(6.1) Dǒng Zhuó 董卓 [Zhòngyǐng 仲穎]

Dǒng Zhuó appellation Zhòngyǐng was a Lǒngxī Líntáo man. (1) When young he was fond of adventuring, and once traveled among the Qiāng, and completely befriended all the various heroic commanders. Later he returned [home] to plowing in the fields, and there were heroic commanders that came to follow him, Zhuó with them all returned, killing the plowing ox to feast with them. The various heroic commanders were moved by his intentions, when returning they together gathered over a thousand livestock to give as a present to Zhuó. (2) At Hàn Emperor Huán’s end, six prefectures’ good family’s sons were made Feather Forest [Imperial Guard] Cadets. Zhuó had talent and martial ability, his strength had few that could compare, he wore two quivers, and could ride and shoot with both left and right. He became an army Major, followed Internal Cadet-General Zhāng Huàn on campaign in Bìngzhōu and had achievements, and was appointed Cadet Internal, bestowed with thick silk of 9000 pǐ. Zhuó in all cases divided it with his subordinate officials and soldiers. He was promoted to Guǎngwǔ Magistrate, Shǔjùn Northern Part Commandant, Western Regions Five-Six Colonel, and was dismissed. He was summoned and appointed Bìngzhōu Inspector, Hé​dōng Administrator, (3) promoted to Internal Cadet-General, suppressed Yellow Carves, his army was defeated and he was punished. Hán Suì and others rebelled in Liáng​zhōu, so he again became Internal Cadet-General, to the west resisted [Hán] Suì. At Wàngyuánxiá’s north, he was by Qiāng and Hú of several tens of thousands of men besieged, his provisions were exhausted. Zhuó pretended he wished to catch fish, damming his return route’s ferry water into a pond, causing the water to fill several tens of lǐ, silently followed the dam down with his army and then breached the dam. When the Qiāng and Hú became aware they pursued, but the water was already deep, and they could not cross. At the time the Six Armies was above Lǒng​xī, five armies were utterly defeated, Zhuó alone preserved his army and returned, camping at Fú​fēng. He was appointed Front General, with fief as Tái village marquis, and summoned to become Bìngzhōu Governor. (4)


  • (1) Yīng​xióngjì states: Zhuó’s father Jūnyǎ, from minor office became Yǐngchuān Lúnshì Commandant. He had three sons: eldest son Zhuó, appellation Mènggāo, died young. Next was Zhuó. Zhuó’s younger brother Mín appellation Shūyǐng.

〔一〕 英雄記曰:卓父君雅,由微官為潁川綸氏尉。有三子:長子擢,字孟高,早卒;次即卓;卓弟旻字叔穎。

  • (2) Wúshū states: The prefecture summoned Zhuó as an official, sending him to control bandits. The Hú once set out to plunder, greatly captured people, and Liáng​zhōu Inspector Chéng Jiù enlisted Zhuó as Advisor, sending him to comand infantry and cavalry to suppress and capture, greatly defeating them, killing and capturing in the thousands. Bìngzhōu Inspector Duàn Jiǒng recommended Zhuó to the Offices of the Excellencies, and Excellency over the Masses Yuán Wěi recruited him as an official.

〔二〕 吳書曰:郡召卓為吏,使監領盜賊。胡嘗出鈔,多虜民人,涼州刺史成就辟卓為從事,使領兵騎討捕,大破之,斬獲千計。并州刺史段熲薦卓公府,司徒袁隗辟為掾。

  • (3) Yīng​xióngjì states: Zhuó several times suppressed the Qiāng and Hú, from beginning to end over a hundred battles.

〔三〕 英雄記曰:卓數討羌、胡,前後百餘戰。

  • (4) Língdìjì states: Zhōngpíng Fifth Year, they summoned Zhuó as Minister Treasurer, ordering his camps officials and soldiers to transfer to Left General Huáng​fǔ​ Sōng, and come to where [the Emperor] was. Zhuó sent up word: “Liángzhōu is in upheaval, the rebellions not yet exterminated, and this is the time for me your servant to vigorously carry out orders. The officials and soldiers are enthusiastic, appreciating [the ruler’s] grace and pondering repaying it, and each blocked my chariot, their words earnest and sorrowful, and I cannot at once depart. Thus for the time being I act over Front General affairs, with all my heart reassuring and sympathizing [with the troops], and exerting all my energy going on the battle lines.” Sixth Year, Zhuó was appointed Bìngzhōu Governor, and again ordered to have his officials and soldiers join Huáng​fǔ​ Sōng​. Zhuó again sent up word: “I your servant have handled warfare for ten years, the soldiers great and small, are all close with me for a long time, are attached to the grace of I your servant’s caretaking of them, and take joy in serving the state energetically in all orders, and I beg to bring them to the province, to with energy guard the frontiers.” Zhuó again violated Imperial Order, and it happened that he was by Hé Jìn summoned.

〔四〕 靈帝紀曰:中平五年,徵卓為少府,敕以營吏士屬左將軍皇甫嵩,詣行在所。卓上言:「涼州擾亂,鯨鯢未滅,此臣奮發效命之秋。吏士踴躍,戀恩念報,各遮臣車,辭聲懇惻,未得即路也。輒且行前將軍事,盡心慰卹,效力行陳。」六年,以卓為并州牧,又敕以吏兵屬皇甫嵩。卓復上言:「臣掌戎十年,士卒大小,相狎彌久,戀臣畜養之恩,樂為國家奮一旦之命,乞將之州,效力邊陲。」卓再違詔敕,會為何進所召。

Emperor Líng died, and the Young Emperor succeeded the throne. General-in-Chief Hé Jìn with Colonel Director of Retainers Yuán​ Shào plotted to execute the various eunuch officials, but the Dowager-Empress would not agree. [Hé] Jìn therefore summoned Zhuó to command troops to visit the capital, and also secretly ordered to sent up letter: “Internal Regular Attendant Zhāng Ràng and others secretly took advantage of Imperial favor, defiling and confusing within the seas. In the past Zhào Yāng raised troops at Jìnyáng, to chase away the evil beside the ruler. I your servant at once beat bells and drums at Luò​yáng, to suppress [Zhāng] Ràng and the rest,” wishing to force the Dowager-Empress. Zhuó had not yet arrived, when [Hé] Jìn was defeated. (1) Internal Regular Attendant Duàn Guī and others seized the Emperor and fled to Xiǎopíngjīn, Zhuó then commanded his armies to welcome the Emperor at Běimáng, returning to the Palace. (2) At the time [Hé] Jìn’s younger brother General of Chariots and Cavalry [Hé] Miáo was by [Hé] Jìn’s army killed, (3) [Hé] Jìn’s and [Hé] Miáo’s personal troops had no one to join, and all went over to Zhuó. Zhuó also sent Lǚ​ Bù to kill Metal Mace Bearer Dīng Yuán, and absorbed his army. Therefore the capital’s military power was all with Zhuó. (4)


  • (1) Xù Hàn​shū states: [Hé] Jìn appellation Suìgāo was a Nán​yáng man, and the Dowager-Empress’s elder brother of a different mother. [Hé] Jìn was originally a butcher family’s son, his father named [Hé] Zhēn. After [Hé] Zhēn died, [Hé] Jìn had his younger sister depend on the Yellow Gate [eunuch officials] to enter the Lateral Courts, she was favored, and Guānghé Third Year was enthroned as Empress, and [Hé] Jìn because of this became noble and favored. Zhōngpíng Inaugural Year, the Yellow Scarves rebelled, and [Hé] Jìn was appointed General-in-Chief.
    Diǎnlüè records Zhuó’s memorial: “I your servant in prostration believe that the reason there have been rebellion without end, is all because Yellow Gate Regular Attendant Zhāng Ràng and the rest violate Heaven’s constant principles, seize and usurp the ruler’s orders, their fathers and sons and brothers all occupy the provinces and prefectures, and when one letter goes out the door, they at once gain a thousand gold, the capital region’s various prefectures several million fertile fields all belong to [Zhāng] Ràng and the rest, such that resentment rises up, and villains and bandits swarm. I your servant previously received Imperial Order to suppress them at Fúluó, my officers and soldiers were starving, and would not agree to cross the river, all saying they wished to go the capital to first execute the eunuchs to remove the people’s suffering, and from the terraces and pavillions ask for supplies. I your servant thus consoled them, so that there was restored calm. I your servant have heard to add water to stop boiling is not as good as extinguishing the fire and removing the fuel, and although cutting away boils is painful, it is better than letting it grow. When the water is flooding the boat, regret is too late.”

〔一〕 續漢書曰:進字遂高,南陽人,太后異母兄也。進本屠家子,父曰真。真死後,進以妹倚黃門得入掖庭,有寵,光和三年立為皇后,進由是貴幸。中平元年,黃巾起,拜進大將軍。典略載卓表曰:「臣伏惟天下所以有逆不止者,各由黃門常侍張讓等侮慢天常,操擅王命,父子兄弟並據州郡,一書出門,便獲千金,京畿諸郡數百萬膏腴美田皆屬讓等,至使怨氣上蒸,妖賊蜂起。臣前奉詔討於扶羅,將士飢乏,不肯渡河,皆言欲詣京師先誅閹豎以除民害,從臺閣求乞資直。臣隨慰撫,以至新安。臣聞揚湯止沸,不如滅火去薪,潰癰雖痛,勝于養肉,及溺呼船,悔之無及。」

  • (2) Zhāng Fán’s Hànjì states: The Emperor in the Eighth Moon Gēng​wǔ was by the various Yellow Gate [eunuchs] seized, on foot going out Gǔ Gate [the rear gate], fleeing up the Hé. The various Yellow Gates then all threw themselves into the Hé and died. At the time the Emperor was fourteen years, the King of Chénliú nine years, and the brothers alone in the night on foot wished to return to the palace, it was dark, and they followed fireflies and went, after several lǐ they found a peasant family and rode an un-canopied a cart to travel. Xīn​wèi, the Excellencies and Ministers down with Zhuó together welcomed the Emperor at Běimáng’s slope.
    Xiàndì Chūn​qiū states: Before this a children’s rhyme said: “Marquis not a marquis, King not a King, a thousand chariots ten thousand riders flee Běimáng.” Zhuó at the time just arrived, camping at Xiǎnyángyuàn. He heard the Emperor was about to return, and led his army to welcome the Emperor.
  • Diǎnlüè states: The Emperor saw Zhuó’s troops and wept, and the various Excellencies all said to Zhuó: “There is an Imperial Order to withdraw troops.” Zhuó said: “You Excellencies and men are the state’s chief ministers, but could not rectify the ruling House, so that it caused the state to be scattered and dissolute. How can there be a withdrawing of troops?” Therefore they all entered the city.
  • Xiàndìjì states: Zhuó with the Emperor spoke, but his speech was unintelligible. Therefore he again with the King of Chénliú spoke, asking how the chaos began; the King answered, from beginning to end, without any omission. Zhuó was greatly pleased, and therefore had plans to depose [the Emperor].
  • Yīng​xióngjì states: Hé​nán Central Part Official Mǐn Gòng supported the Emperor and the King of Chénliú up to Luòshě. The Emperor alone rode one horse, the King of Chénliú with [Mǐn] Gòng together rode one horse, from Luòshě going south. The Excellencies and Ministers and officials welcomed them at Běimáng’s slope, and former Excellency Commandant Cuī Liè was at the front guiding. Zhuó commanded infantry and cavalry of several thousand to come welcome, [Cuī] Liè called on them to keep away, and Zhuó abused [Cuī] Liè saying: “We day and night over three hundred lǐ came, why say to keep away? Can I not break your head?” He advanced to meet the Emperor and said: “Your Majesty ordered the Regular Attendant and Lesser Yellow Gate to create chaos so that it came to this, by fetching disaster, is the burden not small?” He also approached the King of Chénliú: “I am Dǒng​ Zhuó. Come to my arms.” Therefore he took the King from [Mǐn] Gòng’s arms.
  • Yīng​xióngjì states: One document says that the King would not be held by Zhuó, and Zhuó with the King together rode a horse and went.

