(9.7) Cáo Shuǎng 曹爽 [Zhāobó 昭伯]

Hé Yàn 何 [Píngshū 平叔]


[Cáo] Shuǎng appellation Zhāobó, when young because he was of the Imperial Clan and solemn and serious, Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] at the East Palace [as an Imperial son], was very close with and favored him. At the succession to the throne, he became Cavalier Attendant Cadet, eventually promoted to City Gate Colonel, added Cavalier Regular Attendant, transferred to Martial Guard General, and his favorable treatment was unique.

爽字昭伯,少以宗室謹重,明帝在東宮,甚親愛之。及即位,為散騎侍郎,累遷城門校尉,加散騎常侍,轉武衛將軍,寵待有殊。

The Emperor was lying ill, and therefore summoned Shuǎng to enter the inner room, appointing him General-in-Chief, with Acting Staff and Battle-Ax, as Commander over Internal and External various military affairs, control of Secretariat affairs, to with Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng together receive posthumous Imperial Order to support the young ruler.

帝寢疾,乃引爽入臥內,拜大將軍,假節鉞,都督中外諸軍事,錄尚書事,與太尉司馬宣王並受遺詔輔少主。

Míng-dì passed, and the King of Qí [Cáo Fāng] succeeded the throne, adding to Shuǎng Attendant Internal, changing fief to Marquis of Wǔ’ān, with fief of 12000 households, bestowing the honor to with sword and shoes ascend the palace hall, enter Court without hastening, and pay respect and bow without using personal name.

明帝崩,齊王即位,加爽侍中,改封武安侯,邑萬二千戶,賜劍履上殿,入朝不趨,贊拜不名。

Dīng Mì drew a plan, having Shuǎng report to Heaven’s Son, to send out Imperial Order to transfer [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng to Grand Tutor, outside to with good title honor him, inside wishing to control Secretariat memorial matters, first coming through himself, and so obtain regulation over effective power. (1) Shuǎng’s younger brothers [Cáo] Xī became Central Manager of the Army, [Cáo] Xùn Martial Guard General, [Cáo] Yàn Cavalier Regular Attendant and Attendant Discussion, and the remaining younger brothers, all as ranked marquis in attendance accompanied [the Emperor], exiting and entering the forbidden inner doors, their nobility and favor none could surpass.

丁謐畫策,使爽白天子,發詔轉宣王為太傅,外以名號尊之,內欲令尚書奏事,先來由己,得制其輕重也。〔一〕爽弟羲為中領軍,訓武衛將軍,彥散騎常侍侍講,其餘諸弟,皆以列侯侍從,出入禁闥,貴寵莫盛焉。

  • (1) Wèishū states: Shuǎng had his younger brother [Cáo] Xī to compose his memorial: “I your servant’s deceased father [Cáo] Zhēn, served in matters for Three Courts, entering as senior minister, going out as high officer. The Former Emperor with I your servant and close ministers his remaining wishes, to reward order and select for promotion, manage troops sternly, advancing without loyal respectful accumulated conduct, withdrawing without Gāoyáng’s public integrity. The Former Emperor’s sagely form was not at ease, and though I your servant hurried, attending his illness with drugs, already without sincere supporting day’s answer, and humbly with Excellency Commandant [Sīmǎ] Yì together received posthumous Imperial Order, both ashamed and afraid, not what settled report. I your servant have heard Yú Shùn ordered worthies, with Jì and Qì as first, Chéng Tāng commended achievement, with Yī and Lǚ as head, carefully selecting and expansively promoting, what merits and drawbacks obtain, this truly is assisting the world’s and expanding the people’s great principle, recording merit and repaying achievement’s order and management, since ancient times, there has not been deficiency. Now I your servant and diffident and muddled, my rank crowning at the Court’s head, considering only to have surpassed in order, my inner heart is shamed and fearful, and dare express my feeling, and explain and write the truth. The realm Under Heaven’s attaining the Way are three, called Virtue, [noble] Rank, and Tooth [age]. [Sīmǎ] Yì by nature is high and bright and fair and honest, occupies position above the Excellencies, his reputation sufficient to calm the masses, righteousness sufficient to lead subordinates; this is the first. He harbors great planning, both civil and martial, yet establishes campaign achievement, near and far giving credit; this is the second. Ten thousand lǐ whirling banner, personally receiving posthumous Imperial Order, supporting and shining the Imperial House, inside and outside turn to him; this is third. Moreover he is aged, ordering and guiding the state, form perfecting the Court’s governance. In discussing virtue then he surpasses Jífǔ and Fánzhòng; in examining achievement then he passes Fāngshū and Shàohǔ. Altogether these several, [Sīmǎ] Yì truly simultaneously holds them. I your servant hold empty reputation but am placed to his right [senior], and the people Under Heaven will say that I your servant by being of the Imperial Clan see personal gain, knowing advancement but not knowing declining. Your Majesty is lofty, understanding categorization, and if you investigate I your servant’s words, I your servant believe it is appropriate to appoint [Sīmǎ] Yì as Grand Tutor and Marshal-in-Chief, above to manifest Your Majesty’s understanding of advancing the worthy, middle to make know [Sīmǎ] Yì’s true civil and martial ability, below to allow I your humble servant to escape slander and ridicule.”
  • Therefore the Emperor sent Internal Document Supervisor Liú Fàng and Director Sūn Zī to make Imperial Order: “In the past Wú Hàn assisted Guāng-Wǔ, had the achievement of campaigning and settling the Four Quarters, and became Marshal-in-Chief, his name praised to the present. The Excellency Commandant [Sīmǎ Yì] in form and tread is upright, his achievements covering Within the Seas, the Former Emperor originally from beginning to end wished to advance his rank quickly but did not last long, and therefore it was too late and not put in effect and that is all. Now the General-in-Chief [Cáo Shuǎng] recommends that the Excellency Commandant should be Marshal-in-Chief, to accord with the Late Emperor’s original intention, and also release decline and yielding, advance virtue and esteem merit, and therefore wish to make known the worthy and good, discuss order, rank following seniority. Even the sort as [Zhōu-gōng] Dàn and [Shào-gōng] Shì took as exemplar and teacher Lǚ Wàng, and their consideration was in craning neck to be placed below him, how was there a mistake? I deeply praise it. I only because the Former Emperor assuredly knew the noble gentleman is pleased with heaven and understands fate, fine and small trifling doubt, not enough to be dreaded, and so considered Bórén Péngwáng’s writings, and therefore acted with irresolution, had intention but was unsuccessful and that is all! This also was the Former’s Emperor deeply respected great minister, care and favor deep and generous to the utmost. In the past Chéng-wáng established the Protector and Tutor offices, and more recently Hàn Xiǎnzōng had Dèng Yǔ as Grand Tutor, all in order to exceptionally esteem significant governance, certain to have honor. Thus the Excellency Commandant is made Grand Tutor.

