(55.9) Líng Tǒng 淩統 [Gōngjì 公績]

Líng Tǒng appellation Gōngjì was a Wújùn Yúháng man. His father [Líng] Cāo was a bold adventurer and had courageous manner. When Sūn Cè first rose, he followed in every campaign, and always commanded the army at the vanguard. He defended as Yǒngpíng Chief, pacifying and governing the Shānyuè, the treacherous were bound in hand, and he was promoted to Breaking Bandits Colonel. When [Sūn] Quán governed the army, he followed in suppressing Jiāngxià. He entered Xiàkǒu, was the first to ascend, breaking their front lines, on light boats he alone advanced, and was struck by a stray arrow and died.

淩統字公績,吳郡餘杭人也。父操,輕俠有膽氣,孫策初興,每從征伐,常冠軍履鋒。守永平長,平治山越,奸猾斂手,遷破賊校尉。及權統軍,從討江夏。入夏口,先登,破其前鋒,輕舟獨進,中流矢死。


Tǒng was fifteen years, and many praised and told of him, and [Sūn] Quán also because [Líng] Cāo had died for state affairs, appointed Tǒng Separate Division Major, Acting Breaking Bandits Commandant, sending him to take over his father’s troops.

統年十五,左右多稱述者,權亦以操死國事,拜統別部司馬,行破賊都尉,使攝父兵。

Later he followed in striking mountain bandits, [Sūn] Quán destroyed the Bǎo camp and first returned, the remaining Má camp had ten thousand men, and Tǒng with Commander Zhāng Yì and others remained to attack and besiege it, setting a day to attack.

後從擊山賊,權破保屯先還,餘麻屯萬人,統與督張異等留攻圍之,克日當攻。

Before then, Tǒng with Commander Chén Qín met and drank liquor; [Chén] Qín was stalwart and brave but followed impulses, because he was the Commander he performed the libations, boarding the carriage and sitting, promoting and penalizing not by proper regulation. Tǒng resented this humiliation, and confronted him but was ignored. [Chén] Qín was furious and cursed Tǒng, and even his father [Líng] Cāo, Tǒng shed tears and did not answer, and everyone therefore left and went out. [Chén] Qín while drunk was vicious and confrontational, and also on the road continued insulting Tǒng. Tǒng could not bear it, drew his blade and cut [Chén] Qín, who after several days died.

先期,統與督陳勤會飲酒,勤剛勇任氣,因督祭酒,陵轢一坐,舉罰不以其道。統疾其侮慢,面折不為用。勤怒詈統,及其父操,統流涕不答,眾因罷出。勤乘酒凶悖,又於道路辱統。統不忍,引刀斫勤,數日乃死。

When it was time to attack the camp, Tǒng said: “If I do not die I will have nothing by which to apologize for my crime.” Therefore he commanded the troops, personally facing arrows and stones, the side that he attacked was quickly broken, the various officers followed up on his victory, and therefore they greatly defeated them. He returned, bound himself to face military standards. [Sūn] Quán praised his firm resolution, and sent him to by achievement to atone for his crime.

及當攻屯,統曰:「非死無以謝罪。」乃率厲士卒,身當矢石,所攻一面,應時披壞,諸將乘勝,遂大破之。還,自拘於軍正。權壯其果毅,使得以功贖罪。


Later [Sūn] Quán again campaigned against Jiāngxià, Tǒng was the front line, and with his trusted warriors of several tens of men together rode one boat, always several tens of lǐ away from the main army. He went into Yòujiāng, beheading Huáng Zǔ’s officer Zhāng Shuò, completing capturing all his boatmen, and returned to report to [Sūn] Quán, leading the army on two roads, on water and land together gathering. At the time Lǚ​ Méng defeated their navy, and Tǒng first seized their fortress, and therefore greatly captured. [Sūn] Quán appointed Tǒng Continuing Fierceness Commandant. With Zhōu Yú and others they resisted and defeated Excellency Cáo at Wūlín, and then attacked Cáo Rén, and he was promoted to Colonel.

後權復征江夏,統為前鋒,與所厚健兒數十人共乘一船,常去大兵數十里。行入右江,斬黃祖將張碩,盡獲船人。還以白權,引軍兼道,水陸並集。時呂蒙敗其水軍,而統先搏其城,於是大獲。權以統為承烈都尉,與周瑜等拒破曹公於烏林,遂攻曹仁,遷為校尉。

Although he was in the army, he was close with the worthy and welcomed scholars, thought little of wealth and valued righteousness, and had a state hero’s manner.

雖在軍旅,親賢接士,輕財重義,有國士之風。


He also followed in capturing Huàn, was appointed Overwhelming Bandits Internal Cadet General, with office as Chancellor of Pèi. With Lǚ​ Méng and others he went west to capture three prefectures, returned from Yìyáng, following to go to Héféi, as Right Division Commander.

又從破皖,拜盪寇中郎將,領沛相。與呂蒙等西取三郡,反自益陽,從往合肥,為右部督。

At the time [Sūn] Quán withdrew the army, the front part had already left, when Wèi General Zhāng Liáo and others suddenly reached the ford’s north. [Sūn] Qúan called back the front troops, but the troops were already far away, and could not arrive in time. Tǒng commanded personal retainers of 300 men to break the encirclement, escorting [Sūn] Quán out. The enemy had already destroyed the bridge, leaving only two planks. [Sūn] Quán urged his horse to charge across, and Tǒng again returned to battle, his attendants were all dead, and his body also was wounded, he killed were several tens of men, and when he judged that [Sūn] Quán had already escaped, then he returned. The bridge was broken and the road cut off, and Tǒng wearing his armor went through the water. [Sūn] Quán had already boarded the boat, and saw him and was surprised and pleased. Tǒng was sorrowful that his personal retainers had none return, and was overcome with grief. [Sūn] Quán drew his sleeve to wipe him, and said: “Gōngjì, the dead are already gone, but with you here, what fear is there of lacking men?” (1) He was appointed Supporting General, and given [new] troops.