〔二〕 張璠漢紀曰:帝以八月庚午為諸黃門所劫,步出穀門,走至河上。諸黃門既投河死。時帝年十四,陳留王年九歲,兄弟獨夜步行欲還宮,闇暝,逐螢火而行,數里,得民家以露車載送。辛未,公卿以下與卓共迎帝於北芒阪下。獻帝春秋曰:先是童謠曰:「侯非侯,王非王,千乘萬騎走北芒。」卓時適至,屯顯陽苑。聞帝當還,率眾迎帝。典略曰:帝望見卓兵涕泣。群公謂卓曰:「有詔卻兵。」卓曰:「公諸人為國大臣,不能匡正王室,至使國家播蕩,何卻兵之有!」遂俱入城。獻帝紀曰:卓與帝語,語不可了。乃更與陳留王語,問禍亂由起;王答,自初至終,無所遺失。卓大喜,乃有廢立意。英雄記曰:河南中部掾閔貢扶帝及陳留王上至雒舍止。帝獨乘一馬,陳留王與貢共乘一馬,從雒舍南行。公卿百官奉迎於北芒阪下,故太尉崔烈在前導。卓將步騎數千來迎,烈呵使避,卓罵烈曰:「晝夜三百里來,何云避,我不能斷卿頭邪?」前見帝曰:「陛下令常侍小黃門作亂乃爾,以取禍敗,為負不小邪?」又趨陳留王,曰:「我董卓也,從我抱來。」乃於貢抱中取王。英雄記曰:一本云王不就卓抱,卓與王併馬而行也。

  • (3) Yīng​xióngjì states: [Hé] Miáo was the Dowager-Empress’s elder brother of the same mother, her previous marriage to the Zhū family’s son. [Hé] Jìn’s personal troops commander Wú Kuāng, previously complained [Hé] Miáo was not with [Hé] Jìn in the same intentions, and also suspected he had with the eunuchs communicated and plotted, and therefore gave Order in the army: “The killer of the General-in-Chief was the [General of] Chariots and Cavalry.” Therefore he led troops with Zhuó’s younger brother Mín to together attack and kill [Hé] Miáo below Zhūjué watchtower.

〔三〕 英雄記云:苗,太后之同母兄,先嫁朱氏之子。進部曲將吳匡,素怨苗不與進同心,又疑其與宦官通謀,乃令軍中曰:「殺大將軍者,車騎也。」遂引兵與卓弟旻共攻殺苗於朱爵闕下。

  • (4) Jiǔ​zhōu Chūn​qiū states: When Zhuó first entered Luò​yáng, his infantry and cavalry did not exceed three thousand, and he himself suspected his troops were too few and could not make the far and near submit; so every four to five days, he then in the night send troops out the four city gates, and the next day laid out banners and drums and entered, announcing: “Western troops again enter in Luò.” The people were unaware, and said Zhuó’s troops were uncountable.

〔四〕 九州春秋曰:卓初入洛陽,步騎不過三千,自嫌兵少,不為遠近所服;率四五日,輒夜遣兵出四城門,明日陳旌鼓而入,宣言云「西兵復入至洛中」。人不覺,謂卓兵不可勝數。

Before this, [Hé] Jìn sent Cavalry Commandant Tàishān’s Bào Xìn to his homeland to recruit troops. When he arrived, [Bào] Xìn said to [Yuán]​ Shào: “Zhuó wields strong troops, and has disloyal intentions, now if he is not early dealt with, you will be by him taken; As he is just arrived and fatigued, if he is attacked he can be taken.” [Yuán]​ Shào feared Zhuó, and did not dare set out, and [Bào] Xìn therefore returned to his home town.


At the time for a long time there had been no rain, so it was ordered to dismiss Excellency of Works Liú Hóng and Zhuó replaced him, very soon was promoted to Excellency Commandant, with Acting Staff and Battle-Ax over the Tiger Elite [guard]. Therefore he deposed the Emperor to King of Hóngnóng, and soon also killed the King and Dowager-Empress Hé. He enthroned Emperor Líng’s youngest son the King of Chénliú, who was Emperor Xiàn. (1) Zhuó was promoted to Chancellor of State, with fief as Marquis of Méi, able to present without using his name, with sword and shoes ascend the palace hall, and also gave fief to Zhuó’s mother as Lady of Chíyáng, installing a Household Director and Deputy. Zhuó commanded elite troops to come, just when the Emperor’s House was in great chaos, and he gained power to depose and enthrone, occupied military stores and troops, the state’s treasures, and his authority shook all Heaven’s Under. Zhuó by nature was cruel and without benevolence, and therefore by cruel punishments threatened the masses, the slightest grudge was certain to be avenged, and the people could not defend themselves. (2) Once he sent the army to Yángchéng. At the time it happened to be the Second Moon Sacrifices, and the people were all below the altars, and they all beheaded the men, seizing their cart oxen, carrying away their women and property, and with the heads tied to the cart axles, linked together and returned to Luò, saying they had attacked rebels and greatly captured, shouting “Ten Thousand Years.” They entered Kāi​yáng City Gate, burning the heads, and bestowed the women to the soldiers to be servants and concubines. He went as far as to defile and violate the Palace Women and Princesses. His viciousness and rebelliousness was like this.


  • (1) Xiàndìjì states: Zhuó plotted to depose the Emperor, and met with the various ministers at the Court Hall, commenting: “Greatest is Heaven and Earth, next is Ruler and Subject, and so there is governance. Now the Emperor is ignorant and weak, and cannot support the Ancestral Temple or be ruler over the realm Under Heaven. I wish to follow Yī Yǐn’s and Huò Guāng’s precedent, and enthrone the King of Chénliú. How about it?” Secretariat Lú Zhí said: “According to the Shàng​shū, Tàijiǎ when enthroned was not enlightened, Yī Yǐn exiled him to Tóng Palace. The King of Chāngyì was enthroned for twenty seven days, his crimes were over a thousand, and therefore Huò Guāng deposed him. Now the Ascended is abundant in seasons, his conduct has not yet had faults, and cannot be compared to the previous situation.” Zhuó was angry, left his seat, wishing to execute [Lú] Zhí. Internal Attendant Cài Yōng consoled him, and so it was only dismissal. Ninth Moon Jiǎ​xū, Zhuó again greatly gathered the various ministers saying: “The Dowager-Empress threatened the Yǒng​lè Dowager-Empress, causing her to in anxiety die, and this is in opposition to the rites of a wife to her husband’s mother, without the integrity of filial obedience. Heaven’s Son is young and too feeble to rule. In the past Yī Yǐn exiled Tàijiǎ, Huò Guāng deposed [the King of] Chāngyì, this is made known in the ancient records, and all believed it good. Now the Dowager-Empress is like Tàijiǎ, the Emperor is like [the King of] Chāngyì. The King of Chénliú is benevolent and filial, and should succeed the honored Imperial Throne.
  • Xiàndì Qǐ​jūzhù records records the document: “Emperor Xiào-Líng did not carry on Gāo​zōng’s long lasting blessings, and early abandoned his subjects. The Emperor succeeds, within the seas leans in hope, but the Emperor’s natural disposition is frivolous, his authority not reverent, in morning is slow and lazy, becoming feeble like before; his inauspicious virtue already manifest, his coarseness spreading out and known, disgracing the Divine Objects, shaming the Ancestral Temple. The Dowager-Empress in teaching was without a mother’s ceremony, the government was neglected and chaotic. The Yǒng​lè Dowager-Empress was cruelly killed, and the masses discussed in suspicion. The Way of the Three Principles, is the Order of Heaven and Earth, but there was deficiency, and this crime is great. The King of Chénliú [Liú] Xié, has sagely virtue large and abundant, upright and honest and solemn, prospering below and above, and has the appearance of Yáo’s nature; in observing mourning he is sorrowful, his speech is not offensive, from youth quick witted, and has Zhōu [King] Chéng’s virtue. His good reputation and praise, all under Heaven has heard. he should carry on the Expansive Enterprise, be ruler over all, and can carry on the Ancestral Temple. Depose the Emperor to King of Hóngnóng. The Dowager-Empress is to return the government.” When the Secretariat finished reading the document, of the various ministers none spoke. Secretariat Dīng Gōng said: “Heaven’s disaster on the Hàn House, tragic disasters great and many. In the past Zhài Zhòng deposed Hū and enthroned Tū, the Chūn​qiū said his power increased. Now the great ministers judge it appropriate for the State Altars, truly harmonizing Heaven and Man, and ask to praise Ten Thousand Years.” Zhuó because the Dowager-Empress was deposed, therefore had the Excellencies and Ministers down not wear cotton clothes, and at the burial, only wear raw silk clothes and nothing more.

〔一〕 獻帝紀曰:卓謀廢帝,會群臣於朝堂,議曰:「大者天地,次者君臣,所以為治。今皇帝闇弱,不可以奉宗廟,為天下主。欲依伊尹、霍光故事,立陳留王,何如?」尚書盧植曰:「案尚書太甲既立不明,伊尹放之桐宮。昌邑王立二十七日,罪過千餘,故霍光廢之。今上富於春秋,行未有失,非前事之比也。」卓怒,罷坐,欲誅植,侍中蔡邕勸之,得免。九月甲戌,卓復大會群臣曰:「太后逼迫永樂太后,令以憂死,逆婦姑之禮,無孝順之節。天子幼質,軟弱不君。昔伊尹放太甲,霍光廢昌邑,著在典籍,僉以為善。今太后宜如太甲,皇帝宜如昌邑。陳留王仁孝,宜即尊皇祚。」獻帝起居注載策曰:「孝靈皇帝不究高宗眉壽之祚,早棄臣子。皇帝承紹,海內側望,而帝天姿輕佻,威儀不恪,在喪慢惰,衰如故焉;凶德既彰,淫穢發聞,損辱神器,忝污宗廟。皇太后教無母儀,統政荒亂。永樂太后暴崩,眾論惑焉。三綱之道,天地之紀,而乃有闕,罪之大者。陳留王協,聖德偉茂,規矩邈然,豐下兌上,有堯圖之表;居喪哀戚,言不及邪,岐嶷之性,有周成之懿。休聲美稱,天下所聞,宜承洪業,為萬世統,可以承宗廟。廢皇帝為弘農王。皇太后還政。」尚書讀冊畢,群臣莫有言,尚書丁宮曰:「天禍漢室,喪亂弘多。昔祭仲廢忽立突,春秋大其權。今大臣量宜為社稷計,誠合天人,請稱萬歲。」卓以太后見廢,故公卿以下不布服,會葬,素衣而已。

  • (2) Wèi​shū states: Zhuó’s desires were without limit, and he said to his guests: “My physiognomy is that of nobility without any superior.”
  • Yīng​xióngjì states: Zhuó wished to shake and awe. Attendant Censor Rǎolóng Zōng visited Zhuó to report a matter, did not remove sword, and was immediately beaten to death, and the capital was shaken. He opened Hé Miáo’s coffin, removing the corpse, broke the limbs and abandoned it by the road. He also arrested [Hé] Miáo’s mother the Lady of Wǔ​yáng and killed her, abandoning the body in park brambles, and did not collect it.