〔一〕 魏書曰:爽使弟羲為表曰:「臣亡父真,奉事三朝,入備冢宰,出為上將。先帝以臣肺腑遺緒,獎飭拔擢,典兵禁省,進無忠恪積累之行,退無羔羊自公之節。先帝聖體不豫,臣雖奔走,侍疾嘗藥,曾無精誠翼日之應,猥與太尉懿俱受遺詔,且慚且懼,靡所厎告。臣聞虞舜序賢,以稷、契為先,成湯褒功,以伊、呂為首,審選博舉,優劣得所,斯誠輔世長民之大經,錄勳報功之令典,自古以來,未之或闕。今臣虛闇,位冠朝首,顧惟越次,中心愧惕,敢竭愚情,陳寫至實。夫天下之達道者三,謂德、爵、齒也。懿本以高明中正,處上司之位,名足鎮眾,義足率下,一也。包懷大略,允文允武,仍立征伐之勳,遐邇歸功,二也。萬里旋旆,親受遺詔,翼亮皇家,內外所向,三也。加之耆艾,紀綱邦國,體練朝政;論德則過於吉甫、樊仲;課功則踰於方叔、召虎:凡此數者,懿實兼之。臣抱空名而處其右,天下之人將謂臣以宗室見私,知進而不知退。陛下岐嶷,克明克類,如有以察臣之言,臣以為宜以懿為太傅、大司馬,上昭陛下進賢之明,中顯懿身文武之實,下使愚臣免於謗誚。」於是帝使中書監劉放令孫資為詔曰:「昔吳漢佐光武,有征定四方之功,為大司馬,名稱于今。太尉體履正直,功蓋海內,先帝本以前後欲更其位者輒不彌久,是以遲遲不施行耳。今大將軍薦太尉宜為大司馬,既合先帝本旨,又放推讓,進德尚勳,乃欲明賢良、辯等列、順長少也。雖旦、奭之屬,宗師呂望,念在引領以處其下,何以過哉!朕甚嘉焉。朕惟先帝固知君子樂天知命,纖芥細疑,不足為忌,當顧柏人彭亡之文,故用低佪,有意未遂耳!斯亦先帝敬重大臣,恩愛深厚之至也。昔成王建保傅之官,近漢顯宗以鄧禹為太傅,皆所以優崇雋乂,必有尊也。其以太尉為太傅。」

Nányáng’s Hé Yàn, Dèng Yáng, Lǐ Shèng, Pèiguó’s Dīng Mì, Dōngpíng’s Bì Guī all had reputation, and were interested in advancing at the time. Míng-dì because of their pretensions restrained and dismissed them all; when Shuǎng maintained the government, then they again sought advancement, and were appointed as close aides [lit. stomach and heart]. [Dèng] Yáng and the rest wished to have Shuǎng established [military] authoritative reputation in the realm Under Heaven, and urged him to send campaign against Shǔ, Shuǎng followed their advice, and [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng opposed them but could not prohibit them.

南陽何晏、鄧颺、李勝、沛國丁謐、東平畢軌咸有聲名,進趣於時,明帝以其浮華,皆抑黜之;及爽秉政,乃復進敘,任為腹心。颺等欲令爽立威名於天下,勸使伐蜀,爽從其言,宣王止之不能禁。

Zhèngshǐ Fifth Year [244], Shuǎng then went west to Cháng’ān, greatly sending troops of sixty to seventy thousand men, following Luò valley to enter. At the time, Guāngzhōng’s Dī and Qiáng peoples’ transports could not provide supplies, of the oxen and horses and mules and donkeys many died, and the people cried out and wept on the road. They entered the valley and went several hundred lǐ, the rebels held the mountains as defenses, and the troops could not advance. Shuǎng’s Advisor to the Army Yáng Wěi for Shuǎng explained the circumstances, that it was appropriate to quickly return, or else they would be defeated. (2) [Dèng] Yáng with [Yáng] Wěi fought in front of Shuǎng, and [Yáng] Wěi said: “[Dèng] Yáng and [Lǐ] Shèng will ruin the state’s affairs, and can be beheaded.” Shuǎng was not pleased, and therefore led the army back. (3)

正始五年,爽乃西至長安,大發卒六七萬人,從駱谷入。是時,關中及氐、羌轉輸不能供,牛馬騾驢多死,民夷號泣道路。入谷行數百里,賊因山為固,兵不得進。爽參軍楊偉為爽陳形勢,宜急還,不然將敗。〔二〕颺與偉爭於爽前,偉曰:「颺、勝將敗國家事,可斬也。」爽不悅,乃引軍還。〔三〕

  • (2) Shìyǔ states: [Yáng] Wěi appellation Shìyīng was a Féngyì man. Míng-dì repaired the Palaces and Residences, and [Yáng] Wěi remonstrated: “Now making Palaces and Residences, is to chop and cut down the pines and cypresses above the people’s tombs, destroy stone tablet and pillar monuments, sinning against the deceased, wounding a filial son’s heart, and cannot for later generations be an example.”

〔二〕 世語曰:偉字世英,馮翊人。明帝治宮室,偉諫曰:「今作宮室,斬伐生民墓上松柏,毀壞碑獸石柱,辜及亡人,傷孝子心,不可以為後世之法則。」

  • (3) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng said to Xiàhóu Xuán: “The Chūnqiū says the responsibility on great virtue is heavy. In the past when Wǔ Huángdì [Cáo Cāo] again entered Hānzhōng [219], he was almost greatly defeated, and this you know. Now Xīngpíng road’s condition is rugged, Shǔ has already first occupied it, if advancing and unable to obtain battle, retreating and met with being cut off, the downfall of the army is certain. Then who will take this responsibility!” [Xiàhóu] Xuán was afraid, spoke to Shuǎng, and led the army to retreat. Fèi Yī advanced troops to occupy Sānlǐng to intercept Shuǎng, Shuǎng fought on rugged terrain in a hard battle, and barely obtained passage. The sent out oxen and horses for transport, were all died or lost. The Qiáng and Hú complained and sighed, and the Pass’s west was all empty and wasted.

〔三〕 漢晉春秋曰:司馬宣王謂夏侯玄曰:「春秋責大德重,昔武皇帝再入漢中,幾至大敗,君所知也。今興平路勢至險,蜀已先據;若進不獲戰,退見徼絕,覆軍必矣。將何以任其責!」玄懼,言於爽,引軍退。費禕進兵據三嶺以截爽,爽爭嶮苦戰,僅乃得過。所發牛馬運轉者,死失略盡,羌、胡怨嘆,而關右悉虛耗矣。


Previously, Shuǎng because [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng‘s years and virtue were both high, always like a father treated him, and did not dare alone act. When [Hé] Yàn and the rest were advanced and employed, all together encouraged and supported him, persuading Shuǎng that power should not be entrusted to another. Therefore he appointed [Hé] Yàn, [Dèng] Yáng, [Dīng] Mì as Secretariats. [Hé] Yàn managed selection and promotion, [Bì] Guǐ was Colonel Director of Retainers, [Lǐ] Shèng was Intendant of Hénán, in all affairs rarely again following [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng therefore claimed illness and avoided Shuǎng. (1)

初,爽以宣王年德並高,恆父事之,不敢專行。及晏等進用,咸共推戴,說爽以權重不宜委之於人。乃以晏、颺、謐為尚書,晏典選舉,軌司隸校尉,勝河南尹,諸事希復由宣王。宣王遂稱疾避爽〔一〕。

  • (1) Previously, [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng because Shuǎng was Wèi’s close minister, always advanced him forward, and Shuǎng because [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng‘s reputation was heavy, also drew back below him. At the time this was praised. [Dīng] Mì and Bì Guī and others were advanced and employed, and repeatedly said to Shuǎng: “[Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng has great ambitions and has deeply obtained the people’s hearts, and cannot be endorsed and truly trusted in.” Because of this Shuǎng was always suspicious and guarded. Although his courtesy and appearance remained, yet in his actions, all were no longer following [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng‘s strength could not resist, and he moreover feared disaster, and therefore avoided him.