時權徹軍,前部已發,魏將張遼等奄至津北。權使追還前兵,兵去已遠,勢不相及,統率親近三百人陷圍,扶扞權出。敵已毀橋,橋之屬者兩版,權策馬驅馳,統復還戰,左右盡死,身亦被創,所殺數十人,度權已免,乃還。橋敗路絕,統被甲潛行。權既御船,見之驚喜。統痛親近無反者,悲不自勝。權引袂拭之,謂曰:「公績,亡者已矣,苟使卿在,何患無人?」〔一〕拜偏將軍,倍給本兵。

  • (1) Wúshū states: Tǒng’s wounds were severe, [Sūn] Qúan therefore kept Tǒng on the boat, completely changing his clothes. His wounds were treated with mister Zhuó’s excellent medicine, and therefore he did not die.

〔一〕 吳書曰:統創甚,權遂留統於舟,盡易其衣服。其創賴得卓氏良藥,故得不死。


At the time there was one who recommended the same prefecture’s Shèng Xiān to [Sūn] Quán, believing his nature was of great morality, and that he surpassed Tǒng. [Sūn] Quán said: “Having one like Tǒng is enough.” Later he summoned [Shèng] Xiān who in the night arrived. At the time Tǒng was already sleeping, heard him, and got dressed and went out the door, grasped his hand to lead him in. His love for the good without harm was like this.

時有薦同郡盛暹於權者,以為梗概大節,有過於統,權曰:「且令如統足矣。」後召暹夜至,時統已臥,聞之,攝衣出門,執其手以入。其愛善不害如此。


Tǒng believed the mountain people had many who were strong and heroic, and they should use prestige and favor to entice them[to submit]. [Sūn] Quán ordered him east to take command to suppress them, and ordered the various cities, that all that Tǒng asked for, was to be first given and afterward reported. Tǒng by nature favored soldiers, and soldiers also admired him. He obtained elite troops of over ten thousand men, passed his home county, stepped into to office gates, meeting the chief clerk with three planks, deferential with utmost courtesy, close with old friends, his kindness great and intense. When the matters were finished and he was about to leave, it happened that he fell ill and died, at the time aged forty-nine years [note: probably an error; he likely died at twenty-nine]. [Sūn] Quán heard this, had to hold onto the couch to sit up, his sorrow could not be contained, for several days he barely ate, when speaking he wept, and he sent Zhāng Chéng to engrave a eulogy.

統以山中人尚多壯悍,可以威恩誘也,權令東占且討之,命敕屬城,凡統所求,皆先給後聞。統素愛士,士亦慕焉。得精兵萬餘人,過本縣,步入寺門,見長吏懷三版,恭敬盡禮,親舊故人,恩意益隆。事畢當出,會病卒,時年四十九。權聞之,拊床起坐,哀不能自止,數日減膳,言及流涕,使張承為作銘誄。


His two sons [Líng] Liè and [Líng] Fēng, both were several years old. [Sūn] Quán fostered them in the Palace, favoring and caring for them the same as his own sons, when guests entered to meet, he called and showed them: “This are my tiger cubs.” When they were eight to nine years, he ordered Gě Guāng to teach them to read books, every ten days ride horses, and in recognition of Tǒng’s achievements, gave fief on [Líng] Liè as a precinct Marquis, returning his former troops. Later [Líng] Liè had a crime and was dismissed, and [Líng] Fēng inherited the noble rank and command of troops. (1)

二子烈、封,年各數歲,權內養於宮,愛待與諸子同,賓客進見,呼示之曰:「此吾虎子也。」及八九歲,令葛光教之讀書,十日一令乘馬,追錄統功,封烈亭侯,還其故兵。後烈有罪免,封復襲爵領兵。〔一〕

  • (1) Sūn Shèng states: Observing Sūn Quán’s raising of soldiers, he was thorough in heart and exhaustive in thought, in order to to seek their to the death strength, sobbed for Zhōu Tài’s wounds, buried Chén Wǔ’s concubine [with him], plead for Lǚ​ Méng’s life, raised Líng Tǒng’s orphans, suffered humility and hardship for his will, and was industrious in this way. Therefore although his virtue was not reputable, his benevolent favor not made known, yet he was able to become powerful in Jīng and Wú, usurped [Imperial title] for many years; this was the reason. However the Overlord’s Way, in the long term, is by the Former Kings’ establishment of virtuous and righteous base, the recovery of a faithful and obedient world, the setting of governance system, the illuminating the order of noble and lowly, so one can change but their closeness [with the people] can last, their form secure but their achievements can be great; how can one pursue trifling nearby things, seeking profit in the short term? The [Lùn]yǔ states: “Though a minor principle, it certainly has those observing it, but from faraway one fears it is limited.” This is what it speaks of!

〔一〕 孫盛曰:觀孫權之養士也,傾心竭思,以求其死力,泣周泰之夷,殉陳武之妾,請呂蒙之命,育淩統之孤,卑曲苦志,如此之勤也。是故雖令德無聞,仁澤(內)〔罔〕著,而能屈彊荊吳,僭擬年歲者,抑有由也。然霸王之道,期於大者遠者,是以先王建德義之基,恢信順之宇,制經略之綱,明貴賤之序,易簡而其親可久,體全而其功可大,豈委璅近務,邀利於當年哉?語曰「雖小道,必有可觀者焉,致遠恐泥」,其是之謂乎!

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