〔二〕 魏書曰:卓所願無極,語賓客曰:「我相,貴無上也。」英雄記曰:卓欲震威,侍御史擾龍宗詣卓白事,不解劍,立撾殺之,京師震動。發何苗棺,出其尸,枝解節棄於道邊。又收苗母舞陽君殺之,棄尸於苑枳落中,不復收斂。

Previously, Zhuó trusted in Secretariat Zhōu Bì and City Gate Colonel Wǔ Qióng and others, and employed those they recommended Hán Fù, Kǒng Zhòu, Zhāng Zī, Zhāng Miǎo and others to go out and manage provinces and prefectures. But when [Hán] Fù and the rest reached office, they all gathered troops and officers to suppress Zhuó. Zhuó heard this, and believed [Zhōu] Bì and [Wǔ] Qióng and others would follow the situation to betray him, and beheaded them all. (1)


  • (1) Yīng​xióngjì states: [Zhōu] Bì appellation Zhòngyuǎn was a Wǔ​wēi man. [Wǔ] Qióng appellation Déyú was a Rǔ​nán man.
  • Xiè Chéng’s Hòu​ Hàn​shū states: Wǔ Fú appellation Déyú when young had great integrity, and became prefecture Below the Gate Document Aide. His home village’s Chief had a crime, the Administrator sent [Wǔ] Fú to go out to discipline him, ordering the subordinate investigative officials to arrest him. [Wǔ] Fú would not go to discipline, and lying prostrate on the ground look up to admonish: “Though a ruler is not a ruler, a subject cannot not be a subject. How can you wise governor order me to discipline, and order outsiders to arrest my home village’s Chief? So I again beg the task go to another official.” The Administrator was impressed and listened to him. Later General-in-Chief Hé Jìn recruited him as East Department Associate, soon promoted to Attendant Internal, Hé​nán Intendant, and Surpassing Cavalry Colonel. Dǒng​ Zhuó created chaos, and the bureaucrats trembled in fear. [Wǔ] Fú wore small armor, in his Court dress clasped girdle knife to meet Zhuó, wishing to watch for opportunity to assassinate him. When the conversation was done and they departed, Zhuó escorted him up to the side door, and [Wǔ] Fú thus drew the knife and stabbed at him. Zhuó had abundant strength, and drew back so it did not strike, and at once seized [Wǔ] Fú. Zhuó said: “You wish to rebel?” [Wǔ] Fú greatly shouted: “You are not my master, I am not your subject, what rebellion is there? You disorder the state and usurp the ruler, your crimes abundant and evil great. Today is my death day, therefore I came only to execute a traitor, and regret I could not tear you apart with chariots in the market to apologize to the world Under Heaven.” Therefore they killed [Wǔ] Fú.
  • Xiè Chéng records [Wǔ] Fú’s appellation and home prefecture, and it is with [Wǔ] Qióng the same, but the matter of his death is with [Wǔ] Fú different. It is not known if Fú is another name for [Wǔ] Qióng, or if there is another [Wǔ] Fú. It is unclear.

〔一〕 英雄記曰:毖字仲遠,武威人。瓊字德瑜,汝南人。謝承後漢書曰:伍孚字德瑜,少有大節,為郡門下書佐。其本邑長有罪,太守使孚出教,敕曹下督郵收之。孚不肯受教,伏地仰諫曰:「君雖不君,臣不可不臣,明府奈何令孚受教,敕外收本邑長乎?更乞授他吏。」太守奇而聽之。後大將軍何進辟為東曹屬,稍遷侍中、河南尹、越騎校尉。董卓作亂,百僚震慄。孚著小鎧,於朝服裏挾佩刀見卓,欲伺便刺殺之。語闋辭去,卓送至閤中,孚因出刀刺之。卓多力,退卻不中,即收孚。卓曰:「卿欲反邪?」孚大言曰:「汝非吾君,吾非汝臣,何反之有?汝亂國篡主,罪盈惡大,今是吾死日,故來誅姦賊耳,恨不車裂汝於市朝以謝天下。」遂殺孚。謝承記孚字及本郡,則與瓊同,而致死事乃與孚異也,不知孚為瓊之別名,為別有伍孚也?蓋未詳之。

Hé​nèi Administrator Wáng Kuāng sent Tài​shān troops to camp Héyáng crossing, in order to plot against Zhuó. Zhuó sent decoy troops as if he was about to cross Píng​yīn, and secretly sent an elite army to cross north at Xiǎopíng, turning to strike their rear, greatly defeating them north of the crossing, killing them all. Zhuó because powerful figures east of the mountains had all risen, was afraid there would not be peace. Chūpíng Inaugural Year Second Moon, he therefore moved Heaven’s Son and the capital to Cháng​’ān. He burned Luò​yáng’s Palaces and Residences, excavated all the tombs, seizing the treasure. (1) Zhuó reached the Western Capital, became Grand Preceptor, and was called Esteemed Father. He rode Blue-Green Canopied Golden Flower Chariot, engravings decorating both sides, and at the time people called it Pole Grinding Chariot. (2) Zhuó’s younger brother [Dǒng] Mín became Left General, with fief as Marquis of Hù; his elder brother’s son [Dǒng] Huáng became Attendant Internal and Central Army Colonel Arranging Troops, and his clansmen patrilineal and matrilineal were all ranked in Court. (3) When Excellencies and Ministers met with Zhuó, they bowed below the Chariot, and Zhuó did not reciprocate. He called Three Terrace Secretariat and below to personally visit Zhuó’s office to report matters. (4) He built Méiwù, as tall as Cháng​’ān’s city walls, amassing grain into a thirty year reserve, (5) saying if matters were successful, his power would seize the realm Under Heaven, and if not successful, he could defend enough to last to old age. Once he reached Méi to go to the fortress, the Excellencies and Ministers down [made sacrifices with him at] Ancestral Road outside Guāng Gate. Zhuó set up tents and drank, there were surrendered northern rebels of several hundred people, and while he was seated they first cut their tongues, or cut off hands and feat, or gouged out eyes, or boiled in cauldrons, and were not yet dead, lying and writhing among the cups and tables, and those at the gathering all trembled and dropped their spoons and chopsticks, but Zhuó drank and ate at ease. The Grand Scribe observed the weather, and said a great minister would be killed. Former Excellency Commandant Zhāng Wēn at the time was Minister of the Guard, and previously was not friendly with Zhuó. Zhuó in his heart resented him, and because Heaven had changes, he wished to use this to prevent misfortune, and sent someone to say [Zhāng] Wēn with Yuán Shù had communicated, and therefore whipped him to death. (6) His ordinances were severe and ruthless, good and bad both excessively punished, so people falsely accused each other, and the wrongly dead were thousands. The common people grieved, only exchanging looks on the road. (7) He destroyed the Bronze Men, Bells and Stands, and broke the wǔzhū coins, casting them into small coins, five fēn large, without engravings, without defined edge marks, without polishing. Therefore money was cheap and goods expensive, and grain of one hú reached several hundred thousand [coins]. From this afterward coins and money did not circulate.


  • (1) Huà Jiào’s Hàn​shū states: Zhuó wished to move to Cháng​’ān, and summoned the Excellencies and Ministers down to greatly discuss. Excellency over the Masses Yáng Biāo said: “In the past Pán Gēng moved five times, and Yīn’s people all complained, and therefore created three scrolls to explain to the realm Under Heaven’s people. Now Within the Seas is calm and steady, without reason to move the capital, and one fears the common people will be alarmed, stirring up and gathering to cause chaos.” Zhuó said: “Inside the Passes is fertile and abundant, and therefore Qín was able to absorb the Six States. Now moving to the Western Capital, if among the powerful figures east of the Passes there are those that dare move, with our powerful troops to level them, they can be driven into the azure sea.” [Yáng] Biāo said: “Within the Seas stirring up is very easy, calming is very difficult. Also Cháng​’ān’s Palaces and Residences are broken and desolate, and cannot be restored.” Zhuó said: “In Wǔdì’s time residing below Dùlíng South Mountain, were roof tile kilns of several thousand, and summoning Liáng​zhōu’s timber and wood to go east down[stream] to make Palaces and Residences, the achievement is not difficult.” Zhuó’s intentions were not allowed, so he changed color and said: “You Excellencies wish to block my plan? Biān Zhāng and Hán Yuē have a letter come, wishing to order the Court it must move Capital. If the [enemy] main army from the east comes, we will not be able to save each other, and then you can with the Yuán clan go west.” [Yáng] Biāo said: “The west is surely the road I take, I only consider that it is unknown what the realm Under Heaven will be like!” The discussion ceased. Zhuó ordered Colonel Director of Retainers Xuān Fán to use disasters and strange events for an impeachment memorial, and so it was ordered to dismiss [Yáng] Biāo.
  • Xù Hàn​shū states: Excellency Commandant Huáng Wǎn, Excellency over the Masses Yáng Biāo, Excellency of Works Xún Shuǎng all visited Zhuó. Zhuó said: “In the past Gāozǔ had capital Inside the Passes, Eleven Generations later there was Restoration, changing capital to Luò​yáng. From Guāng-Wǔ to now is again Eleven Generations, and according to the Shíbāoshì prophecies, it is appropriate to again return the capital to Cháng​’ān.” The seated were all alarmed, but none dared answer. [Yáng] Biāo said: “Moving capital and changing regulations is the realm Under Heaven’s Great Affair, and all should comply with the people’s hearts, and follow the appropriateness of the times. In the past Pán Gēng moved five times, and Yīn’s people all complained, and therefore created three scrolls to explain it. Previously Wáng​ Mǎng usurped and rebelled, changing to chaos the Five Constants, in the time of Gēng​shǐ and the Red Brows, they burned Cháng​’ān, slaughtered the common people, and people fled away, not even one out of a hundred remaining. Guāng-Wǔ received the Mandate, changed capital to Luò city, and this was appropriate. Now we have just established the Sagely Ruler, to enlighten and swell the Hàn House, and without reason abandon the Palace and Temples, discarding the Tombs, one fears the common people will be alarmed, and not understand this intention, and certainly stirring up and gathering to reach the point of disturbing and chaos. The Shíbāoshì prophecies are heterodox texts, how can it be used?” Zhuó changed color and said: “Excellency Yáng wishes to block the state’s plans? East of the Passes is about to be in chaos, where rebels rise up. Xiáohán is rugged and firm, the state’s important defense. Also from Lǒngyòu collecting timber, so the labor is not hard. Below Dùlíng South Mountain are Xiào-Wǔ’s former pottery kilns, making roof tiles, in one morning can be done. The Palaces and Residences and Government Offices, how is it enough to speak of? The common little people, how can they be enough to discuss with? If there are those that refuse to advance, I will with the great troops force them, how can they be unrestrained?” The officials were all frightened and lost color. [Huáng] Wǎn said to Zhuó: “This is a great matter, Excellency Yáng’s words, cannot be without heavy consideration!” Zhuó left his seat, and that day ordered the Director of Retainers to memorialize [Yáng] Biāo and [Huáng] Wǎn to both be dismissed from office. The Imperial Chariot went west. Zhuó’s division troops burned outside Luòyáng​’s city walls for a hundred lǐ. He also commanded troops to burn the Southern and Northern Palaces and Ancestral Temples, the Treasury, the people’s homes, and inside the city walls were completely swept away and dstroyed. He also arrested all the wealthy households, citing crimes to seize their property; the innocent that died were uncountable.
  • Xiàndìjì states: Zhuó captured troops east of the mountains, with hog grease soaked cloth of over ten pǐ, used them to wrap their bodies, and afterward burned them, first from the feet rising up. He captured Yuán​ Shào’s Yùzhōu Advisor Lǐ Yán, and boiled him to death. Zhuó had a favored Hú, who he pampered and indulged, and was by Colonel Director of Retainers Zhào Qiān killed. Zhuó was greatly angred and said: “My favored dogs all do not wish others to bother them, so all the more for my men!” Therefore he summoned the Director of Retainers to his office and beat him to death.

