(63.1) Wú Fàn 吳範 [Wénzé 文則]

Wú Fàn appellation Wénzé was a Kuàijī Shàngyú man. As he could perform calendar calculations, and understood weather patterns, he was heard of in his prefecture. He was nominated as a Having Way candidate, visited the capital, but the world was in chaos and he could not go. It happened that Sūn Quán rose up in the southeast, and Fàn devoted himself in submitting to and serving him. Every time there was disaster or auspicious sign, at once he would calculate and report the situation, his methods were often effective, and therefore from this he had prominent reputation.

吳範字文則,會稽上虞人也。以治曆數,知風氣,聞於郡中。舉有道,詣京都,世亂不行。會孫權起於東南,範委身服事,每有災祥,輒推數言狀,其術多效,遂以顯名。


Previously, [Sūn] Quán was at Wú, wished to suppress Huáng Zǔ, and Fán said: “Now there would be few benefits, it is not as good as next year. Next year on a wùzǐ [day], Jīng province’s Liú Biǎo will also die and his state destroyed.” [Sūn] Quán then campaigned against [Huáng] Zǔ, but in the end could not overcome him. Next year, the army set out, went to Xúnyáng, Fàn observed the weather, and therefore went to [Sūn Quán’s] boat to give congratulations, urge the troops to hurriedly go, and they at once defeated [Huáng] Zǔ, and [Huáng] Zǔ in the night fled. [Sūn] Quán feared they would lose him, and Fàn said: “He is not yet far, we will certainly capture alive [Huáng] Zǔ.” Reaching the fifth watch, indeed he was taken. Liú Biǎo indeed died, and Jīng province was divided apart.

初,權在吳,欲討黃祖,範曰:「今茲少利,不如明年。明年戊子,荊州劉表亦身死國亡。」權遂征祖,卒不能克。明年,軍出,行及尋陽,範見風氣,因詣船賀,催兵急行,至即破祖,祖得夜亡。權恐失之,範曰:「未遠,必生禽祖。」至五更中,果得之。劉表竟死,荊州分割。


Reaching a Rénchén year [212], Fàn also reported: “When the year is a Jiǎwǔ [214], Liú Bèi will obtain Yì Province.” Later Lǚ Dài from Shǔ returned, encountered him at Báidì, and said that [Liú] Bèi’s army was scattered and fallen, the dead and deserted more than half, and the matter would certainly not be accomplished. [Sūn] Quán with this reproached Fàn, but Fàn said: “What I your servant speak of is Heaven’s Way, but what [Lǚ] Dài has seen is a Human Affair and that is all.” [Liú] Bèi in the end obtained Shǔ.

及壬辰歲,範又白言:「歲在甲午,劉備當得益州。」後呂岱從蜀還,遇之白帝,說備部眾離落,死亡且半,事必不克。權以難範,範曰:「臣所言者天道也,而岱所見者人事耳。」備卒得蜀。


[Sūn] Quán with Lǚ Méng plotted to attack Guān Yǔ, discussed it with close ministers, and many said “It cannot be.” [Sūn] Quán asked Fàn, and Fàn said: “He can be taken.” Later [Guān] Yǔ was at Màichéng, and sent envoy asking to surrender. [Sūn] Quán asked Fàn: “Should we accept his surrender or not?” Fàn said: “There is an aura of fleeing, his words of surrender are deception and that is all.” [Sūn] Quán sent Pān Zhāng to prepare interception on his road, but a scout returned, and reported that [Guān] Yǔ had already gone. Fàn said: “Although he has gone he will not escape.” He was asked when [Guān Yǔ would be captured], and he said: “Tomorrow midday.” [Sūn] Quán set up and started a water drip clock to wait for this. When it was midday without arrival, [Sūn] Quán asked the reason, and Fàn said: “The time is not yet true noon.” Shortly after there was a wind that moved the curtains, and Fàn patted his hand saying: “[Guān] Yǔ has arrived.” Immediately, those outside shouted Ten Thousand Years, and passed report that they had taken [Guān] Yǔ.