〔一〕 初,宣王以爽魏之肺腑,每推先之,爽以宣王名重,亦引身卑下,當時稱焉。丁謐、畢軌等既進用,數言于爽曰:「宣王有大志而甚得民心,不可以推誠委之。」由是爽恆猜防焉。禮貌雖存,而諸所興造,皆不復由宣王。宣王力不能爭,且懼其禍,故避之。

[Hé] Yàn and the rest controlled the government, together dividing up Luòyáng and Yěwáng’s Managing Agriculture Division’s mulberry trees and farm fields of several hundred qǐng, and destroyed cleansing land as their personal property, taking advantage of their power to seize government property, taking opportunity to request what they wished from the provinces and prefectures. The managers watched the situation, and none dared disobey orders. [Hé] Yàn and the rest with Minister of Justice Lú Yù by nature were not at peace, and because [Lú] Yù’s official had a small mistake, had severe writing send [Lú] Yù to the law, having the manager first seize [Lú] Yù’s seal and ribbon, and only afterward memorialize report. Their actions and power was like this.

晏等專政,共分割洛陽、野王典農部桑田數百頃,及壞湯沐地以為產業,承勢竊取官物,因緣求欲州郡。有司望風,莫敢忤旨。晏等與廷尉盧毓素有不平,因毓吏微過,深文致毓法,使主者先收毓印綬,然後奏聞。其作威如此。

Shuǎng’s drink and food and chariots and clothing, imitated the Imperial carriage; craftsmen treasures and toys, filled up his house; wives and concubines filled his Rear Courtyard, and he also secretly took the Former Emperor’s Talent concubines of seven to eight women, and his offices and officials, teachers and workers, drums and horns, elite family’s sons and daughters of thirty-three people, all became his performers and musicians. He forged Imperial Order documents, sending out Talent concubines of fifty seven women to Yè terrace, and having the Former Emperor’s Fair concubines teach and practice performance. He usurped the Grand Musician’s musical instruments, and the Military Store’s prohibited weapons. He made cavern residences, fine engraving all around, repeatedly with [Hé] Yàn and the rest meeting inside, drinking liquor and making merry.

爽飲食車服,擬於乘輿;尚方珍玩,充牣其家;妻妾盈後庭,又私取先帝才人七八人,及將吏、師工、鼓吹、良家子女三十三人,皆以為伎樂。詐作詔書,發才人五十七人送鄴臺,使先帝婕妤教習為伎。擅取太樂樂器,武庫禁兵。作窟室,綺疏四周,數與晏等會其中,飲酒作樂。

[Cáo] Xī deeply was by this greatly worried, and repeatedly remonstrated to stop this. He also composed documents in three piān, explaining how arrogance and wantonness overflowing led to disaster and destruction, his words and meaning deeply cutting, but did not dare reprimand Shuǎng, and relied on admonishing his various younger brothers to show to Shuǎng. Shuǎng knew this was toward himself directed, and was very displeased. [Cáo] Xī sometimes because his remonstrants were not accepted, would weep and leave.

羲深以為大憂,數諫止之。又著書三篇,陳驕淫盈溢之致禍敗,辭旨甚切,不敢斥爽,託戒諸弟以示爽。爽知其為己發也,甚不悅。羲或時以諫喻不納,涕泣而起。

[Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng secretly against them made preparations. Ninth Year [248] Winter, Lǐ Shèng went out as Inspector of Jīng Province, and on the way visited [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng claimed his illness was severe, showing weak appearance. [Lǐ] Shèng could not tell, and said it was genuine. (2)

宣王密為之備。九年冬,李勝出為荊州刺史,往詣宣王。宣王稱疾困篤,示以羸形。勝不能覺,謂之信然。〔二〕

  • (2) Wèimòzhuàn states: Shuǎng and the rest ordered [Lǐ] Shèng to take leave of [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng, and also examine and observe him. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng met [Lǐ] Shèng, and [Lǐ] Shèng himself explained that he had no achievements, but received special favor, and was appointed to his home province, and was visiting to pay respects and take leave, and did not expect to receive the special favor, of obtaining a personal meeting. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng ordered two maidservants attend at his side, grasped robes, and the robes fell [from his hands]. He also pointed up at his mouth, saying he needed a drink, the maidservants presented porridge, [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng grasped the cup to drink the porridge, and the porridge all spilled and wet his bosom. [Lǐ] Shèng pitied this, and for him wept, saying to [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng: “Now the Ruler Above is still young, the realm Under Heaven relies upon your Enlightened Excellency. The masses say your Enlightened Excellency is old and ill, how who would have thought your honored body is like this!” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng very softly spoke, to be able to breath and communicate, saying: “I am aged and very ill, and my death is in days. You will be entrusted with Bìng Province, Bìng Province is close to the Hú, you must deal with it well, I fear we will not meet again, what of it?” [Lǐ] Shèng said: “I am returning to my home [běn] province, not Bìng Province.” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng then again acted confused, and said: “You will arrive at Bìng Province, work hard and care for yourself!” He disordered his words, acting as if speaking nonsense. [Lǐ] Shèng again said: “I am returning to Jīng Province, not Bìng Province.” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng then seemed to understand, saying: “I am aged, my thoughts confused, and did not understand your words. Now you return to be your home [běn] Province’s Inspector. Flourish virtue and heroism, well establish achievement. Now I will with you take leave, and considering my vitality is becoming weak, later we will certainly not again meet, and therefore I wish to use my own strength, to set up altar, for life and death for us to take leave. Have [my sons] the brothers [Sīmǎ] Shī and Zhāo join with you as friends, you cannot abandon each other, for the sake of my trifling heart.” Therefore he wept and sobbed. [Lǐ] Shèng also deeply sighed, and answered: “I am only receiving your teaching, and must still wait for orders.” [Lǐ] Shèng took leave and went out, and with Shuǎng and the rest met each other, saying: “The Grand Tutor’s speech was mistaken, his mouth could not take cup, and he pointed south as north. He also said I would go to Bìng Province, and I answered saying I would return to Jīng Province, not Bìng Province. Slowly and slowly speaking with him, and when he took note, then he knew I would return to Jīng Province and that is all. He also wished to set up altar to send me off. We cannot abandon him, and should care for him.” Again he to Shuǎng and the rest shed tears and said: “The Grand Tutor’s illness cannot be relieved, it makes one grieve.”

