(16.7) Addendum and Appraisal

From Tàizǔ until Xiānxī [264-265], of Wèi prefecture Administrator Wú Guàn of Chén state, Qīnghé Administrator Rén Yù of Lè’ān, Jīngzhào Adminsitrator Yán Fěi of Jìběi, Hóngnóng Administrator Línghú Shào of Tàiyuán, and Jǐnán Chancellor Kǒng Yì of Lǔ state, some took pity in deciding prison cases, some were sincere in kindness and love, some in governance were personally pure and clean, some exposed treachery and revealed deception, but all were exceptional 2000 dan [Administrators]. (1)


  • [Wú] Guàn’s and [Rén] Yù’s matters and conduct cannot be found.
  • Wèilüè states: Yán Fěi appellation Wénlín. He had ability and learning. The Chancellor summoned him as Heir-Apparent Herald. At Huángchū’s beginning he was transferred to Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet, later becoming Jīngzhào Administrator. Previously, Jīngzhào from Mǎ Chāo’s damage afterward, of the people many did not focus on agriculture and growing, and also successively had four 2000 dan [Administrators], only resolving what was in front of one’s eyes, and also not for the people making long term plans. [Yán] Fěi arrived in office, and then ordered the subordinate Counties to repair the roads, and plant mulberry and fruit trees. At the time of the people many did not have carts and oxen. [Yán] Fěi also gathered the people to in the idle [non-farming] moons collect timber for carts, having them teach each other to build carts. He also gathered people without oxen, ordering them to raise pigs and dogs, selling them in order to buy oxen. At first the people believed it a bother, but within one to two years, family after family had carts and oxen. He also raised up schools, and weather officials or people those that wished to study books, they were given smaller enlisted service [to have time for study]. He also below the government office raised a vegetable garden, sending officials to when not working dig and manage it. He also had people at taxation time, to for each cart and ox to carry firewood of two bundles, to for the winter cold be burned and make ink. Therefore customs greatly developed, the officials did not bother people, the people did not beg from officials. Jīngzhào with Féngyì and Fúfēng shared borders, the two prefecture’s roads were filthy and blocked, the farm fields also desolate and with weeds, the people hungry and cold, but Jīngzhào was all organized and enlightened, abundant and rich and always the best of Yōng province’s ten prefectures. [Yán] Fěi also was pure himself, relying on salary and nothing more, and therefore the officials and people feared he would be promoted and transferred. Reaching Qīnglóng [233-237], Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng at Cháng’ān established a military market, and in the army many of the soldiers encroached on and insulted the county’s people, and [Yán] Fěi reported this to [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng therefore angrily summoned the military market captain, and in front of [Yán] Fěi flogged him with one hundred strokes. At the time Cháng’ān Manager of Agriculture with [Yán] Fěi were together seated, and he believed [Yán] Fěi should give thanks, and so privately prodded [Yán] Fěi. [Yán] Fěi would not give thanks, and after a good while then said. “I only observed your Enlightened Excellency received appointment to guard Shǎn [western region], and also wished to have one fair regulation for both army and commoners, and certainly did not have other thoughts. But the Manager of Agriculture prods me, wishing to have me give thanks; suppose I give thanks, then it would not serve your Enlightened Excellency’s intentions.” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng therefore strictly controlled his officials and soldiers. From then afterward, the military camps and the prefectures and counties each obtained their share. After several years, he was promoted to Píngyuán Administrator, the officials and people wept and blocked the road, his carriage could not advance, step by step he was asked to stay, and only after over ten days did he leave the border, going east reaching Xiáo but becoming ill. [Yán] Fěi by nature in his heart was attached to Jīngzhào, his family and followers saw [Yán] Fěi’s illness was severe, and consoled him, saying: “[You the Administrator of] Píngyuán should encourage yourself and get better.” [Yán] Fěi said: “My heart is unwilling to be Píngyuán, yet you all call me that, why do you not call me Jīngzhào?” Then he died, [his body] sent to Píngyuán. Jīngzhào heard this, and all for this wept, and for him set up a stele, so that to the present it praises him.