權與呂蒙謀襲關羽,議之近臣,多曰不可。權以問範,範曰:「得之。」後羽在麥城,使使請降。權問範曰:「竟當降否?」範曰:「彼有走氣,言降詐耳。」權使潘璋邀其徑路,覘候者還,白羽已去。範曰:「雖去不免。」問其期,曰:「明日日中。」權立表下漏以待之。及中不至,權問其故,範曰:「時尚未正中也。」頃之,有風動帷,範拊手曰:「羽至矣。」須臾,外稱萬歲,傳言得羽。


Later [Sūn] Quán with Wèi made good relations, and Fàn said: “Using the weather patterns to speak of it, they have appearance of coming, but in fact have plots, and it is appropriate to for this make preparations.” Liú Bèi raised troops at Xīlíng, and Fàn said: “Later there will be peace.” In the end it was all as he said. His divination and examination was like this.

後權與魏為好,範曰:「以風氣言之,彼以貌來,其實有謀,宜為之備。」劉備盛兵西陵,範曰:「後當和親。」終皆如言。其占驗明審如此。


[Sūn] Quán appointed Fàn as Cavalry Commandant, with office as Grand Scribe Director, repeatedly went to interview him, wishing to know his determinations. Fàn secretly begrudged [divulging] his methods, and would not tell its most critical parts to [Sūn] Quán, and [Sūn] Quán because of this resented him.

權以範為騎都尉,領太史令,數從訪問,欲知其決。範祕惜其術,不以至要語權。權由是恨之。〔一〕

  • (1) Wúlù states: Fàn himself was shrewd, and the reason he met with heavy value was his methods, if his methods were lost then he would be discarded, and therefore to the end he would not explain.

〔一〕 吳錄曰:範獨心計,所以見重者術,術亡則身棄矣,故終不言。


Previously, at the time [Sūn] Quán was a General, Fàn once reported that the Jiāng’s south had a King’s aura, and between a Hài and Zǐ day there would be great fortune and celebration. [Sūn] Quán said: “If in the end it is as you say, you will be a Marquis.” At the ascension as King of Wú, Fàn at the time attended at a banquet, and said: “In the past in Wú, I once spoke of this matter, does the Great King remember this?” [Sūn] Quán said: “There was,” and therefore called those around him, to give a Marquis’s ribbon to Fàn. Fàn knew [Sūn] Quán wished to by this avoid his previous words, and at once with his hand pushed away and would not accept. Later at the discussion of merits and giving fief, Fàn became a capital precinct Marquis. Imperial Order was about to be sent out, but [Sūn] Quán was angry that [Wú Fàn] loved his skills more than him [Sūn Quán], and removed his name.

初,權為將軍時,範嘗白言江南有王氣,亥子之間有大福慶。權曰:「若終如言,以君為侯。」及立為吳王,範時侍宴,曰:「昔在吳中,嘗言此事,大王識之邪?」權曰:「有之。」因呼左右,以侯綬帶範。範知權欲以厭當前言,輒手推不受。及後論功行封,以範為都亭侯。詔臨當出,權恚其愛道於己也,削除其名。


Fàn as a man was firm and upright, enjoyed praising himself, however with kin and old friends he had good relations at end and beginning. Previously he with Wèi Téng of the same hometown were friendly with each other. [Wèi] Téng once had a crime, [Sūn] Quán’s reproach and anger were very severe, those that dared remonstrate died, and Fàn said to [Wèi] Téng: “I will die with you.” [Wèi] Téng said: “To die is of no benefit, why die for me?” Fàn said: “How can I consider this, and only sit and watch you?” Therefore he shaved head and bound himself and went below the gate, and sent bellman to be heard. The bellman did not dare, saying: “I will certainly die, and do not dare report.” Fàn said: “Do you have sons?” [The bellman] said: “I have.” [Wú Fàn] said: “If you for Wú Fàn die, your sons will be cared for by me.” The bellman said: “Alright,” and then opened the side door and entered. His words were not finished, when [Sūn] Quán was greatly furious, and wished to throw a halberd. [The bellman] drew back and fled out, Fàn because of this rushed inside, knocking head [on the ground] until it bled, speaking with tears together. After a long while, [Sūn] Quán’s thoughts were resolved, and he therefore spared [Wèi] Téng. [Wèi] Téng met Fàn and thanked him: “My father and mother were able to birth and raise me, but cannot spare me from death. For knowing a good friend, someone like you is enough, what use is anything more!” (1)