〔一〕 華嶠漢書曰:卓欲遷長安,召公卿以下大議。司徒楊彪曰:「昔盤庚五遷,殷民胥怨,故作三篇以曉天下之民。(而)〔今〕海內安穩,無故移都,恐百姓驚動,麋沸蟻聚為亂。」卓曰:「關中肥饒,故秦得并吞六國。今徙西京,設令關東豪彊敢有動者,以我彊兵踧之,可使詣滄海。」彪曰:「海內動之甚易,安之甚難。又長安宮室壞敗,不可卒復。」卓曰:「武帝時居杜陵南山下,有成瓦窑數千處,引涼州材木東下以作宮室,為功不難。」卓意不得,便作色曰:「公欲沮我計邪?邊章、韓約有書來,欲令朝廷必徙都。若大兵(來)〔東〕下,我不能復相救,公便可與袁氏西行。」彪曰:「西方自彪道徑也,顧未知天下何如耳!」議罷。卓敕司隸校尉宣璠以災異劾奏,因策免彪。續漢書曰:太尉黃琬、司徒楊彪、司空荀爽俱詣卓,卓言:「昔高祖都關中,十一世後中興,更都洛陽。從光武至今復十一世,案石苞室讖,宜復還都長安。」坐中皆驚愕,無敢應者。彪曰:「遷都改制,天下大事,皆當因民之心,隨時之宜。昔盤庚五遷,殷民胥怨,故作三篇以曉之。往者王莽篡逆,變亂五常,更始赤眉之時,焚燒長安,殘害百姓,民人流亡,百無一在。光武受命,更都洛邑,此其宜也。今方建立聖主,光隆漢祚,而無故捐宮廟,棄園陵,恐百姓驚愕,不解此意,必麋沸蟻聚以致擾亂。石苞室讖,妖邪之書,豈可信用?」卓作色曰:「楊公欲沮國家計邪?關東方亂,所在賊起。崤函險固,國之重防。又隴右取材,功夫不難。杜陵南山下有孝武故陶處,作塼瓦,一朝可辦。宮室官府,蓋何足言!百姓小民,何足與議。若有前卻,我以大兵驅之,豈得自在。」百寮恐怖失色。琬謂卓曰:「此大事。楊公之語,得無重思!」卓罷坐,即日令司隸奏彪及琬,皆免官。大駕即西。卓部兵燒洛陽城外面百里。又自將兵燒南北宮及宗廟、府庫、民家,城內掃地殄盡。又收諸富室,以罪惡沒入其財物;無辜而死者,不可勝計。獻帝紀曰:卓獲山東兵,以豬膏塗布十餘匹,用纏其身,然後燒之,先從足起。獲袁紹豫州從事李延,煮殺之。卓所愛胡,恃寵放縱,為司隸校尉趙謙所殺。卓大怒曰:「我愛狗,尚不欲令人呵之,而況人乎!」乃召司隸都官撾殺之。

  • (2) Wèi​shū states: This was to say that he compelled Heaven’s Son.
  • Xiàndìjì states: When Zhuó became Grand Preceptor, he also wished to be called Esteemed Father, and asked Cài Yōng. [Cài] Yōng said: “In the past King Wǔ accepted the Mandate, Tài​gōng was Preceptor, assisting the Zhōu House, to cut down those without principle, and therefore the realm Under Heaven honored him, and called him Esteemed Father. Now your Excellency’s achievements and virtues truly are towering, but it is suitable to wait for the east of the passes to all be settled, the Imperial Carriage to return east, and afterward discuss this.” Therefore he stopped. The capital had an earthquake, and Zhuó again asked [Cài] Yōng. [Cài] Yōng answered: “Earthquakes are Yīn flourishing, caused when great ministers exceed regulations. Your Excellency rides a Blue-Green Canopied Chariot, far and near believe it is not appropriate.” Zhuó followed this, and changed to riding a Gold Flower Black Canopy Chariot.

〔二〕 魏書曰:言其逼天子也。獻帝紀曰;卓既為太師,復欲稱尚父,以問蔡邕。邕曰:「昔武王受命,太公為師,輔佐周室,以伐無道,是以天下尊之,稱為尚父。今公之功德誠為巍巍,宜須關東悉定,車駕東還,然後議之。」乃止。京師地震,卓又問邕。邕對曰:「地動陰盛,大臣踰制之所致也。公乘青蓋車,遠近以為非宜。」卓從之,更乘金華皂蓋車也。

  • (3) Yīng​xióngjì states: Zhuó’s sons still carried by concubines, were all given fief as Marquis, and played with gold [seals] and purple [ribbons]. His son’s daughter named Bái, at the time was not yet fifteen, and given fief as Lady of Wèiyáng. At Méi city wall’s east was raised an altar, over two zhàng wide, five to six chǐ tall, and he sent Bái to ride Gold Flower Blue-Green Canopied Chariot. Commandants, Internal Cadet-Generals, Inspectors and Two Thousand dàn [salaried officials] at Méi, each were ordered to ride carriage with hairclasps, to be Bái’s escort. Reaching the altar and ascending, he sent his elder brother’s son Huáng as envoy to bestow the seal and ribbon.

〔三〕 英雄記曰:卓侍妾懷抱中子,皆封侯,弄以金紫。孫女名白,時尚未笄,封為渭陽君。於郿城東起壇,從廣二丈餘,高五六尺,使白乘軒金華青蓋車,都尉、中郎將、刺史千石在郿者,各令乘軒簪筆,為白導從,之壇上,使兄子璜為使者授印綬。

  • (4) Shān​yáng Gōng Zǎijì states: Previously Zhuó was Front General, Huáng​fǔ​ Sōng was Left General, both campaigning against Hán Suì, and each would not be subordinate to the other. Later Zhuó was summoned to be Minister Treasurer and Bìngzhōu Governor, and his troops were to transfer to [Huáng​fǔ]​ Sōng, and Zhuó was greatly furious. When he became Grand Preceptor, [Huáng​fǔ]​ Sōng was Censorate Internal Deputy, and bowed below his chariot. Zhuó asked [Huáng​fǔ]​ Sōng: “Yìzhēn have you submited or not?” [Huáng​fǔ]​ Sōng said: “How could one know your enlightened excellency would reach this!” Zhuó said: “Swans intrinsically have far reaching ambitions, only swallows do not understand.” [Huáng​fǔ]​ Sōng said: “In the past I and your enlightened excellency were both swans, but unexpectedly today you have become a phoenix.” Zhuó laughed and said: “If you had earlier submitted, today you would not need to bow.”
  • Zhāng Fán’s Hànjì states: Zhuó clapped his hands and said to Huáng​fǔ​ Sōng​: “Yìzhēn, are you afraid or not?” [Huáng​fǔ]​ Sōng answered: “Your enlightened excellency with virtue assists the Court, Great Celebrations have just arrived, what is there to fear? If excessive punishments were flaunted, then the realm Under Heaven would all be afraid, how would it be me alone?” Zhuó was silent, and therefore with [Huáng​fǔ]​ Sōng reconciled.

〔四〕 山陽公載記曰:初卓為前將軍,皇甫嵩為左將軍,俱征韓遂,各不相下。後卓徵為少府并州牧,兵當屬嵩,卓大怒。及為太師,嵩為御史中丞,拜於車下。卓問嵩:「義真服未乎?」嵩曰:「安知明公乃至於是!」卓曰:「鴻鵠固有遠志,但燕雀自不知耳。」嵩曰:「昔與明公俱為鴻鵠,不意今日變為鳳皇耳。」卓笑曰:「卿早服,今日可不拜也。」張璠漢紀曰:卓抵其手謂皇甫嵩曰:「義真怖未乎?」嵩對曰:「明公以德輔朝廷,大慶方至,何怖之有?若淫刑以逞,將天下皆懼,豈獨嵩乎?」卓默然,遂與嵩和解。

  • (5) Yīng​xióngjì states: Méi from Cháng​’ān is 260 lǐ.

〔五〕 英雄記曰:郿去長安二百六十里。

  • (6) Fùzǐ​ states: In Líng-dì’s time sign was posted on the gates to sell offices, and therefore Excellency Commandant Duàn Jiǒng, Excellency over the Masses Cuī Liè, Excellency Commandant Fán Líng, Excellency of Works Zhāng Wēn, and their sort all submitted coins from up to ten million down to five million to purchase position in the Three Excellencies. [Duàn] Jiǒng repeatedly went on campaign and had great achievements, [Cuī] Liè in the northern provinces had great reputation, [Zhāng] Wēn had outstanding talent, [Fán] Líng had ability to adapt to the times, all were the time’s prominent scholars, yet used money to obtain their positions, so all the more for Liú Xiāo, Táng Zhēn, Zhāng Hào and their group!
  • Fēng​sútōng states: Director of Retainers Liú Xiāo for his association with the various Regular Attendants reached position in the Excellencies.
  • Xù Hàn​shū states: Táng Zhēn was Internal Regular Attendant Táng Héng’s younger brother. Zhāng Hào was Internal Regular Attendant Zhāng Fèng’s younger brother.

〔六〕 傅子曰:靈帝時牓門賣官,於是太尉段熲、司徒崔烈、太尉樊陵、司空張溫之徒,皆入錢上千萬下五百萬以買三公。熲數征伐有大功,烈有北州重名,溫有傑才,陵能偶時,皆一時顯士,猶以貨取位,而況于劉囂、唐珍、張顥之黨乎!風俗通曰:司隸劉囂,以黨諸常侍,致位公輔。續漢書曰:唐珍,中常侍唐衡弟。張顥,中常侍張奉弟。

  • (7) Wèi​shū states: Zhuó sent Colonel Director of Retainers Liú Xiāo to register officials and people who as sons were not filial, who as subjects were not loyal, who as officials were not pure, who as younger brothers were not obedient, and all those found in compliance were all executed, their property confiscated by the government. Therefore loves and hates rose up, and of the people many were persecuted to death.

〔七〕 魏書曰:卓使司隸校尉劉囂籍吏民有為子不孝,為臣不忠,為吏不清,為弟不順,有應此者皆身誅,財物沒官。於是愛憎互起,民多冤死。

Third Year Fourth Moon, Excellency over the Masses Wáng Yǔn, Secretariat Deputy Director Shìsūn Ruì, and Zhuó’s officer Lǚ​ Bù together plotted to execute Zhuó. At the time, Heaven’s Son had an illness and newly recovered, and there was a great assembly at Wèi​yāng Palace Hall. [Lǚ​] Bù sent his same prefecture’s Cavalry Commandant Lǐ Sù and others to command personal troops of over ten people, disguised as guards defending the side door. [Lǚ​] Bù in his bosom had a written Imperial Order. Zhuó arrived, [Lǐ] Sù and the rest blocked Zhuó. Zhuó in alarm cried out “Where is [Lǚ​] Bù?” [Lǚ​] Bù said: “There is an Imperial Order,” and therefore killed Zhuó, exterminating his clan to the third degree. Registrar Tián Jǐng rushed forward to Zhuó’s corpse, and [Lǚ​] Bù also killed him; altogether the killed were three people, and of the rest none dared move. (1) Cháng​’ān’s scholars and commoners all celebrated together, and all that had flattered Zhuó were all imprisoned and died. (2)


  • (1) Yīng​xióngjì states: At the time there was a rhyme: “Thousand lǐ of grass, how green and green, ten days divination, yet not saving life.” Also there was a “Dǒng Flees” song. Also there was a Daoist priest writing on cloth [bù] the word Lǚ to show to Zhuó, and Zhuó did not know this meant Lǚ​ Bù. Zhuó was about to enter the assembly, he lined up infantry and cavalry, from his camp to the palace, in court dress traveling in the middle. His horse stumbled and would not advance, and Zhuó in his heart was bewildered and wished to stop, [Lǚ​] Bù urged him to continue, and therefore he wore inner armor and entered. When Zhuó died, at the time the sun and moon were clear and tranquil, and wind did not rise. [Dǒng] Mín, [Dǒng] Huáng and the rest and the clan’s old and young all were at Méi, all returned, and were by their subordiantes hacked and shot. Zhuó’s mother was ninety years, fled to the fort gate and said: “Please spare me from death,” and at once was beheaded. The Yuán clan’s disciples and former subordinates changed the burial of all the Yuán that had died at Méi, and gathered the Dǒng clan’s corpses to their side and burned them. Zhuó’s corpse was exposed in the market. Zhuó by nature was fat, and his grease flowed gradually to the ground, and the grass became red. The officials guarding the corpse in the dark made a large wick, put it in Zhuó’s navel to make a lamp, it was as bright as day, and was like this for several days. Later Zhuó’s former retainers collected the remaining ashes, gathering it into a coffin, burying it at Méi. Zhuó’s fortress inside gold had twenty to thirty thousand jīn, silver of eighty to ninety thousand jīn, pearls and jade and brocade and silk and unusual trinkets and things all in mountain heaps, and could not be counted.