  • Línghú Shào appellation Kǒngshū. His father served Hàn, and was Colonel of the Wūhuán. At Jiàn’ān’s beginning, the Yuán clan was at Jì province, and [Línghú] Shào left his home prefecture to move his family at Yè. Ninth Year [204], he temporarily went out to Wǔ’ān’s Máochéng. It happened that Tàizǔ defeated Yè, and then besieged Máochéng. The city was defeated, and he seized [Línghú] Shào and others of his sort of over ten men, and all were about to be beheaded. Tàizǔ reviewed and observed them, was suspicious of his clothes and hat, and asked him of his ancestry, and found he knew his father, and therefore released him, installing him as a Military Planning Official. He served as an Administrator, and later transferred to Chancellor’s Registrar, sent out as Hóngnóng Administrator. Wherever he was he was pure as ice and snow, his wife and children rarely went to the office; he raised up the good and educated, was merciful in treating people, did not enjoy prison and litigation cases, and with subordinates had no troubles. At the time, in the prefecture were none that knew the classics, so he successively asked his various officials, and if there was one who wished to travel far to join a teacher, then he was given leave and sent, ordered to visit Hédōng to join Yuè Xiáng to study the classics, receive rough understanding and return, and therefore established schooling. By this Hóngnóng’s scholarship flourished. Reaching Huángchū’s beginning, he was summoned and appointed Feather Forest Cadet, promoted to Tiger Elite Internal Cadet General, and after three years, fell ill and died. Previously, [Línghú] Shào’s distant cousin’s son [Línghú] Yú, when wearing plain clothes [as a commoner], always had high ambitions, and everyone said [Línghú] Yú would certainly honor the Línghú clan, but [Línghú] Shào alone believed: “[Línghú] Yú by nature is casual, does not cultivate virtue but his hopes are big, and he will certainly destroy our clan.” [Línghú] Yú heard [Línghú] Shào’s words, and his heart was not as ease. When [Línghú] Shào was Tiger Elite Cadet General, [Línghú] Yú’s promotions were already many in succession, and wherever he was he had reputation. [Línghú] Yú met [Línghú] Shào, and therefore calmly spoke of the past, seeking to incite him saying: “In previous times I heard that you said I could not succeed [the family], what should I say now?” [Línghú] Shào looked and did not answer. However he privately said to his wife: “[Línghú Yú] Gōngzhì’s nature is the same as before. By my observation of him, in the end he will be destroyed and exterminated. But one does not know if I will be connected or not, or if it will also reach you all!” After [Línghú] Shào died, within over ten years, [Línghú] Yú became Inspector of Yǎn Province, and indeed with Wáng Líng plotted to depose [Cáo Fāng] and enthrone [Cáo Biāo], and his family was exterminated. [Línghú] Shào’s son [Línghú] Huá, at the time was Hóngnóng prefecture Assistant, and because the relation was distant enough was not connected.
  • According to the Kǒngshìpǔ “Kǒng Clan Registers”: Kǒng Yì appellation Yuánjuàn was Kǒng-zǐ’s descendant. His great-grandfather [Kǒng] Chóu, appellation Yuánjǔ was Chén Chancellor. Hàn Huán-dì established a Lǎo-zǐ Temple in Kǔ county’s Lài village, and painted Kǒng-zǐ’s portrait on the wall; [Kǒng] Chóu was Chén Chancellor, and established a Kǒng-zǐ stele in front of the portrait, and now it is still there. [Kǒng] Yì’s father and grandfather both were 2000 dan [officials], [Kǒng] Yì became Cavalier Regular Attendant, sending up memorials and remonstrants. The story is in the Three Young Emperors Annals [SGZ 4]. He reached Minister Herald. His son [Kǒng] Xún appellation Shìxìn was a Jìn General Pacifying East and Minister of the Guard.

