excellency Commandant was by General Lǐ’s effort.” [Huángfǔ] Lì answered: “Hú Jìngcái, you are the state’s constant senior, an assisting minister. Words like this, how can they be used?” [Hú] Miǎo said: “I am only thinking that you may fail General Lǐ’s intentions, and fear it will not do and that is all. What matter do I have with you?” [Huángfǔ] Lì said: “I for accumulated generations received Imperial favor, and also always was in the inner curtains, when the ruler is disgraced the subject is willing to die, so for the state, to be by Lǐ Jué killed, would then be Heaven’s Will.” Heaven’s Son heard [Huángfǔ] Lì had answred bluntly, and was afraid [Lǐ] Jué would hear it, and so ordered to send away [Huángfǔ] Lì. Just as [Huángfǔ] Lì went out the camp gate, [Lǐ] Jué sent Tiger Elite [guard] Wáng Chāng to call him. [Wáng] Chāng knew [Huángfǔ] Lì was loyal and upright, let him go, returned and answered [Lǐ] Jué saying he had pursued but it was too late. Heaven’s Son sent Left Internal Cadet General Lǐ Gù Wielding Staff to honor [Lǐ] Jué as Marshal-in-Chief, to the Three Excellencies’ right [immediate seniority]. [Lǐ] Jué himself believed it was obtained by the efforts of spirits, and therefore generously gave bestowments on the witches.
[Lǐ] Jué’s officer Yáng Fèng with [Lǐ] Jué’s army scribe Sòng Guǒ and others plotted to kill [Lǐ] Jué, the matter leaked, and therefore he led troops to rebel against [Lǐ] Jué. [Lǐ] Jué’s armies rebelled, and he gradually weakened. Zhāng Jì from Shǎn made peace with him, Heaven’s Son was thus able to escape, reached between Xīnfēng and Bàlíng. (1) Guō Sì again wished to coerce Heaven’s Son to return to have capital at Méi. Heaven’s Son fled to [Yáng] Fèng’s camp, [Yáng] Fèng struck [Guō] Sì and defeated him. [Guō] Sì fled to Nánshān. [Yáng] Fèng and General Dǒng Chéng with Heaven’s Son returned toward Luòyáng. [Lǐ] Jué and [Guō] Sì regretted sending away Heaven’s Son, again made peace, and pursued Heaven’s Son to Hóngnóng’s Cáoyáng. [Yáng] Fèng hurriedly recruited Hédōng’s former Báibō commanders Hán Xiān, Hú Cái, Lǐ Lè and others together, to with [Lǐ] Jué and [Guō] Sì greatly battle. [Yáng] Fèng’s troops were defeated, [Lǐ] Jué and the rest released the troops to kill the Excellencies and Ministers and the officials, seizing the palace women into Hóngnóng. (2) Heaven’s Son fled to Shǎn, crossed the Hé north, losing the heavy wagons, walking on foot, with only the Empress and Noble Ladies following, reaching Dàyáng, stopping at a commoner’s house. (3) [Yáng] Fèng and [Hán] Xiān and the rest therefore had Heaven’s Son set capital at Ānyì, riding in an ox cart, with Excellency Commandant Yáng Biāo, Minister Charioteer Hán Róng and close ministers of over ten people as followers. [Hán] Xiān became [General] Campaigning East, [Hú] Cái became [General] Campaigning West, [Lǐ] Lè became [General] Campaigning North, all with [Yáng] Fèng and [Dǒng] Chéng wielding governance. They sent Róng to Hóngnóng, to with [Lǐ] Jué and [Guō] Sì and the rest make peace, and return the captured palace women and Excellencies and Ministers and officials, and the Imperial Carriage and several chariots and horses. At the time locusts broke out, the year had drought and no grain, and the following officials ate dates. (4) The various Generals would not obey each other, superiors and subordinates in confusion, and food supplies were exhausted. [Yáng] Fèng, [Hán] Xiān, and [Dǒng] Chéng therefore had Heaven’s Son return to Luòyáng. They went out Jī Gate, down Zhǐ Road, Zhāng Yáng with food welcomed them on the road, and was appointed Marshal-in-Chief. The story is in [Zhāng] Yáng’s biography [SGZ 8]. Heaven’s Son entered Luòyáng, the Palaces and residences were completely burned away, the streets overgrown, the officials draped in thistles and thorns, relying on broken walls as residences. The Provinces and Prefectures each gathered troops to guard themselves, and none came. The hunger and distitution became more extreme. From the Secretariats Cadet down, each personally went out to collect firewood, and some of hunger died within the walls.
- (1) Xiàndì Qǐjūzhù states: Previously, Heaven’s Son went out reaching Xuānpíng Gate, was about to cross the bridge, when [Guō] Sì’s troops of several hundred men blocked the bridge and asked: “Is it Heaven’s Son?” The carriage could not advance. [Lǐ] Jué’s troops of several hundred men all wielded large halberds to the carriages’ left and right, Attendant Internal Liú Ài greatly called out saying: “It is Heaven’s Son.” They had Attendant Internal Yáng Qí lift up the carriage curtain, the Emperor said to the various troops: “You do not withdraw, how dare you approach the Utmost Honored?” [Guō] Sì’s and the rest’s troops therefore withdrew. When they crossed the bridge, the soldiers all called “Ten Thousand Years.”
- (2) Xiàndìjì states: At the time Secretariat Director Shìsūn Ruì was by the chaotic troops killed.