範為人剛直,頗好自稱,然與親故交接有終始。素與魏滕同邑相善。滕嘗有罪,權責怒甚嚴,敢有諫者死,範謂滕曰:「與汝偕死。」滕曰:「死而無益,何用死為?」範曰:「安能慮此,坐觀汝邪?」乃髡頭自縛詣門下,使鈴下以聞。鈴下不敢,曰:「必死,不敢白。」範曰:「汝有子邪?」曰:「有。」曰:「使汝為吳範死,子以屬我。」鈴下曰:「諾。」乃排閤入。言未卒,權大怒,欲便投以戟。逡巡走出,範因突入,叩頭流血,言與涕並。良久,權意釋,乃免滕。滕見範謝曰:「父母能生長我,不能免我於死。丈夫相知,如汝足矣,何用多為!」〔一〕

  • Kuàijī Diǎnlù states: [Wèi] Téng appellation Zhōulín. His grandfather was Hénèi Administrator [Wèi] Lǎng appellation Shàoyīng, ranked among the Eight Eminents. [Wèi] Téng by nature was firm and upright, in conduct did not accord [with others], and although he encountered difficulty and pressure, to the end he would not turn back. Previously he also offended [Sūn] Cè, and was almost killed, and relied on [Sūn Cè’s mother] the Dowager’s rescue to obtain pardon; for the story see the Biographies of Consorts and Concubines. He was successively Magistrate of Lìyáng, Póyáng, Shānyīn, three counties, and Administrator of Póyáng.

〔一〕 會稽典錄曰:滕字周林,祖父河內太守朗,字少英,列在八俊。滕性剛直,行不苟合,雖遭困偪,終不迴撓。初亦迕策,幾殆,賴太妃救得免,語見妃嬪傳。歷(歷山)〔歷陽〕、(潘陽)〔鄱陽〕、山陰三縣令,鄱陽太守。


Huángwǔ Fifth Year [226], Fàn of illness died. His eldest son had previously died, his younger son was still young, and therefore his work was ended. [Sūn] Quán was sorrowful of this, and ordered recruitment from the three provinces those able to understand and know methods and calculations like Wú Fàn and Zhào Dá, to be given fief of a thousand households as a Marquis, but to the end no one was obtained. (1)

黃武五年,範病卒。長子先死,少子尚幼,於是業絕。權追思之,募三州有能舉知術數如吳範、趙達者,封千戶侯,卒無所得。〔一〕

  • Wúlù states: Fàn previously knew his own death day, and said to [Sūn] Quán: “Your Majesty on some day will mourn for a Master of the Army.” [Sūn] Quán said: “I have no Master of the Army, how can I mourn for one?” Fàn said: “When Your Majesty sent out the army facing the enemy, you always waited for I your servant’s work and only afterward went, I your servant am therefore Your Majesty’s Master of the Army.” On that day he indeed died.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: At the time Fàn died, [Sūn] Quán had not yet claimed Imperial title. This saying of ‘Your Majesty’ is wrong.

〔一〕 吳錄曰:範先知其死日,謂權曰:「陛下某日當喪軍師。」權曰:「吾無軍師,焉得喪之?」範曰:「陛下出軍臨敵,須臣言而後行,臣乃陛下之軍師也。」至其日果卒。臣松之案,範死時,權未稱帝,此云陛下,非也。

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