〔一〕 瓘、煥事行無所見。魏略曰:顏斐字文林。有才學。丞相召為太子洗馬,黃初初轉為黃門侍郎,後為京兆太守。始,京兆從馬超破後,民人多不專於農殖,又歷數四二千石,取解目前,亦不為民作久遠計。斐到官,乃令屬縣整阡陌,樹桑果。是時民多無車牛。斐又課民以閒月取車材,使轉相教匠作車。又課民無牛者,令畜豬狗,賣以買牛。始者民以為煩,一二年閒,家家有丁車、大牛。又起文學,聽吏民欲讀書者,復其小徭。又於府下起菜園,使吏役閒鉏治。又課民當輸租時,車牛各因便致薪兩束,為冬寒冰炙筆硯。於是風化大行,吏不煩民,民不求吏。京兆與馮翊、扶風接界,二郡道路既穢塞,田疇又荒萊,人民饑凍,而京兆皆整頓開明,豐富常為雍州十郡最。斐又清己,仰奉而已,於是吏民恐其遷轉也。至青龍中,司馬宣王在長安立軍市,而軍中吏士多侵侮縣民,斐以白宣王。宣王乃發怒召軍市候,便於斐前杖一百。時長安典農與斐共坐,以為斐宜謝,乃私推築斐。斐不肯謝,良久乃曰:「斐意觀明公受分陝之任,乃欲一齊眾庶,必非有所左右也。而典農竊見推築,欲令斐謝;假令斐謝,是更為不得明公意也。」宣王遂嚴持吏士。自是之後,軍營、郡縣各得其分。後數歲,遷為平原太守,吏民啼泣遮道,車不得前,步步稽留,十餘日乃出界,東行至崤而疾困。斐素心戀京兆,其家人從者見斐病甚,勸之,言:「平原當自勉勵作健。」斐曰:「我心不願平原,汝曹等呼我,何不言京兆邪?」遂卒,還平原。京兆聞之,皆為流涕,為立碑,於今稱頌之。令狐邵字孔叔。父仕漢,為烏丸校尉。建安初,袁氏在冀州,邵去本郡家居鄴。九年,暫出到武安毛城中。會太祖破鄴,遂圍毛城。城破,執邵等輩十餘人,皆當斬。太祖閱見之,疑其衣冠也,問其祖考,而識其父,乃解放,署軍謀掾。仍歷宰守,後徙丞相主簿,出為弘農太守。所在清如冰雪,妻子希至官省;舉善而教,恕以待人,不好獄訟,與下無忌。是時,郡無知經者,乃歷問諸吏,有欲遠行就師,輒假遣,令詣河東就樂詳學經,粗明乃還,因設文學。由是弘農學業轉興。至黃初初,徵拜羽林郎,遷虎賁中郎將,三歲,病亡。始,邵族子愚,為白衣時,常有高志,眾人謂愚必榮令狐氏,而邵獨以為「愚性倜儻,不修德而願大,必滅我宗」。愚聞邵言,其心不平。及邵為虎賁郎將,而愚仕進已多所更歷,所在有名稱。愚見邵,因從容言次,微激之曰:「先時聞大人謂愚為不繼,愚今竟云何邪?」邵熟視而不答也。然私謂其妻子曰:「公治性度猶如故也。以吾觀之,終當敗滅。但不知我久當坐之不邪?將逮汝曹耳!」邵沒之後,十餘年間,愚為兗州刺史,果與王淩謀廢立,家屬誅滅。邵子華,時為弘農郡丞,以屬疏得不坐。案孔氏譜:孔乂字元雋,孔子之後。曾祖疇,字元矩,陳相。漢桓帝立老子廟於苦縣之賴鄉,畫孔子象於壁;疇為陳相,立孔子碑於像前,今見存。乂父祖皆二千石,乂為散騎常侍,上疏規諫。語在三少帝紀。至大鴻臚。子恂字士信,晉平東將軍衛尉也。

Appraisal states: Rén Jùn began raising righteous troops, joined Tàizǔ, developed land and grew grain, so that the granaries filled to overflowing, and achievement was reached. Sū Zé used authority to pacify chaos, and in government matters was exceptionally good, and also gallant and upright, his manner ardent and sufficient to praise. Dù Jī had generosity and fierceness together supporting relief, using kindness to prosper the people. Zhèng Hún and Cāng Cí, had sympathy and reason with correct methods. These all were Wèi’s generation of famed Administrators! [Dù] Shù repeatedly explained the time’s governance, and in discussing the fundamentals and foundations of government, always could be considered impressive.


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