〔一〕 英雄記曰:時有謠言曰:「千里艸,何青青,十日卜,猶不生。」又作董逃之歌。又有道士書布為「呂」字以示卓,卓不知其為呂布也。卓當入會,陳列步騎,自營至宮,朝服導引行其中。馬躓不前,卓心怪欲止,布勸使行,乃衷甲而入。卓既死,當時日月清淨,微風不起。旻、璜等及宗族老弱悉在郿,皆還,為其群下所斫射。卓母年九十,走至塢門曰「乞脫我死」,即斬首。袁氏門生故吏,改殯諸袁死于郿者,斂聚董氏尸于其側而焚之。暴卓尸于市。卓素肥,膏流浸地,草為之丹。守尸吏暝以為大炷,置卓臍中以為燈,光明達旦,如是積日。後卓故部曲收所燒者灰,并以一棺棺之,葬于郿。卓塢中金有二三萬斤,銀八九萬斤,珠玉錦綺奇玩雜物皆山崇阜積,不可知數。

  • (2) Xiè Chéng’s Hòu​ Hàn​shū states: Cài Yōng was seated with Wáng Yǔn, heard Zhuó was dead, and had the sound of a sigh of pity. [Wáng] Yǔn reproached [Cài] Yōng: “Zhuó was the state’s great traitor, killing the ruler and slaughtering the ministers, who Heaven and Earth cannot tolerate, who Men and Spirits together hate. You are the ruler’s servant, for generations received the Hàn’s grace, when the state’s ruler was in danger and hardship, you already did not oppose, Zhuó received divine execution, yet you further sight in sorrow?” Then he arrested and sent him to the Minister of Justice. [Cài] Yōng apologized to [Wáng] Yǔn: “Though I am not loyal, yet I know great righteousness, ancient times to now’s safeties and dangers, my ears have often heard, my mouth has often said, so how can I turn back on the state and turn toward Zhuó? Mad undiscerning speech erroneously came out and misfortune entered, and wish to tattoo head as punishment in order to continue Hàn’s history.” The Excellencies and Ministers cherished [Cài] Yōng’s talent, and all together remonstrated [Wáng] Yǔn. [Wáng] Yǔn said: “In the past Wǔ-dì did not kill Sī​mǎ​ Qiān, allowing him to compose slanderous documents, leaving it for later generations. Now the state’s blessings are in the middle of decline, weapons and horses in the suburbs, and we cannot flattering ministers to wield pen beside a young ruler, or later we will all suffer slanderous commentary.” Therefore they killed [Cài] Yōng.
  • Your servant Sōngzhī believes although [Cài] Yōng was closely appointed by Zhuó, his feelings were certainly not in that association. Even if he did not know of Zhuó’s treachery and viciousness, serving as the world Under Heaven’s poison, hearing of his death, logically there should be no sigh of pity. Even if it was like this, he would not have opposing speech in Wáng Yǔn’s presence. This is probably Xiè Chéng’s absurb recording. The historian [Sī​mǎ​] Qiān’s Annals and Biographies, are widely regarded as a special achievement in the world, yet it says Wáng Yǔn said Xiào-Wǔ should have earlier killed [Sī​mǎ​] Qiān; these are not a knowledgable person’s words. It was only that [Sī​mǎ​] Qiān did not conceal Xiào-Wǔ’s faults, recording faithfully his matters and that is all, what slander was there? Wáng Yǔn was loyal and upright, and can be said to have no remorse inside, and should have no fear of slander, and moreover if he wished to kill [Cài] Yōng, he should discuss whether [Cài] Yōng should die or not, how could he worry about defaming himself and yet unjustly kill a good man? This is all false deception and illogical to the extreme.
  • Zhāng Fán’s Hànjì states: Previously, [Cài] Yōng by his speech and affairs met with followers, his reputation was heard Under Heaven, his righteousness moved willful scholars. When he returned, the inner favorites hated him. [Cài] Yōng was afraid, and therefore fled to the seaside, in his dealings relying on Tàishān​’s Yáng clan, for ten years. Zhuó became Excellency Commandant, recruited him as an Associate, and as High Standard candidate became Attendant Censor Manging Documents, in three days moved to Secretariat. Later he was transferred to Bā​dōng Administrator, and Zhuó sent up memorial to keep him as Attendant Internal, and reaching Cháng’ān he was Left Internal Cadet General. Zhuó valued his talent, and generously treated him. Every time there was Court matters, he always ordered [Cài] Yōng prepare drafts. When [Wáng] Yǔn was about to kill [Cài] Yōng, at the time of the famous scholars many spoke for him, [Wáng] Yǔn was regretful and wished to stop, but [Cài] Yōng had already died.

〔二〕 謝承後漢書曰:蔡邕在王允坐,聞卓死,有歎惜之音。允責邕曰:「卓,國之大賊,殺主殘臣,天地所不祐,人神所同疾。君為王臣,世受漢恩,國主危難,曾不倒戈,卓受天誅,而更嗟痛乎?」便使收付廷尉。邕謝允曰:「雖以不忠,猶識大義,古今安危,耳所厭聞,口所常玩,豈當背國而向卓也?狂瞽之詞,謬出患入,願黥首為刑以繼漢史。」公卿惜邕才,咸共諫允。允曰:「昔武帝不殺司馬遷,使作謗書,流於後世。方今國祚中衰,戎馬在郊,不可令佞臣執筆在幼主左右,後令吾徒並受謗議。」遂殺邕。臣松之以為蔡邕雖為卓所親任,情必不黨。寧不知卓之姦凶,為天下所毒,聞其死亡,理無歎惜。縱復令然,不應反言于王允之坐。斯殆謝承之妄記也。史遷紀傳,博有奇功于世,而云王允謂孝武應早殺遷,此非識者之言。但遷為不隱孝武之失,直書其事耳,何謗之有乎?王允之忠正,可謂內省不疚者矣,既無懼于謗,且欲殺邕,當論邕應死與不,豈可慮其謗己而枉戮善人哉!此皆誣罔不通之甚者。張璠漢紀曰:初,蔡邕以言事見徙,名聞天下,義動志士。及還,內寵惡之。邕恐,乃亡命海濱,往來依太山羊氏,積十年。卓為太尉,辟為掾,以高第為侍御史治書,三日中遂至尚書。後遷巴東太守,卓上留拜侍中,至長安為左中郎將。卓重其才,厚遇之。每有朝廷事,常令邕具草。及允將殺邕,時名士多為之言,允悔欲止,而邕已死。

Previously, Zhuó’s daughter’s husband Internal Cadet General Niú Fǔ managed troops in separate camp at Shǎn, and separately sent Colonel Lǐ Jué, Guō Sì, Zhāng Jì to plunder Chénliú’s and Yǐngchuān’s various counties. Zhuó died, and Lǚ​ Bù sent Lǐ Sù to Shǎn, wishing to with Imperial Order comand the execution of [Niú] Fǔ. [Niú] Fǔ and the rest opposed [Lǐ] Sù in battle, [Lǐ] Sù was defeated and fled to Hóngnóng, and [Lǚ​] Bù executed [Lǐ] Sù. (1) After this in [Niú] Fǔ’s camp troops in the night there were mutineers, inside the camp was startled, [Niú] Fǔ believed all had rebelled, and therefore took gold and treasures, and alone with his close companions Hú Chì’ér and others five to six people together went, passing the city walls north to cross the Hé, [Hú] Chì’ér and the rest wished to take his gold and treasures, beheaded him and sent the head to Cháng’ān.


  • (1) Wèi​shū states: [Niú] Fǔ feared he wold fail to defend, and could not be at ease. He always held the Recruiting Troops talley, with axe and executioner block at the side, wishing to bolster himself. When meeting guests, he first sent physiognomists to appraise them, to know if they had rebellious air or not, and also divined by straws to know good or bad luck, and after that then met with them. Internal Cadet General Dǒng Yuè came to meet [Niú] Fǔ, [Niú] Fǔ sent straw diviner for it, obtaining Swamp Down Fire Up, and the straw diviner said: “Fire overcoming Metal is the divination of the outside plotting against the inside.” He immediately killed [Dǒng] Yuè.
  • Xiàndìjì says: The divination person once was by [Dǒng] Yuè flogged, and therefore in this way answered.

〔一〕 魏書曰:輔恇怯失守,不能自安。常把辟兵符,以鈇鑕致其旁,欲以自彊。見客,先使相者相之,知有反氣與不,又筮知吉凶,然後乃見之。中郎將董越來就輔,輔使筮之,得兌下離上,筮者曰:「火勝金,外謀內之卦也。」即時殺越。獻帝紀云:筮人常為越所鞭,故因此以報之。

When [Lǐ] Jué and the rest returned, [Niú] Fǔ had already been defeated, the armies had no one to depend on, and wished to each scatter and return home. There was no pardon document, and rumor was Cháng​’ān wished to completely execute Liáng​zhōu men, and they were afraid and did not know what to do. They used Jiǎ Xǔ’s plan, and therefore commanded their army and went west, where they went to gathered troops, and when they reached Cháng​’ān, the army was over a hundred thousand, (1) and with Zhuó’s former retainers Fán Chóu, Lǐ Méng, Wáng Fāng and others surrounded Cháng​’ān’s city walls. In ten days the city fell, and they with [Lǚ​] Bù battled in the city, and [Lǚ​] Bù was defeated and fled. [Lǐ] Jué and the rest set the troops to plunder Cháng​’ān’s old and young, killing all, and the dead were wildly piled. They executed those that killed Zhuó, and exposed the corpse of Wáng Yǔn in the market. (2) They buried Zhuó at Méi. Great wind and vicious rain shook Zhuó’s tomb, water flowed into the stores, floating out the coffin. [Lǐ] Jué became Chariots and Cavalry General, Chíyáng Marquis, with office as Colonel Director of Retainers, and Acting Staff. [Guō] Sì became Rear General, Měiyáng Marquis. [Fán] Chóu became Right General, Wàn​nián Marquis. [Lǐ] Jué, [Guō] Sì, and [Fán] Chóu usurped the Court government. (3) [Zhāng] Jì became Elite Cavalry General, Píng​yáng Marquis, and camped at Hóngnóng.


  • (1) Jiǔ​zhōu Chūn​qiū states: [Lǐ] Jué and the rest were at Shǎn, all were afraid, anxiously gathering troops to defend themselves. Hú Wéncái and Yáng Zhěngxiū were Liáng​zhōu great men, but Excellency over the Masses Wáng Yǔn was always with them unfriendly. When Lǐ Jué rebelled, [Wáng] Yǔn then called [Hú] Wéncái and [Yáng] Zhěngxiū to send them east to resolve it, but without friendly appearance, saying: “What do the rats east of the Passes wish to do? You go shout at them.” Therefore the two men went, but in fact gathered troops and returned.

〔一〕 九州春秋曰:傕等在陝,皆恐怖,急擁兵自守。胡文才、楊整脩皆涼州大人,而司徒王允素所不善也。及李傕之叛,允乃呼文才、整脩使東解釋之,不假借以溫顏,謂曰:「關東鼠子欲何為邪?卿往呼之。」於是二人往,實召兵而還。

  • (2) Zhāng Fán’s Hànjì states: [Lǚ​] Bù’s troops were defeated, and he stopped his horse outside Qīngsuǒ Gate, saying to [Wáng] Yǔn: “Your Excellency can go.” [Wáng] Yǔn said: “Peace for the state is my highest wish. If it cannot be obtained, then I offer myself to death. The Court’s young ruler depends on me and nothing more. Facing disaster and fleeing is not what I will do. We must with effort apologize to the sirs east of the Passes, to think of the state.” [Lǐ] Jué and [Guō] Sì entered Cháng’ān’s city walls, camping at the South Palace side gate, killing Minister Charioteer Lǔ Kuí, Minister Herald Zhōu Huàn, City Gate Colonel Cuī Liè, and Surpassing Cavalry Colonel Wáng Qí. The officials and people dead were uncountable. Excellency over the Masses Wáng Yǔn helped Heaven’s Son up Xuānpíng City Gate to flee the troops, [Lǐ] Jué and the rest below the City Gate bowed, lying prostrate and bowing head to ground. The Emperor said to [Lǐ] Jué and the rest: “You did not serve our authority and fortune, instead releasing troops everywhere, what do you wish to do?” [Lǐ] Jué and the rest said: “Dǒng​ Zhuó was loyal to Your Majesty, but without reason was by Lǚ​ Bù killed. We are avenging Zhuó, and do not dare rebel, and ask that once the matter is finished, we will go to the Minister of Justice to accept punishment.” [Wáng] Yǔn was forced out to meet [Lǐ] Jué, and [Lǐ] Jué killed [Wáng] Yǔn and his wives and children and clansmen over ten people. In Cháng​’ān city of the men and women adults and children none did not shed tears. [Wáng] Yǔn appellation Zǐshī was a Tài​yuán Qí man. When young he had great integrity, Guō Tài met and was impressed with him, saying: “Student Wáng is a one day thousand lǐ, a talent to assist rulers.” Although [Guō] Tài was senior, yet he was friendly with him. The Three Excellencies all recruited him, and he was successively Yùzhōu Inspector, recruiting Xún Shuǎng and Kǒng​ Róng as his Advisors, transferred to Hé​nán Intendant, and Secretariat Director. When he was Excellency over the Masses, he assisted the ruling House, deeply had the integrity of a great minister, and from Heaven’s Son down all depended on him. Zhuó also supported and trusted him, entrusting him with the Court.
  • Huà Jiào states: A scholar to establish uprightness, to plan to bring relief, to with righteousness succeed, if Wáng Yǔn supported Dǒng​ Zhuó and shared his power, watching in the meantime and reporting his crimes, then at this time, the realm Under Heaven’s difficulties would be resolved. By nature all are loyal and righteous, and therefore supporting Zhuó would not be to lose uprightness, sharing power would not be injustice, watching in the meantime would not be treachery, and so planning to bring relief would achieve righteousness, and return to uprightness.