〔二〕 魏末傳曰:爽等令勝辭宣王,并伺察焉。宣王見勝,勝自陳無他功勞,橫蒙特恩,當為本州,詣閤拜辭,不悟加恩,得蒙引見。宣王令兩婢侍邊,持衣,衣落;復上指口,言渴求飲,婢進粥,宣王持盃飲粥,粥皆流出沾胸。勝愍然,為之涕泣,謂宣王曰:「今主上尚幼,天下恃賴明公。然眾情謂明公方舊風疾發,何意尊體乃爾!」宣王徐更寬言,才令氣息相屬,說:「年老沈疾,死在旦夕。君當屈并州,并州近胡,好善為之,恐不復相見,如何!」勝曰:「當還忝本州,非并州也。」宣王乃復陽為昏謬,曰:「君方到并州,努力自愛!」錯亂其辭,狀如荒語。勝復曰:「當忝荊州,非并州也。」宣王乃若微悟者,謂勝曰:「懿年老,意荒忽,不解君言。今還為本州刺史,盛德壯烈,好建功勳。今當與君別,自顧氣力轉微,後必不更會,因欲自力,設薄主人,生死共別。令師、昭兄弟結君為友,不可相舍去,副懿區區之心。」因流涕哽咽。勝亦長嘆,答曰:「輒當承教,須待敕命。」勝辭出,與爽等相見,說:「太傅語言錯誤,口不攝杯,指南為北。又云吾當作并州,吾答言當還為荊州,非并州也。徐徐與語,有識人時,乃知當還為荊州耳。又欲設主人祖送。不可舍去,宜須待之。」更向爽等垂淚云:「太傅患不可復濟,令人愴然。」


Tenth Year [249] Standard Moon, the Imperial Chariot held Court at Gāopíng Tomb, and Shuǎng and his brothers all followed. (1) [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng commanded troops and horses, first occupying the Military Storage, then going out to garrison the Luò river pontoon bridge.

十年正月,車駕朝高平陵,爽兄弟皆從。〔一〕宣王部勒兵馬,先據武庫,遂出屯洛水浮橋。

  • (1) Shìyǔ states: Shuǎng and his brothers had previously repeatedly together gone out, Huán Fàn said: “In governing all affairs, managing Restricted Troops, it is not appropriate to together go out. If there is closing of the City Gates, who will let you in?” Shuǎng said: “Who dares do that?” But because of this they no longer together went. Reaching this then they [again] all went out.

〔一〕 世語曰:爽兄弟先是數俱出游,桓範謂曰:「總萬機,典禁兵,不宜並出,若有閉城門,誰復內入者?」爽曰:「誰敢爾邪!」由此不復並行。至是乃盡出也。

He memorialized about Shuǎng: “I your servant in the past from Liáodōng returned, and the Former Emperor [Cáo Ruì] had Imperial Order for Your Majesty and [your brother] the King of Qín and I your servant ascend to the Imperial bed, grabbed I your servant’s arm, deeply for later affairs worrying. I your servant said: ‘The Two Founders [Cáo Cāo, Cáo Pī] also entrusted I your servant with later affairs, this Your Majesty has personally seen, there is nothing to bitterly worry about; if ten thousand to one there is something not to your wishes, then I your servant will by death carry out your Enlightened Imperial Order.’ Yellow Gate Director Dǒng Jī and others, the Talent concubines and those attending the illness, all heard and know this. Now General-in-Chief Shuǎng turns back on the Mandate, destroying and disordering the state’s regulations, inside usurping Imperial prerogatives, outside seizing authority and power; breaking up the various Regiments, completely seizing the Restricted Troops, the various offices and critical posts, are all installed with those close to him; inside the Palace Hall the Night Guard, the long serving men were all expelled and sent out, wishing to install new people to establish his personal plans; based on these altogether, his indulgences daily became more extreme. Outside was already like this, and he also had Yellow Gate Zhāng Dāng serve as [Yellow Gate] Commander-Supervisor, to specially together communicate, to watch and observe the Utmost Honored, spy the Divine Vessels, split apart the Two Palaces, and harm their bone and flesh kin. The realm Under Heaven is tumultuous, the people harbor apprehension, Your Majesty is but dependent on them for position, how can you long be safe? This is not the Former Emperor’s Imperial Order to Your Majesty and I your servant to ascend to the bed’s original intention. Though I your servant am decayed in age, dare I forget those previous words? In the past Zhào Gāo had extreme intentions, and the Qín clan by this was destroyed; the Lǚ and Huò were early cut off, and Hàn’s reign lasted long. This then is for Your Majesty’s great reflection, the time for I your servant to receive command. Excellency Commandant your servant [Jiǎng] Jì, Secretariat Director your servant [Sīmǎ] Fú and others, all believe Shuǎng has no heart for his master, and his brothers should not command troops of the Night Guard, and have memorialized to Yǒngníng Palace. The Dowager-Empress’s Order to I your servant is like this memorial to be put into effect. I your servant at once order the managers and Yellow Gate Director to dismiss Shuǎng’s, Xī’s, and Xùn’s officials and troops, to as Marquis return to their mansions, to not remain about the Imperial Carriage; if they dare remain, then by Military Law deal with the matter. I your servant then strive over illness, to command troops to garrison Luò river’s pontoon bridge, to watch and observe anything out of the ordinary.” (2)

奏爽曰:「臣昔從遼東還,先帝詔陛下、秦王及臣升御床,把臣臂,深以後事為念。臣言『二祖亦屬臣以後事,(為念)此自陛下所見,無所憂苦;萬一有不如意,臣當以死奉明詔』。黃門令董箕等,才人侍疾者,皆所聞知。今大將軍爽背棄顧命,敗亂國典,內則僭擬,外專威權;破壞諸營,盡據禁兵,群官要職,皆置所親;殿中宿衛,歷世舊人皆復斥出,欲置新人以樹私計;根據槃互,縱恣日甚。外既如此,又以黃門張當為都監,專共交關,看察至尊,侯伺神器,離間二宮,傷害骨肉。天下洶洶,人懷危懼,陛下但為寄坐,豈得久安!此非先帝詔陛下及臣升御床之本意也。臣雖朽邁,敢忘枉言?昔趙高極意,秦氏以滅;呂、霍早斷,漢祚永世。此乃陛下之大鑒,臣受命之時也。太尉臣濟、尚書令臣孚等,皆以爽為有無君之心,兄弟不宜典兵宿衛,奏永寧宮。皇太后令敕臣如奏施行。臣輒敕主者及黃門令罷爽、羲、訓吏兵,以侯就第,不得逗留以稽車駕;敢有稽留,便以軍法從事。臣輒力疾,將兵屯洛水浮橋,伺察非常。」〔二〕

  • (2) Shìyǔ states: Previously, [Sīmǎ Yī] Xuān-wáng led troops from below the watchtower hurried to the Military Storage, passed Shuǎng’s gate, and someone forced the carriage to stop. Shuǎng’s wife Liú was afraid, went out to the office, and said to the banner men defending commander: “My husband is outside. Now troops have risen, what about that?” The commander said: “Madam do not worry.” Therefore then went up the gate tower, drew crossbows and arrows and wished to shoot. Officer Sūn Qiān from behind called them to stop saying: “The realm Under Heaven’s affairs cannot yet be know!” It was like this three times, and [Sīmǎ Yī] Xuān-wáng therefore was able to pass.