- Sānfǔ Juélùhù states: [Shìsūn] Ruì appellation Jūnróng was a Fúfēng man, for generations the family was scholarly. [Shìsūn] Ruì when young inherited the family property, his learning was extensive with nothing he did not reach, and he was appointed successively to prominent positions. When [Dǒng] Zhuó was executed, he was promoted to Minister of Finance, and became the state’s Three-Elder. Every time the Three Excellencies had a vacancy, [Shìsūn] Ruì always was selected. When Excellency Commandant Zhōu Zhōng and Huángfǔ Sōng, Excellency over the Masses Chúnyú Jiā and Zhào Wēn, Excellency of Works Yáng Biāo and Zhāng Xǐ and others became Excellencies, and all declined and yielded to [Shìsūn] Ruì. When Heaven’s Son had capital at Xǔ, he discussed [Shìsūn] Ruì’s achievement, giving fief to his son [Shìsūn] Méng as Tánjīn precinct Marquis. [Shìsūn] Méng appellation Wénshǐ also had talent and learning, and was with Wáng Càn friendly. When he was about to receive fief, [Wáng] Càn composed a poem to present to [Shìsūn] Méng, [Shìsūn] Méng had a reply, in [Wáng] Càn’s Collected Works.
- (3) Xiàndìjì states: Previously, commentators wished to have Heaven’s Son take boat eastward down the Hé, Excellency Commandant Yáng Biāo said: “I your servant am a Hóngnóng man. From here on east there are thirty six rapids, and it was not what the Ten Thousand Chariots [the Emperor] should follow.” Liú Ài said: “I your servant was previously Magistrate of Shǎn, and know of its dangers. Even with an army there is capsizing, and morever now there is no army. The Excellency Commandant’s plan is correct.” Therefore it stopped. When he was about to cross north, he sent Lǐ Lè to prepare boats. Heaven’s Son on foot hastened to the riverbank, the bank was high and they could not get down. Dǒng Chéng and the rest planned to use horse bridles joined together to fasten to the Emperor’s waist. At the time Central Palace Servant Fú Dé supported the Central Palace, one hand grasping ten pǐ of silk fabric, and therefore they took [Fú] Dé’s silk fabric to join together into a seat. Traveling Army Colonel Shàng Hóng had abundant strength, and [Shàng] Hóng was sent ahead to carry the Emperor, and therefore they could go down to board the boat. The rest that could not cross were very many, and they again sent boats to collect those that could not cross, all fought to pull themselves aboard, and the people on the boats with blades cut their fingers, and the fingers in the boat were a handful.
- (4) Wèishū states: The Imperial Carriage at the time resided in thorns and thistles, the doors could not be closed. When Heaven’s Son met with the various ministers, the soldiers leaned on the fences to watch, pushing each other down to laugh. The various Generals seized power, some without authority beating to death the Secretariat. When the Colonel Director of Retainers went out and in, the people and troops pressed against and threw things at him. Of the various Generals some sent servant girls to visit the court side doors, some themselves obtained liquor to drink, surpassing Heaven’s Son’s drinks. Attendants Internal were blocked, shouted curses, but could not stop them. They also competed to memorialize to various camps press people into becoming their retainers, seeking their talents. Doctors and servants all became Colonels and Censors, seals could not be provided, and therefore they used pens to draw, to show their literacy, and some from time to time could not be obtained.
Tàizǔ therefore welcomed Heaven’s Son to have capital at Xǔ. [Hán] Xiān and [Yáng] Fèng would not accept the Ruler’s Law, and each fled in exile, plundered about Xú and Yáng [provinces] and were by Liú Bèi killed. (1) Dǒng Chéng followed Tàizǔ for over a year and was executed. Jiàn’ān Second Year , they sent Visitor Deputy-Director Péi Mào to lead West of the Passes’s various officers to execute [Lǐ] Jué, exterminating his clan to the third degree. (2) [Guō] Sì was by his officer Wǔ Xí attacked, and died at Méi. [Zhāng] Jì suffered famine, reached Nányáng to plunder, and was by Ráng men killed. His cousin’s son [Zhāng] Xiù took over his army. [Hú] Cái and [Lǐ] Lè remained in Hédōng. [Hú] Cái was by a resentful family killed, [Lǐ] Lè of illness died. [Hán] Suì and [Mǎ] Téng returned to Liángzhōu, and again plundered. Later [Mǎ] Téng entered as Minister of the Guard, his son [Mǎ] Chāo commanded his retainers. Sixteenth Year , [Mǎ] Chāo with Inside the Passes’s various Generals and [Hán] Suì and others rebelled, and Tàizǔ campaigned against and defeated them. The story is in Wǔjì [SGZ 1]. [Hán] Suì fled to Jīnchéng and was by his officers killed. [Mǎ] Chāo occupied Hànyáng, and [Mǎ] Téng for the connection was clan exterminated to the third degree. Zhào Qú and others raised righteous troops to suppress [Mǎ] Chāo, [Mǎ] Chāo fled to Hànzhōng to follow Zhāng Lǔ, later fled to Liú Bèi, and died in Shǔ.
- (1) Yīngxióngjì states: [Liú] Bèi enticed [Yáng] Fèng to meet, and then when they were seated seized him. [Hán] Xiān lost [Yáng] Fèng’s strength and was alone, and at the time wished to flee back to Bìngzhōu, and was by Zhùqiū camp commander Zhāng Xuān intercepted and killed.
- (2) Diǎnlüè states: [Lǐ] Jué’s head arrived, and there was Imperial Order to hang it high.