〔二〕 張璠漢紀曰:布兵敗,駐馬青瑣門外,謂允曰:「公可以去。」允曰:「安國家,吾之上願也,若不獲,則奉身以死。朝廷幼主恃我而已,臨難苟免,吾不為也。努力謝關東諸公,以國家為念。」傕、汜入長安城,屯南宮掖門,殺太僕魯馗、大鴻臚周奐、城門校尉崔烈、越騎校尉王頎。吏民死者不可勝數。司徒王允挾天子上宣平城門避兵,傕等於城門下拜,伏地叩頭。帝謂傕等曰:「卿無作威福,而乃放兵縱橫,欲何為乎?」傕等曰:「董卓忠于陛下,而無故為呂布所殺。臣等為卓報讎,弗敢為逆也。請事竟,詣廷尉受罪。」允窮逼出見傕,傕誅允及妻子宗族十餘人。長安城中男女大小莫不流涕。允字子師,太原祁人也。少有大節,郭泰見而奇之,曰:「王生一日千里,王佐之才也。」泰雖先達,遂與定交。三公並辟,歷豫州刺史,辟荀爽、孔融為從事,遷河南尹、尚書令。及為司徒,其所以扶持王室,甚得大臣之節,自天子以下,皆倚賴焉。卓亦推信之,委以朝廷。華嶠曰:夫士以正立,以謀濟,以義成,若王允之推董卓而分其權,伺其間而弊其罪。當此之時,天下之難解矣,本之皆主於忠義也,故推卓不為失正,分權不為不義,伺閒不為狙詐,是以謀濟義成,而歸於正也。

  • (3) Yīng​xióngjì states: [Lǐ] Jué was a Běidì man. [Guō] Sì was a Zhāng​yè man, also named [Guō] Duō.

〔三〕 英雄記曰:傕,北地人。汜,張掖人,一名多。

That year, Hán Suì, Mǎ Téng, and others surrendered, leading their armies to visit Cháng’ān. So [Hán] Suì became Defending West General, sent to return to Liáng​zhōu, [Mǎ] Téng became Campaigning West General, to camp at Méi. Attendant Internal Mǎ Yǔ with Remonstration Commentator Grandee Zhǒng Shào, Left Internal Cadet General Liú Fàn and others plotted, wishing to have [Mǎ] Téng attack Cháng​’ān, with themselves on the inside answering, to execute [Lǐ] Jué and the rest. [Mǎ] Téng led troops to Cháng​píng Watchtower, [Mǎ] Yǔ and the rest’s plot leaked, and they fled to Huáilǐ. [Fán] Chóu struck [Mǎ] Téng, [Mǎ] Téng was defeated and fled, returning to Liáng​zhōu; [Fán Chóu] also attacked Huáilǐ, and [Mǎ] Yǔ and the rest all died. At the time the Three Auxiliaries people were several hundred thousand households, [Lǐ] Jué and the rest released troops to rob and plunder, attacking Piāochéng​ town, the people were hungry and destitute, and within two years they were eating each other and completely wiped out. (1)

是歲,韓遂、馬騰等降,率眾詣長安。以遂為鎮西將軍,遣還涼州,騰征西將軍,屯郿。侍中馬宇與諫議大夫种邵、左中郎將劉範等謀,欲使騰襲長安,己為內應,以誅傕等。騰引兵至長平觀,宇等謀泄,出奔槐里。稠擊騰,騰敗走,還涼州; 又攻槐里,宇等皆死。時三輔民尚數十萬戶,傕等放兵劫略,攻剽城邑,人民飢困,二年閒相啖食略盡。〔一〕

  • (1) Xiàndìjì states: At the time the capital was newly moved, of the Palace people many lacked clothes, and the Emperor wished to give out the goverment office silk fabrics to them, [Lǐ] Jué did not wish this and said: “Inside the palace there are clothes, why make more?” Imperial Order sold stable horses of over a hundred, government office of the Minister of Finance to send out miscellaneous fbrics of twenty thousand pǐ, to go with income from the sold stable horses, to bestow on the Excellencies and Ministers down and poor people who could not care for themselves. Lǐ Jué said: “My residence’s stores are few,” and therefore conveyed it all to his camp. Jiǎ Xǔ: “This is the Ascended’s intentions, and cannot be opposed.” [Lǐ] Jué would not listen to this.

〔一〕 獻帝紀曰:是時新遷都,宮人多亡衣服,帝欲發御府繒以與之,李傕弗欲,曰:「宮中有衣,胡為復作邪?」詔賣廄馬百餘匹,御府大司農出雜繒二萬匹,與所賣廄馬直,賜公卿以下及貧民不能自存者。李傕曰「我邸閣儲偫少」,乃悉載置其營。賈詡曰「此上意,不可拒」,傕不從之。

The various Generals fought for power, so [Lǐ Jué] killed [Fán] Chóu, and absorbed his army. (1) [Guō] Sì with [Lǐ] Jué became suspicious of each other, and battled within Cháng​’ān. (2) [Lǐ] Jué took Heaven’s Son as hostage in his camp, burning down the palace and city gates, plundering the government offices, completely seizing the chariots and clothes and government property to his house. (3) [Lǐ] Jué sent the Excellencies and Ministers to visit [Guō] Sì to ask for peace, and [Guō] Sì seized them all. (4) They attacked each other for successive moon, and the dead were in the tens of thousands. (5)


  • (1) Jiǔ​zhōu Chūn​qiū states: Mǎ Téng and Hán Suì were defeated, and Fán Chóu pursued them to Chén​cāng. [Hán] Suì said to [Fán] Chóu: “Heaven and Earth’s changes [in dynasty] cannot yet be known. Originally our quarrel was not due to personal resentment, but the Ruling House’s matter and that is all. I share with you the same province and hometown, now though there are small disagremeements, in important things we are in great agreeement, and wish to exchange friendly words at departure. If by chance in one out of ten thousand things are not as wished, later we can meet again!” Both rode forward joining horses, linked arms supporting each other, and together talked for a long while and departed. [Lǐ] Jué’s elder brother’s son [Lǐ] Lì accompanied [Fán] Chóu, [Lǐ] Lì returned and reported to [Lǐ] Jué that Hán [Suì] and Fán [Chóu] had met horses to speak, it was unknown what about, but they appeared friendly and very secretive. [Lǐ] Jué because of this suspected [Fán] Chóu with Hán Suì had made private peace and had ulterior intentions. [Fán] Chóu wished to command his troops east to go out through the passes, and followed [Lǐ] Jué in searching to recruit soldiers, so [Lǐ Jué] invited [Fán] Chóu to a meeting, and took advantage to kill [Fán] Chóu.

〔一〕 九州春秋曰:馬騰、韓遂之敗,樊稠追至陳倉。遂語稠曰:「天地反覆,未可知也。本所爭者非私怨,王家事耳。與足下州里人,今雖小違,要當大同,欲相與善語以別。邂逅萬一不如意,後可復相見乎!」俱卻騎前接馬,交臂相加,共語良久而別。傕兄子利隨稠,利還告傕,韓、樊交馬語,不知所道,意愛甚密。傕以是疑稠與韓遂私和而有異意。稠欲將兵東出關,從傕索益兵。因請稠會議,便於坐殺稠。

  • (2) Diǎnlüè states: [Lǐ] Jué several times set up liquor and invited [Guō] Sì, sometimes keeping [Guō] Sì for the night. [Guō] Sì’s wife feared [Lǐ] Jué had given [Guō] Sì a concubine who would take his favor, and pondered how to drive them apart. It happened that [Lǐ] Jué sent food, the wife then used fermented beans as a drug, [Guō] Sì was about to eat, the wife said: “Food coming from outside, might cause something!” Then she took out the drugs and showed him, saying: “one perch cannot have two powers, I firmly doubt you General’s trust in Excellency Lǐ [Jué].” On another day [Lǐ] Jué again invited [Guō] Sì. Greatly intoxicated, [Guō] Sì suspected [Lǐ] Jué had drugged him, strained manure juice and drank it and it was resolved. Therefore there was born hostility, and they led troops to attack each other.

〔二〕 典略曰:傕數設酒請汜,或留汜止宿。汜妻懼傕與汜婢妾而奪己愛,思有以離閒之。會傕送饋,妻乃以豉為藥,汜將食,妻曰:「食從外來,倘或有故!」遂摘藥示之,曰:「一栖不二雄,我固疑將軍之信李公也。」他日傕復請汜,大醉。汜疑傕藥之,絞糞汁飲之乃解。於是遂生嫌隙,而治兵相攻。

  • (3) Xiàndì Qǐ​jū zhù states: Previously, [Guō] Sì plotted to invite Heaven’s Son to visit his camp, in the night a deserter reported this to [Lǐ] Jué, and [Lǐ] Jué sent his elder brother’s son [Lǐ] Xiān to command several thousand troops to surround the palace, with three chariots to welcome Heaven’s Son. Yáng Biāo said: “Since ancient times Emperors and Kings have never been in a subject’s house. Enacting affairs should be in accordance with the realm Under Heaven’s intentions. You sirs in this are not right.” [Lǐ] Xiān said: “The General’s plans are already settled.” Therefore Heaven’s Son was in one carriage, Noble Lady Fú in one carriage, Jiǎ Xǔ and Zuǒ Líng in one carriage, and the rest all on foot followed. That day, [Lǐ] Jué again moved the carriages to visit the north fortress, sending a Colonel to supervise the fortress gates, and inside and outside were disconnected. The various attendants and minsiters all looked hungry, the time was high summer, and the people were completely disheartened. The Emperor begged for rice of five hú and ox bones of five to bestow on his followers, [Lǐ] Jué said: “Every morning and evening food is sent up, what use is rice for?” and therefore gave rotten ox bones, all stinking and uneatable. The Emperor was greatly furious, and wished to reproach him. Attendant Internal Yáng Qí sent up letter: “[Lǐ] Jué is a frontier man, accustomed to foreign customs, now he is also self aware of his violations, always has discontented appearance, and wishes to force the Imperial Carriage to visit Huángbái​chéng to relieve his indignation. I your servant hopes Your Majesty can tolerate this, as we cannot yet make known his crimes.” The Emperor accepted this. Previously, [Lǐ] Jué camped at Huángbái​chéng, and therefore had plans wishing to move there. [Lǐ] Jué because Excellency over the Masses Zhào Wēn was not in agreement with him, therefore kept [Zhào] Wēn inside the fortress. [Zhào] Wēn heard [Lǐ] Jué wished to move the chariots, and sent letter to [Lǐ] Jué that said: “Your Excellency previously justified yourself as avenging Excellency Dǒng [Zhuó], but in fact slaughtered and seized the Ruler’s City, massacreing the great ministers, and the realm Under Heaven cannot be explained to household by household. Now you fight over a crack in the corner of the eye, becoming a thousand times greater feud, the people are in utter missery, each unable to earn a living, yet you do not correct yourself, and continue creating calamity and chaos. The Court yet sent down Enlightened Imperial Order, wishing to have you make peace [with Guō Sì], but the Imperial Order you do not follow, so that Imperial Favor [for you] daily decreases, but you again wish to have the chariots go to Huángbái​chéng, and this is truly what I cannot understand. According to the Yì, one [violating] pass is to pass, again is to wade in, three without correction is to drown to your head, and this is terrible. It is not as good as early making peace, leading troops back to their camps, above calming the Ten Thousand Chariots, below securing the people’s lives, would that not be utmostly fortunate!” [Lǐ] Jué was greatly angry, and wished to send someone to harm [Zhào] Wēn. His younger cousin [Lǐ] Yìng, was [Zhào] Wēn’s former subordinate official, and remonstrated him for several days and so he stopped. The Emperor heard of [Zhào] Wēn’s letter to [Lǐ] Jué, and asked Attendant Internal Cháng Qià: “[Lǐ] Jué does not know good from wrong, [Zhào] Wēn’s words are too blunt, and makes one cold in heart [scared for him].” [Cháng Qià] answered: “Lǐ Yìng already saved him.” The Emperor was therefore pleased.