〔二〕 世語曰:初,宣王勒兵從闕下趨武庫,當爽門,人逼車住。爽妻劉怖,出至廳事,謂帳下守督曰:「公在外。今兵起,如何?」督曰:「夫人勿憂。」乃上門樓,引弩注箭欲發。將孫謙在後牽止之曰:「天下事未可知!」如此者三,宣王遂得過去。


Shuǎng obtained [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng‘s memorial of affairs, did not pass it on [to the Emperor], and was distressed and did not know what to do. (1)

爽得宣王奏事,不通,迫窘不知所為。〔一〕

  • (1) Gān Bǎo’s Jìnjì states: Shuǎng kept the Imperial Carriage lodged at the Yī river’s south, cut trees to make a barricade, and sent garrisoned armored troops of several thousand to serve as guard.
  • Wèimòzhuàn states: [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng said to his younger brother [Sīmǎ] Fù: “His Majesty is outside and cannot sleep outside, urgently send curtains and the Grand Office supplies to go where he is.”

〔一〕 干寶晉紀曰:爽留車駕宿伊水南,伐木為鹿角,發屯甲兵數千人以為衛。魏末傳曰:宣王語弟孚,陛下在外不可露宿,促送帳幔、太官食具詣行在所。

Minister of Agriculture Pèi state’s Huán Fàn heard troops had risen, did not answer the Dowager-Empress’s summon, claimed to have Imperial Order to open Píngchāng Gate, seizing swords and halberds, wiping out the Gate Captain, hurrying south to Shuǎng. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng knew this and said: “[Huán] Fàn draws strategy, Shuǎng certainly will not use [Huán] Fàn’s plan.”

大司農沛國桓範聞兵起,不應太后召,矯詔開平昌門,拔取劍戟,略將門候,南奔爽。宣王知,曰:「範畫策,爽必不能用範計。」

[Huán] Fàn advised Shuǎng to send the Imperial Carriage to Xǔchāng, and recruit outer troops. Shuǎng and his brothers hesitated and were undecided. [Huán] Fàn again said to [Cáo] Xī: “Today, if your family sought to be poor and lowly again could you obtain it? Even a common fellow grabs a hostage of one man, yet hoping to live, and now you with Heaven’s Son follow each other, if you give order to the realm Under Heaven, who dares not answer?” [Cáo] Xī still could not accept.

範說爽使車駕幸許昌,招外兵。爽兄弟猶豫未決,範重謂羲曰:「當今日,卿門戶求貧賤復可得乎?且匹夫持質一人,尚欲望活,今卿與天子相隨,令於天下,誰敢不應者?」羲猶不能納。

Attendant Internal Xǔ Yǔn, Secretariat Chén Tài advised Shuǎng, to early himself admit blame. Shuǎng therefore sent [Xǔ] Yǔn and [Chén] Tài to visit [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng, to accept blame and ask for death, and then conveyed [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng‘s memorial [to the Emperor]. (2)

侍中許允、尚書陳泰說爽,使早自歸罪。爽於是遣允、泰詣宣王,歸罪請死,乃通宣王奏事。〔二〕

  • (2) Gān Bǎo’s Jìnshū states: Huán Fàn went out to go to Shuǎng, [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng said to Jiǎng Jì: “The wisdom bag has gone.” [Jiǎng] Jì said: “Though [Huán] Fàn is wise, a weak horse loves its stable, Shuǎng certainly cannot employ him.”
  • Shìyǔ states: [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng sent Xǔ Yǔn and Chén Tài to explain and talk with Shuǎng, and Jiǎng Jì also sent letter to communicate [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng‘s intentions, and also sent Shuǎng’s trusted Palace Central Colonel Yǐn Dàmù to speak with Shuǎng, that he only wished to dismiss him from office and nothing more, by the Luò river swearing pledge. Shuǎng believed him, and dismissed troops.
  • Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Shuǎng had dismissed troops, and said: “I have not lost ability to be a wealthy old man.” [Huán] Fàn wept and said: “Cáo [Zhēn] Zǐdān was a great man, but begat you brothers, mere sacrificial calves! How could he have imagined that today that because of you all the clan would be exterminated!”

〔二〕 干寶晉書曰:桓範出赴爽,宣王謂蔣濟曰:「智囊往矣。」濟曰:「範則智矣,駑馬戀棧豆,爽必不能用也。」世語曰:宣王使許允、陳泰解語爽,蔣濟亦與書達宣王之旨,又使爽所信殿中校尉尹大目謂爽,唯免官而已,以洛水為誓。爽信之,罷兵。魏氏春秋曰:爽既罷兵,曰:「我不失作富家翁。」範哭曰:「曹子丹佳人,生汝兄弟,犢耳!何圖今日坐汝等族滅矣!」

Therefore they dismissed Shuǎng and his brothers, to as Marquis return to their mansions. (3)

遂免爽兄弟,以侯還第。〔三〕

  • (3) Wèimòzhuàn states: Shuǎng and his brothers returned home, and orders to Luòyáng county sent people of eight hundred, sending Commandant division to surround Shuǎng’s mansion’s four corners, at each corner build a high tower, ordering people atop to watch Shuǎng’s and his brothers’ movements. Shuǎng’s plans were destitute and he was gloomy, grasped crossbow and went into the Rear Garden, and atop the towers people then called out: “The Former General-in-Chief goes southeast!” Shuǎng returned to his office hall, with his brothers together discussed, not yet knowing what [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng‘s intentions really were, and composed a letter to [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng: “I the lowly Shuǎng am in grief and fright, by insolence provoked calamity, and should receive extermination. Previously I sent household people to seek provisions, and to now they have not returned, for several days we have been lacking, and dare trouble you for rations, to continue through the days and nights.” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng obtained the letter and was greatly alarmed, and promptly replied in letter: “Previously I did not know you lacked provisions, and deeply harbor apprehension. I have ordered to send rice of 100 hú [~2 kL], together with dried meat, salt fermented beans, and large soybeans.” It was quickly sent. Shuǎng and his brothers did not understand the changing situation, and were immediately pleased, saying they would not die.

〔三〕 魏末傳曰:爽兄弟歸家,敕洛陽縣發民八百人,使尉部圍爽第四角,角作高樓,令人在上望視爽兄弟舉動。爽計窮愁悶,持彈到後園中,樓上人便唱言「故大將軍東南行!」爽還廳事上,與兄弟共議,未知宣王意深淺,作書與宣王曰:「賤子爽哀惶恐怖,無狀招禍,分受屠滅,前遣家人迎糧,于今未反,數日乏匱,當煩見餉,以繼旦夕。」宣王得書大驚,即答書曰:「初不知乏糧,甚懷踧踖。令致米一百斛,并肉脯、鹽豉、大豆。」尋送。爽兄弟不達變數,即便喜歡,自謂不死。


Previously, Zhāng Dāng privately selected Talent concubines Zhāng and Hé and others for Shuǎng. They suspected his treachery, and arrested [Zhāng] Dāng to punish his crime. [Zhāng] Dāng explained that Shuǎng with [Hé] Yàn and the rest secretly plotted rebellion, and previously trained troops, waiting within three moons wishing to set out, and therefore they arrested [Hé] Yàn and the rest sent down to prison.