〔三〕 獻帝起居注曰:初,汜謀迎天子幸其營,夜有亡告傕者,傕使兄子暹將數千兵圍宮,以車三乘迎天子。楊彪曰:「自古帝王無在人臣家者。舉事當合天下心,諸君作此,非是也。」暹曰:「將軍計定矣。」於是天子一乘,貴人伏氏一乘,賈詡、左靈一乘,其餘皆步從。是日,傕復移乘輿幸北塢,使校尉監塢門,內外隔絕。諸侍臣皆有飢色,時盛暑熱,人盡寒心。帝求米五斛、牛骨五具以賜左右,傕曰:「朝餔上飯,何用米為?」乃與腐牛骨,皆臭不可食。帝大怒,欲詰責之。侍中楊琦上封事曰:「傕,邊鄙之人,習于夷風,今又自知所犯悖逆,常有怏怏之色,欲輔車駕幸黃白城以紓其憤。臣願陛下忍之,未可顯其罪也。」帝納之。初,傕屯黃白城,故謀欲徙之。傕以司徒趙溫不與己同,乃內溫塢中。溫聞傕欲移乘輿,與傕書曰:「公前託為董公報讎,然實屠陷王城,殺戮大臣,天下不可家見而戶釋也。今爭睚眥之隙,以成千鈞之讎,民在塗炭,各不聊生,曾不改寤,遂成禍亂。朝廷仍下明詔,欲令和解,詔命不行,恩澤日損,而復欲輔乘輿于黃白城,此誠老夫所不解也。於易,一過為過,再為涉,三而弗改,滅其頂,凶。不如早共和解,引兵還屯,上安萬乘,下全生民,豈不幸甚!」傕大怒,欲遣人害溫。其從弟應,溫故掾也,諫之數日乃止。帝聞溫與傕書,問侍中常洽曰:「傕弗知臧否,溫言太切,可為寒心。」對曰:「李應已解之矣。」帝乃悅。

  • (4) Huà Jiào’s Hànshū states: [Guō] Sì feasted the Excellencies and Ministers, discussing his wish to attack [Lǐ] Jué. Yáng Biāo said: “The various subjects together fighting, one man seizing Heaven’s Son, one man taking hostage the Excellencies and Ministers, can this be right?” [Guō] Sì was angry, and wished to with wield blade against him, Internal Cadet General Yáng Mì and the attendants repeatedly remonstrated, and [Guō] Sì therefore released him.

〔四〕 華嶠漢書曰:汜饗公卿,議欲攻傕。楊彪曰:「群臣共鬥,一人劫天子,一人質公卿,此可行乎?」汜怒,欲手刃之,中郎將楊密及左右多諫,汜乃歸之。

  • (5) Xiàndì Qǐ​jū zhù states: [Lǐ] Jué by nature liked occult and heterodox ways, and always had Daoists and witches sing and beat drums to call down spirits, sacrificed Six Morsels, written charms and occult objects, with nothing not done. He also outside the Court Gate for Dǒng Zhuó made a Spirit Seat, repeatedly with cattle and sheep sacrificed to it, and when finished, entered the Court side gates to ask about daily affairs, requesting to enter to meet. [Lǐ] Jué’s belt wore three sabers, and his hands also held whip and one blade. Attendant Internals and Attendant Cadets saw [Lǐ] Jué had brought weapons, and all were afraid, and also belted swords and grasped sabers, first going to the Emperor’s side. [Lǐ] Jué faced the Emperor, and sometimes said: “Your Enlightened Majesty,” sometimes said: “Enlightened Emperor,” to the Emperor speaking of Guō Sì’s insolence, and the Emperor also followed his meanings in answering him. [Lǐ] Jué was pleased, and spoke out: “Your Enlightened Majesty is truly a worthy and sacred ruler,” and his thoughts thus became self confident, and he said of himself that he had greatly won Heaven’s Son’s favor. However, he did not wish to have the close ministers wear swords beside the Emperor, and said to someone: “Do these department boys wish to plot against me? Yet they all wield sabers.” Attendant Internal Lǐ Zhēn was from [Lǐ] Jué’s province and hometown, and previously with [Lǐ] Jué had interacted, and said to [Lǐ] Jué: “The reason they wield sabers, is that within the army they cannot but do so, and this is the state’s old precedent.” [Lǐ] Jué’s thoughts were therefore resolved. Heaven’s Son because Visitor Deputy-Director Huángfǔ Lì was of a Liángzhōu old surname. and had rectification ability, sent him to order peace between [Lǐ] Jué and [Guō] Sì. [Huángfǔ] Lì first visited [Guō] Sì, and [Guō] Sì accepted the Imperial Order. He visisted [Lǐ] Jué, and [Lǐ] Jué would not accept, saying: “I have the achievement of suppressing Lǚ Bù, assisted the governance for four years, the Three Adjuncts are tranquil, and the realm Under Heaven knows this. Guō Duō is only a horse thief, how dare he yet wish to be of my level? I certainly wish to execute him. You are a Liángzhōu man, have observed my strategies and armies, are they enough to deal with [Guō] Duō or not? [Guō] Duō also seized and took hostage the Excellencies and Ministers. He is like this, but if you wish to benefit Guō Duō, I Lǐ Jué have the guts to know it.” [Huángfǔ] Lì said: “In the past Yǒuqióng Hòuyì relied on his greatness in shooting, did not ponder difficulties, so that in the end he died. Recently Excellency Dǒng [Zhuó] was powerful, and you Enlightened General with your own eye saw, inside his lordship [Dǒng Zhuó] was the inner master, outside were Dǒng Mín, [Dǒng] Chéng, and [Dǒng] Huáng as his venom barbs, but Lǚ Bù received favor but turned and plotted against him, and in a short while, his head was atop a pole; this is to have valor but no planning. Now you General are yourself the highest General, wielding Battle-Ax and Staff, your posterity hold power, your clansmen carry Imperial favor, the state’s high ranks all accord with you. Now Guō Duō seizes and takes hostage the Excellencies and Ministers, you Generaly coerce the Utmost Honored, whose crime is greater? Zhāng Jì with Guō Duō and Yáng Dìng have plans, and also have capped and belted [scholars] attached to them. Yáng Fèng is only the Báibō [bandits] commander and that is all, yet knows you General are in the wrong, and although you respect and favor him, yet he will not agree to strive hard for you.” [Lǐ] Jué would not accept [Huángfǔ] Lì’s words, and huffed at him to get out. [Huángfǔ] Lì went out, visisted the Court Gates, and reported that [Lǐ] Jué would not agree to follow the Imperial Order, and that his words were disobedient. Attendant Internal Hú Miǎo was by [Lǐ] Jué favored, and called on the messenger to conceal these words. He also said to [Huángfǔ] Lì: “General Lǐ as not been ungenerous to you, and also your Excellency Huángfǔ become Excellency Commandant was by General Lǐ’s effort.” [Huángfǔ] Lì answered: “Hú Jìngcái, you are the state’s constant senior, an assisting minister. Words like this, how can they be used?” [Hú] Miǎo said: “I am only thinking that you may fail General Lǐ’s intentions, and fear it will not do and that is all. What matter do I have with you?” [Huángfǔ] Lì said: “I for accumulated generations received Imperial favor, and also always was in the inner curtains, when the ruler is disgraced the subject is willing to die, so for the state, to be by Lǐ Jué killed, would then be Heaven’s Will.” Heaven’s Son heard [Huángfǔ] Lì had answred bluntly, and was afraid [Lǐ] Jué would hear it, and so ordered to send away [Huángfǔ] Lì. Just as [Huángfǔ] Lì went out the camp gate, [Lǐ] Jué sent Tiger Elite [guard] Wáng Chāng to call him. [Wáng] Chāng knew [Huángfǔ] Lì was loyal and upright, let him go, returned and answered [Lǐ] Jué saying he had pursued but it was too late. Heaven’s Son sent Left Internal Cadet General Lǐ Gù Wielding Staff to honor [Lǐ] Jué as Marshal-in-Chief, to the Three Excellencies’ right [immediate seniority]. [Lǐ] Jué himself believed it was obtained by the efforts of spirits, and therefore generously gave bestowments on the witches.

〔五〕 獻帝起居注曰:傕性喜鬼怪左道之術,常有道人及女巫歌謳擊鼓下神,祠祭六丁,符劾厭勝之具,無所不為。又於朝廷省門外,為董卓作神坐,數以牛羊祠之,訖,過省閤問起居,求入見。傕帶三刀,手復與鞭合持一刃。侍中、侍郎見傕帶仗,皆惶恐,亦帶劍持刀,先入在帝側。傕對帝,或言「明陛下」,或言「明帝」,為帝說郭汜無狀,帝亦隨其意答應之。傕喜,出言「明陛下真賢聖主」,意遂自信,自謂良得天子歡心也。雖然,猶不欲令近臣帶劍在帝邊,謂人言「此曹子將欲圖我邪?而皆持刀也」。侍中李禎,傕州里,素與傕通,語傕「所以持刀者,軍中不可不爾,此國家故事」。傕意乃解。天子以謁者僕射皇甫酈涼州舊姓,有專對之才,遣令和傕、汜。酈先詣汜,汜受詔命。詣傕,傕不肯,曰:「我有〔討〕呂布之功,輔政四年,三輔清靜,天下所知也。郭多,盜馬虜耳,何敢乃欲與吾等邪?必欲誅之。君為涼州人,觀吾方略士眾,足辦多不?多又劫質公卿,所為如是,而君苟欲利郭多,李傕有膽自知之。」酈答曰:「昔有窮后羿恃其善射,不思患難,以至于斃。近董公之強,明將軍目所見,內有王公以為內主,外有董旻、承、璜以為鯁毒,呂布受恩而反圖之,斯須之間,頭縣竿端,此有勇而無謀也。今將軍身為上將,把鉞仗節,子孫握權,宗族荷寵,國家好爵而皆據之。今郭多劫質公卿,將軍脅至尊,誰為輕重邪?張濟與郭多、楊定有謀,又為冠帶所附。楊奉,白波帥耳,猶知將軍所為非是,將軍雖拜寵之,猶不肯盡力也。」傕不納酈言,而呵之令出。酈出,詣省門,白傕不肯從詔,辭語不順。侍中胡邈為傕所幸,呼傳詔者令飾其辭。又謂酈曰:「李將軍於卿不薄,又皇甫公為太尉,李將軍力也。」酈答曰:「胡敬才,卿為國家常伯,輔弼之臣也,語言如此,寧可用邪?」邈曰:「念卿失李將軍意,恐不易耳!我與卿何事者?」酈言:「我累世受恩,身又常在幃幄,君辱臣死,當坐國家,為李傕所殺,則天命也。」天子聞酈答語切,恐傕聞之,便敕遣酈。酈裁出營門,傕遣虎賁王昌呼之。昌知酈忠直,縱令去,還答傕,言追之不及。天子使左中郎將李固持節拜傕為大司馬,在三公之右。傕自以為得鬼神之力,乃厚賜諸巫。