初,張當私以所擇才人張、何等與爽。疑其有姦,收當治罪。當陳爽與晏等陰謀反逆,並先習兵,須三月中欲發,於是收晏等下獄。

At the meeting of the Excellencies and Ministers and Court ministers for court discussion, they believed: “By the Chūnqiū‘s principles: ‘The ruler’s kin are not to be Generals, if Generals then they must be executed.’ Shuǎng is of a cadet branch, for generations was immersed in unique favor, personally received the Former Emperor’s hand posthumous Imperial Order, entrusted with the realm Under Heaven, but harbored disastrous heart, belittling and abandoning the Mandate, and then with [Hé] Yàn and [Dèng] Yáng and [Zhāng] Dāng and the rest plotted against the Divine Vessels, [Huán] Fàn was in their faction and also a criminal, and all were in Great Rebellion Without Principle.” Therefore they arrested Shuǎng, [Cáo] Xī, [Cáo] Xùn, [Hé] Yàn, [Dèng] Yáng, [Dīng] Mì, [Bì] Guī, [Lǐ] Shèng, [Huán] Fàn, [Zhāng] Dāng and others, all executed, clans exterminated to the third degree. (1)

會公卿朝臣廷議,以為「春秋之義,『君親無將,將而必誅』。爽以支屬,世蒙殊寵,親受先帝握手遺詔,託以天下,而包藏禍心,蔑棄顧命,乃與晏、颺及當等謀圖神器,範黨同罪人,皆為大逆不道」。於是收爽、羲、訓、晏、颺、謐、軌、勝、範、當等,皆伏誅,夷三族。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: Dèng Yáng appellation Xuánmào was Dèng Yǔ’s descendant. When young he obtained scholarly reputation in the capital. In Míng-dì‘s time he was Secretariat Cadet, sent out as Magistrate of Luòyáng, in connection to a matter was dismissed, appointed Central Cadet, and also entered as simultaneously Internal Documents Cadet. Previously, [Dèng] Yáng with Lǐ Shèng and others were pretentious friends, and were in the Internal Documents, were pretentious in matters, and were dismissed and sent out, and therefore not again employed. At Zhèngshǐ’s [240-248] beginning, he was then sent out as Administrator of Yǐngchuān, transferred to General-in-Chief’s Chief Clerk, promoted to Attendant Internal Secretariat. [Dèng] Yáng as a man liked money, and when previously was in inner office, permitted Zāng Ài to receive prominent office, and [Zāng] Ài gave his father’s concubine to [Dèng] Yáng, and therefore the capital of this said: “For office trade women to Dèng [Yáng] Xuánmào.” Every time he recommended someone who was approved, many were comparable to this. Therefore Hé Yàn in selections being unable to obtain people, was due to [Dèng] Yáng being unfair and disloyal, and therefore they were the same in punishment, all because their making of friends was improper.
  • Dīng Mì appellation Yànjìng. His father was [Dīng] Fěi appellation Wénhóu. Previously, [Dīng] Fěi followed Tàizǔ, and Tàizǔ because [Dīng] Fěi was of his hometown, was specially tolerant of and favored him. [Dīng] Fěi by nature liked wealth, repeatedly made requests that violated law, but always obtained forgiveness. He became Managing the Army Colonel, governing all inside and outside, at every proposal, mostly he was followed. At Jiàn’ān’s [196-220] end, he followed Tàizǔ in campaigning against Wú. [Dīng] Fěi accompanied in travel, and because his family’s oxen were lean and destitute, therefore privately exchanged them for government oxen, was by someone reported, and was arrested and sent to prison, his office seized. Later Tàizǔ asked [Dīng] Fěi: “Wénhóu, where is your seal and ribbon [of office]?” [Dīng] Fěi also knew he was being teased, and answered: “I exchanged it for pastry and that is all.” Tàizǔ laughed, and turned to speak to those around him: “East Department Official Máo [Jiè] repeatedly reported this family, wishing to have me heavily punish. It is not that I do not know this man is not pure, indeed that is so. I have [Dīng] Fěi, like others have a thieving dog yet good at catching rats. Though the thieving is a small loss, yet it protects my pocket’s stores.” Therefore he restored [Dīng] Fěi’s office, employing him as before. Later after several years, he was ill and died. [Dīng] Mì when young did not make friends, only extensively reading books and classics. As a man he was profound and resolute, and had ability and planning. During Tàihé [227-232], he once resided at Yè, borrowing someone’s empty house, living inside. But a [Cáo family] King also wished to borrow it, did not [Dīng] Mì had already obtained it, and directly opened the door and entered. [Dīng] Mì saw the King, kept legs crossed on the couch and did not rise, and called to his servants: “Who is this? Hurry and send him out.” The King was angry at his lack of respect, and returned to send up word. Míng-dì arrested [Dīng] Mì, bound him in Yè’s prison, but because he was a meritorious minister’s son, pardoned and let him out. Later the Emperor heard he had his father’s manner, and summoned and appointed him Degree Branch Cadet Internal. Cáo Shuǎng was generally close with him, at the time when Shuǎng was Martial Guard General, he repeatedly to the Emperor praised him as able to be greatly employed. It happened that the Emperor passed, Shuǎng assisted the government, and therefore selected [Dīng] Mì as Cavalier Regular Attendant, then transferred to Secretariat. [Dīng] Mì as a man outside appeared negligent, but inside had many worries. At the Terrace Cabinet, he repeatedly made impeachments, and those in the Terrace feared him, and matters could not be enacted. Also he thought little of nobility, many were by him ignored, and though he with Hé Yàn and Dèng Yáng and others were of the same rank, yet he belittled all of them, and only deferred to Shuǎng. Shuǎng also respected him, and of his advice none he did not follow. Therefore at the time there was slanderous letter that said: “In the terrace are three dogs, two dogs with viciousness that cannot be hidden, one dog relying on silence [Mò] becoming a poison pocket.” [Note: This rhymes.] The three dogs spoke of Hé [Yàn], Dèng [Yáng], Dīng [Mì]. Mò was Shuǎng’s childhood appellation. The meaning was to say the three dogs all wish to bite people, but [Dīng] Mì was the worst. The memorials sending Dowager-Empress Guō out to reside in separate palace, and sending the King of Lè’ān [Cáo Yǔ] north to Yè, and also sending Wén Qīn back to Huáinán, all were [Dīng] Mì’s plans. Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng because of this specially and deeply resented him.
  • Bì Guǐ appellation Zhāoxiān. His father appellation Zǐlǐ, during Jiàn’ān was Managing Agriculture Colonel. [Bì] Guǐ because of his talent and ability, when young had reputation. When Míng-dì was at the East Palace, Guǐ was a Literary Scholar. At Huángchū’s [220-226] end, he was sent out as Chief Clerk. When Míng-dì succeeded the throne, he entered as Yellow Gate Cadet, his son was bestowed a princess, and his residence was wealthy. He was promoted to Inspector of Bìng Province. At Bìng Province, he was called Arrogant Hero. At the time many northern barbarians repeatedly caused trouble, harming the officials and people, and [Bì] Guǐ at once sent out army to strike Xiānbēi Kēbǐnéng,  and was defeated. Central Protector of the Army Jiǎng Jì memorialized: “Bì Guǐ’s former loss, is already done and cannot be undone, but one fears afterward it could happen again. People’s aptitudes have their strengths and weaknesses, which cannot be forcefully changed. [Bì] Guǐ has civil elegance and ambition, and this is his good attribute. Now he has lost in Bìng Province, can be moved to another province, and if he enter [the capital] to occupy prominent position, it will not damage his virtue, and for the state would truly be good. This is the critical for safety or danger, and may your Sagely Grace investigate this.” Reaching Zhēngshǐ, he entered as Central Protector of the Army, transferred to Attendant Internal Secretariat, promoted to Colonel Director of Retainers. By nature he was with Cáo Shuǎng friendly, and each time he advised Shuǎng, he was mostly followed.
  • Lǐ Shèng appellation Gōngzhāo. His father [Lǐ] Xiū appellation Zǐlǎng, had wisdom and planning. Zhāng Lǔ previously was General Defending North, [Lǐ] Xiū was his Major, his family at Nánzhèng. At the time Hànzhōng had sweet dew fall, [Lǐ Xiū] Zǐlǎng observed Zhāng Lǔ had elite troops of several tens of thousand men, had four sides of solid defenses, and therefore declared that the Red Aura [of Hàn] had for a long time declined, the Yellow House would soon rise, and wished to have [Zhāng] Lǔ claim title, but [Zhāng] Lǔ would not listen. It happened that [Zhāng] Lǔ was defeated, and Tàizǔ because he had advised [Zhāng] Lǔ to inward submit, bestowed rank as Marquis Within the Passes, installed Scattered Office Cavalier Follower, moved him to Yè. Reaching Huángchū [220-226], he served successively in Shàngdǎng and Jùlù two prefectures as Administrator, later because of age returned, appointed Consultant Cadet. [Lǐ] Shèng when young traveled about the capital, elegant with ability and wisdom, and with Cáo Shuǎng was friendly. Míng-dì banned the pretentious, and someone reported [Lǐ] Shèng’s party had the Four Clevers [Xiàhóu Xuán etc.] and Eight Eminents [Zhūgě Dàn etc.], each with reputation. Using this he was arrested, but because those joined with him were many, therefore he obtained pardon, prohibited [from office] for several years. The Emperor passed, Cáo Shuǎng assisted the government, and [Lǐ] Shèng became Magistrate of Luòyáng. Xiàhóu Xuán became General Campainging West, and appointed [Lǐ] Shèng his Chief Clerk. [Xiàhóu] Xuán also with [Lǐ] Shèng was generous. The Luò valley campaign, was suggested by [Lǐ] Shèng in setting out, and because of this Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng was displeased with [Lǐ] Shèng. He successively was promoted to Adminsitrator of Xíngyáng, Intendant of Hénán. [Lǐ] Shèng from beginning to end as an Adminsitrator, not once was not equal to the task. He was Intendant for over a year, the Office Hall’s front room broke, and he ordered someone to again repair it, a small wodden bean suddenly fell, exactly hitting the office stone tiger statue’s head, breaking it. After ten days, he was promoted to Inspector of Jīng province, but had not reached this office and was destroyed.
  • Huán Fàn appellation Yuánzé, was of a for generations powerful clan. At Jiàn’ān’s end, he entered the Chancellor’s Office. During Yánkāng [220], he became Feather Forest Left Supervisor. As he had literary scholarship, he with Wáng Xiàng and others managed the compilation of the Huánglǎn. In Míng-dì‘s time he was Central Manager of the Army Secretariat, promoted to General Campaigning Caitiffs and East Internal Cadet General, Envoy Wielding Staff as Commander over Qīng’s and Xú’s various Military affairs, with headquarters at Xiàpī. He with the Inspector of Xú Province Zhèng Qí fought over residence, and drew Staff wishing to behead [Zhèng] Qí, was by [Zhèng] Qí memorialized, was considered improper, and due to the matter he was dismissed and returned. He again became Inspector of Yǎn Province, was discontent and could not obtain his intentions. He also heard he would be transferred to Governor of Jì Province. At the time Jì Province was subordinate to the Defending North, and the Defending North General Lǚ Zhāo for talent and honesty was appointed and advanced, and originally had been after [Huán] Fàn. [Huán] Fàn said to his wife Zhòngcháng: “I could be of the [Nine] Ministers, and to the Three Excellencies kneel and that is all. I cannot to Lǚ Zǐzhǎn bow.” His wife said: “You previously were in the east, and because you wished to without authority behead the Inspector of Xú Province, everyone said it was difficult to be your subordinate. Now you are shamed to bow to Lǚ, this is also being difficult to be your superior.” [Huán] Fàn was angry her words were touching and true, and therefore with a saber pommel struck her abdomen. His wife at the time was pregnant, and therefore miscarried and died. [Huán] Fàn also indeed claimed illness, and would not go to Jì Province. During Zhèngshǐ he was appointed Minister of Agriculture. [Huán] Fàn previously was at the Terrace Cabinet, and was praised for making matters known, and as Minister of Agriculture, he also for purity and frugality was praised. [Huán] Fàn once copied out from the Hànshū various miscellaneous things, following his own deliberations, naming it Shìyào Lùn. Jiǎng Jì was Excellency Commandant, and once with [Huán] Fàn met below the Altars, the various Ministers lined and seated were several men, [Huán] Fàn in his bosom had his compilation, wished to show it to [Jiǎng] Jì, saying that [Jiǎng] Jì with open mind would read it. [Huán] Fàn took out his book to show to those around, and those around passed it to show [Jiǎng] Jì, but [Jiǎng] Jì would not read it, and [Huán] Fàn in his heart resented this. Therefore while discussing other matters, he became angry and said to [Jiǎng] Jì: “My ancestors were of meager virtue, how could they be like Your Excellency’s sort?” Although [Jiǎng] Jì by nature was firm and resolute, he also knew that [Huán] Fàn was stubborn and resolute, looked askance and did not answer, and each departed. When [Huán] Fàn was in Pèi prefecture, his official rank was next after Cáo Zhēn. At the time when Cáo Shuǎng assisted the government, because [Huán] Fàn was a long resident of the same hometown, from among the Nine Ministers specially respected him, but they were not very close. When [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng raised troops, closing the city gates, because [Huán] Fàn understood affairs, therefore summoned him, wishing to appoint him Central Manager of the Army. [Huán] Fàn wished to answer the summons, but his sons remonstrated him, that because the Imperial Chariot was outside, it was not as good as going out south [to join the Emperor]. [Huán] Fàn hesitated a while, and