[Lǐ] Jué’s officer Yáng Fèng with [Lǐ] Jué’s army scribe Sòng Guǒ and others plotted to kill [Lǐ] Jué, the matter leaked, and therefore he led troops to rebel against [Lǐ] Jué. [Lǐ] Jué’s armies rebelled, and he gradually weakened. Zhāng Jì from Shǎn made peace with him, Heaven’s Son was thus able to escape, reached between Xīnfēng and Bàlíng. (1) Guō Sì again wished to coerce Heaven’s Son to return to have capital at Méi. Heaven’s Son fled to [Yáng] Fèng’s camp, [Yáng] Fèng struck [Guō] Sì and defeated him. [Guō] Sì fled to Nánshān. [Yáng] Fèng and General Dǒng Chéng with Heaven’s Son returned toward Luòyáng. [Lǐ] Jué and [Guō] Sì regretted sending away Heaven’s Son, again made peace, and pursued Heaven’s Son to Hóngnóng’s Cáoyáng. [Yáng] Fèng hurriedly recruited Hédōng’s former Báibō commanders Hán Xiān, Hú Cái, Lǐ Lè and others together, to with [Lǐ] Jué and [Guō] Sì greatly battle. [Yáng] Fèng’s troops were defeated, [Lǐ] Jué and the rest released the troops to kill the Excellencies and Ministers and the officials, seizing the palace women into Hóngnóng. (2) Heaven’s Son fled to Shǎn, crossed the Hé north, losing the heavy wagons, walking on foot, with only the Empress and Noble Ladies following, reaching Dàyáng, stopping at a commoner’s house. (3) [Yáng] Fèng and [Hán] Xiān and the rest therefore had Heaven’s Son set capital at Ānyì, riding in an ox cart, with Excellency Commandant Yáng Biāo, Minister Charioteer Hán Róng and close ministers of over ten people as followers. [Hán] Xiān became [General] Campaigning East, [Hú] Cái became [General] Campaigning West, [Lǐ] Lè became [General] Campaigning North, all with [Yáng] Fèng and [Dǒng] Chéng wielding governance. They sent Róng to Hóngnóng, to with [Lǐ] Jué and [Guō] Sì and the rest make peace, and return the captured palace women and Excellencies and Ministers and officials, and the Imperial Carriage and several chariots and horses. At the time locusts broke out, the year had drought and no grain, and the following officials ate dates. (4) The various Generals would not obey each other, superiors and subordinates in confusion, and food supplies were exhausted. [Yáng] Fèng, [Hán] Xiān, and [Dǒng] Chéng therefore had Heaven’s Son return to Luò​yáng. They went out Jī Gate, down Zhǐ Road, Zhāng Yáng with food welcomed them on the road, and was appointed Marshal-in-Chief. The story is in [Zhāng] Yáng’s biography [SGZ 8]. Heaven’s Son entered Luò​yáng, the Palaces and residences were completely burned away, the streets overgrown, the officials draped in thistles and thorns, relying on broken walls as residences. The Provinces and Prefectures each gathered troops to guard themselves, and none came. The hunger and distitution became more extreme. From the Secretariats Cadet down, each personally went out to collect firewood, and some of hunger died within the walls.


  • (1) Xiàndì Qǐ​jūzhù states: Previously, Heaven’s Son went out reaching Xuānpíng Gate, was about to cross the bridge, when [Guō] Sì’s troops of several hundred men blocked the bridge and asked: “Is it Heaven’s Son?” The carriage could not advance. [Lǐ] Jué’s troops of several hundred men all wielded large halberds to the carriages’ left and right, Attendant Internal Liú Ài greatly called out saying: “It is Heaven’s Son.” They had Attendant Internal Yáng Qí lift up the carriage curtain, the Emperor said to the various troops: “You do not withdraw, how dare you approach the Utmost Honored?” [Guō] Sì’s and the rest’s troops therefore withdrew. When they crossed the bridge, the soldiers all called “Ten Thousand Years.”

〔一〕 獻帝起居注曰:初,天子出到宣平門,當度橋,汜兵數百人遮橋問「是天子邪」?車不得前。傕兵數百人皆持大戟在乘輿車左右,侍中劉艾大呼云:「是天子也。」使侍中楊琦高舉車帷。帝言諸兵:「汝不卻,何敢迫近至尊邪?」汜等兵乃卻。既度橋,士眾咸呼萬歲。

  • (2) Xiàndìjì states: At the time Secretariat Director Shìsūn Ruì was by the chaotic troops killed.
  • Sānfǔ Juélùhù states: [Shìsūn] Ruì appellation Jūnróng was a Fú​fēng man, for generations the family was scholarly. [Shìsūn] Ruì when young inherited the family property, his learning was extensive with nothing he did not reach, and he was appointed successively to prominent positions. When [Dǒng] Zhuó was executed, he was promoted to Minister of Finance, and became the state’s Three-Elder. Every time the Three Excellencies had a vacancy, [Shìsūn] Ruì always was selected. When Excellency Commandant Zhōu Zhōng and Huáng​fǔ​ Sōng​, Excellency over the Masses Chúnyú Jiā and Zhào Wēn, Excellency of Works Yáng Biāo and Zhāng Xǐ and others became Excellencies, and all declined and yielded to [Shìsūn] Ruì. When Heaven’s Son had capital at Xǔ, he discussed [Shìsūn] Ruì’s achievement, giving fief to his son [Shìsūn] Méng as Tánjīn precinct Marquis. [Shìsūn] Méng appellation Wénshǐ also had talent and learning, and was with Wáng Càn friendly. When he was about to receive fief, [Wáng] Càn composed a poem to present to [Shìsūn] Méng, [Shìsūn] Méng had a reply, in [Wáng] Càn’s Collected Works.

〔二〕 獻帝紀曰:時尚書令士孫瑞為亂兵所害。三輔決錄注曰:瑞字君榮,扶風人,世為學門。瑞少傳家業,博達無所不通,仕歷顯位。卓既誅,遷大司農,為國三老。每三公缺,瑞常在選中。太尉周忠、皇甫嵩,司徒淳于嘉、趙溫,司空楊彪、張喜等為公,皆辭拜讓瑞。天子都許,追論瑞功,封子萌澹津亭侯。萌字文始,亦有才學,與王粲善。臨當就國,粲作詩以贈萌,萌有答,在粲集中。

  • (3) Xiàndìjì states: Previously, commentators wished to have Heaven’s Son take boat eastward down the Hé​, Excellency Commandant Yáng Biāo said: “I your servant am a Hóngnóng man. From here on east there are thirty six rapids, and it was not what the Ten Thousand Chariots [the Emperor] should follow.” Liú Ài said: “I your servant was previously Magistrate of Shǎn, and know of its dangers. Even with an army there is capsizing, and morever now there is no army. The Excellency Commandant’s plan is correct.” Therefore it stopped. When he was about to cross north, he sent Lǐ Lè to prepare boats. Heaven’s Son on foot hastened to the riverbank, the bank was high and they could not get down. Dǒng Chéng and the rest planned to use horse bridles joined together to fasten to the Emperor’s waist. At the time Central Palace Servant Fú Dé supported the Central Palace, one hand grasping ten pǐ of silk fabric, and therefore they took [Fú] Dé’s silk fabric to join together into a seat. Traveling Army Colonel Shàng Hóng had abundant strength, and [Shàng] Hóng was sent ahead to carry the Emperor, and therefore they could go down to board the boat. The rest that could not cross were very many, and they again sent boats to collect those that could not cross, all fought to pull themselves aboard, and the people on the boats with blades cut their fingers, and the fingers in the boat were a handful.

〔三〕 獻帝紀曰:初,議者欲令天子浮河東下,太尉楊彪曰:「臣弘農人,從此已東,有三十六灘,非萬乘所當從也。」劉艾曰:「臣前為陝令,知其危險,有師猶有傾覆,況今無師,太尉謀是也。」乃止。及當北渡,使李樂具船。天子步行趨河岸,岸高不得下,董承等謀欲以馬羈相續以繫帝腰。時中宮僕伏德扶中宮,一手持十匹絹,乃取德絹連續為輦。行軍校尉尚弘多力,令弘居前負帝,乃得下登船。其餘不得渡者甚眾,復遣船收諸不得渡者,皆爭攀船,船上人以刃櫟斷其指,舟中之指可掬。

  • (4) Wèi​shū states: The Imperial Carriage at the time resided in thorns and thistles, the doors could not be closed. When Heaven’s Son met with the various ministers, the soldiers leaned on the fences to watch, pushing each other down to laugh. The various Generals seized power, some without authority beating to death the Secretariat. When the Colonel Director of Retainers went out and in, the people and troops pressed against and threw things at him. Of the various Generals some sent servant girls to visit the court side doors, some themselves obtained liquor to drink, surpassing Heaven’s Son’s drinks. Attendants Internal were blocked, shouted curses, but could not stop them. They also competed to memorialize to various camps press people into becoming their retainers, seeking their talents. Doctors and servants all became Colonels and Censors, seals could not be provided, and therefore they used pens to draw, to show their literacy, and some from time to time could not be obtained.

〔四〕 魏書曰:乘輿時居棘籬中,門戶無關閉。天子與群臣會,兵士伏籬上觀,互相鎮壓以為笑。諸將專權,或擅笞殺尚書。司隸校尉出入,民兵抵擲之。諸將或遣婢詣省閤,或自齎酒啖,過天子飲,侍中不通,喧呼罵詈,遂不能止。又競表拜諸營壁民為部曲,求其禮遺。醫師、走卒,皆為校尉,御史刻印不供,乃以錐畫,示有文字,或不時得也。

Tài​zǔ therefore welcomed Heaven’s Son to have capital at Xǔ. [Hán] Xiān and [Yáng] Fèng would not accept the Ruler’s Law, and each fled in exile, plundered about Xú and Yáng [provinces] and were by Liú​ Bèi killed. (1) Dǒng Chéng followed Tài​zǔ for over a year and was executed. Jiàn​’ān Second Year [197], they sent Visitor Deputy-Director Péi Mào to lead West of the Passes’s various officers to execute [Lǐ] Jué, exterminating his clan to the third degree. (2) [Guō] Sì was by his officer Wǔ Xí attacked, and died at Méi. [Zhāng] Jì suffered famine, reached Nán​yáng to plunder, and was by Ráng men killed. His cousin’s son [Zhāng] Xiù took over his army. [Hú] Cái and [Lǐ] Lè remained in Hé​dōng. [Hú] Cái was by a resentful family killed, [Lǐ] Lè of illness died. [Hán] Suì and [Mǎ] Téng returned to Liáng​zhōu, and again plundered. Later [Mǎ] Téng entered as Minister of the Guard, his son [Mǎ] Chāo commanded his retainers. Sixteenth Year [211], [Mǎ] Chāo with Inside the Passes’s various Generals and [Hán] Suì and others rebelled, and Tài​zǔ campaigned against and defeated them. The story is in Wǔjì [SGZ 1]. [Hán] Suì fled to Jīnchéng and was by his officers killed. [Mǎ] Chāo occupied Hàn​yáng, and [Mǎ] Téng for the connection was clan exterminated to the third degree. Zhào Qú and others raised righteous troops to suppress [Mǎ] Chāo, [Mǎ] Chāo fled to Hàn​zhōng to follow Zhāng Lǔ, later fled to Liú​ Bèi, and died in Shǔ.


  • (1) Yīng​xióngjì states: [Liú]​ Bèi enticed [Yáng] Fèng to meet, and then when they were seated seized him. [Hán] Xiān lost [Yáng] Fèng’s strength and was alone, and at the time wished to flee back to Bìngzhōu, and was by Zhùqiū camp commander Zhāng Xuān intercepted and killed.

〔一〕 英雄記曰:備誘奉與相見,因於坐上執之。暹失奉勢孤,時欲走還并州,為杼秋屯帥張宣所邀殺。

  • (2) Diǎnlüè states: [Lǐ] Jué’s head arrived, and there was Imperial Order to hang it high.

〔二〕 典略曰:傕頭至,有詔高縣。

3 thoughts on “(6.1) Dǒng Zhuó 董卓 [Zhòngyǐng 仲穎]

  1. Pingback: (12.6) Bào Xūn 鮑勛 [Shūyè 叔業] – Three States Records

  2. Pingback: (8.6) Zhāng Xiù 張繡 – Three States Records

  3. Pingback: (22.7) Lú Yù 盧毓 [Zǐjiā 子家] | Three States Records

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