his son again hurried him. [Huán] Fàn wished to go but the Ministry of Agriculture Assistant and officials all stopped [Huán] Fàn. [Huán] Fàn would not agree, and therefore hurried out to Píngchāng city gate, but the city gate was already closed. The Gate Captain Sī Fán was formerly [Huán] Fàn’s nominated official, [Huán] Fàn called to him, raising in his hand block to show him, and pretending said: “There is Imperial Order summoning me, you quickly open the gate!” [Sī] Fán wished and asked to see the Imperial Order’s writing, but [Huán] Fàn shouted at him, saying: “Are you not my former official? How dare you?” Therefore he opened it. [Huán] Fàn went out of the city, and turned back and said to [Sī] Fán: “The Grand Tutor plots rebellion, you should follow me and go!” [Sī] Fán on foot went but could not catch up, and so hid to the side. [Huán] Fàn to the south met Shuǎng, and urged Shuǎng and his brothers to take Heaven’s Son to Xǔchāng, and summon help across the Four Quarters to support themselves. Shuǎng hesitated, and [Cáo] Xī also had nothing to say. [Huán] Fàn himself said to [Cáo] Xī: “The situation is already clear, what use was your study of books for? Was it to today for your household to collapse!” All did not speak. [Huán] Fàn again said to [Cáo] Xī: “Your Separate Regiment is near the watchtower’s south, Luòyáng’s Managing Agriculture headquarters is outside the city, summon them to your cause. Now going to Xǔchāng, will not take more than one night [i.e. two days journey], and Xǔchāng’s separate [military] storehouses, are sufficient to prepare resistance. The only concern is grain and provisions, but the Minister of Agriculture insignia is with me.” [Cáo] Xī and his brothers were silent and did not follow. Into the night until the fifth beat, Shuǎng then threw his saber to the ground, saying to his followers: “I judge the Grand Tutor’s intentions, is also not more than wishing to have us brothers submit to him. I alone am in discord with the far and near and that is all!” Therefore he advanced to say to the Emperor: “Your Majesty should compose Imperial Order dismissing I your servant from office, and answer the Dowager Empress’s Order.” [Huán] Fàn knew Shuǎng had dismissed himself, but he [Huán Fàn] would certainly be implicated for giving his advice. [Huán] Fàn therefore said: “Today I because of you brothers will have my clan exterminated!” Shuǎng and the rest were dismissed, the Emperor returned to the palace, and therefore ordered [Huán] Fàn to accompany. He arrived at Luò river pontoon bridge’s north, saw [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng, and dismounted the carriage and knocked head [on the ground] and said nothing. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng called [Huán] Fàn by surname: “Grandee Huán, what were you doing?” The Imperial Chariot entered the Palace, and Imperial Order had [Huán] Fàn restored to his previous position. [Huán] Fàn went to the watchtower to memorialize apologies, and waited for reply. It happened that Sī Fán visited the Minister Herald to give himself up, and also reported how [Huán] Fàn had previously gotten out. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng therefore furiously said: “Falsely accusing someone of rebellion, by the law what is the response?” The manager said: “By the law, the same punishment as for rebellion.” Therefore they arrested [Huán] Fàn below the watchtower. At the time the people seizing [Huán] Fàn were very hurried, and [Huán] Fàn said to the officials: “Slow down, I also am a righteous man and that is all.” Therefore he was sent to the Minister of Justice.
  • Shìyǔ states: Previously, Shuǎng dreamed of two tigers biting the Thunder Lord [deity], the Thunder Lord like a two shēng bowl, placed in the courtyard. Shuǎng hated this, and asked of this to a diviner, and Spirit Terrace Assistant Mǎ Xún said: “Fear troops.” [Mǎ] Xún withdrew, and told his wife: “Shuǎng will by troops be destroyed, in not more than ten days.”
  • Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Āndìng’s Huángfǔ Mì in [Zhèngshǐ] Ninth Year [248] Winter dreamed he reached Luòyáng, from the Temple went out, seeing chariots and cavalry of very many, with people presenting things to the Temple and saying: “Execute General-in-chief Cáo Shuǎng.” He awoke and reported this to his townspeople, and the townspeople said: “You wish to be like the Cáo [state] man who dreamed [of the future destruction of Cáo state]. But the Court has no Gōngsūn Qiáng so what of it? Moreover Shuǎng and his brothers command powerful troops, and also have power over Secretariat affairs, so who dares plot against them?” [Huángfǔ] Mì said: “Shuǎng does not have Shūzhènduó’s invitation [of Gōngsūn Qiáng], if he loses Heaven’s critical ways then he is lost, why depend on a [Gōngsūn] Qiáng? In the past, Hàn’s Yán Xiǎn, relied on [his younger sister] the Dowager Empress’s honor, to have power and authority over the state, and could be said to have reached utmost severity, but nineteen eunuchs in one morning made him a corpse, so all the more for Shuǎng and his brothers.”
  • Shìyǔ states: Previously, Shuǎng went out, his Major Lǔ Zhī remained at the office, heard there was a situation, and commanded his camp cavalry to chop through the gate to go out and join Shuǎng. Shuǎng was executed, and he was selected to Censorate Internal Assistant. When Shuǎng gave up his seal and ribbon, and was about to go out, Registrar Yáng Zōng stooped him and said: “Your Excellency holds the Ruler and grasps power, why give it up like this and go to the East Market [for punishment]?” Shuǎng did not listen. Manages memorialized [Yáng] Zōng urged Shuǎng to rebellion, but [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng said: “Each has their master,” spared him, and appointed him Secretariat Cadet. [Lǔ] Zhī appellation Shìyīng was a Fúfēng man. Later his position advanced to Specially Advanced Merit Grandee. [Yáng] Zōng appellation Chūbó, later became General Calming East Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng’s Chief Clerk.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: Xiàhóu Zhàn’s inscription for [Lǔ] Zhī and Gān Bǎo’s Jìnjì both say when Shuǎng was executed, [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng then selected [Lǔ] Zhī as Inspector of Bìng Province, and [Yáng] Zōng was a Advisor to the Army Securing East. They with the Shìyǔ are not the same.

〔一〕 魏略曰:鄧颺字玄茂,鄧禹後也。少得士名於京師。明帝時為尚書郎,除洛陽令,坐事免,拜中郎,又入兼中書郎。初,颺與李勝等為浮華友,及在中書,浮華事發,被斥出,遂不復用。正始初,乃出為潁川太守,轉大將軍長史,遷侍中尚書。颺為人好貨,前在內職,許臧艾授以顯官,艾以父妾與颺,故京師為之語曰:「以官易婦鄧玄茂。」每所薦達,多如此比。故何晏選舉不得人,頗由颺之不公忠,遂同其罪,蓋由交友非其才。丁謐,字彥靖。父斐,字文侯。初,斐隨太祖,太祖以斐鄉里,特饒愛之。斐性好貨,數請求犯法,輒得原宥。為典軍校尉,總攝內外,每所陳說,多見從之。建安末,從太祖征吳。斐隨行,自以家牛羸困,乃私易官牛,為人所白,被收送獄,奪官。其後太祖問斐曰:「文侯,印綬所在?」斐亦知見戲,對曰:「以易餅耳。」太祖笑,顧謂左右曰:「東曹毛掾數白此家,欲令我重治,我非不知此人不清,良有以也。我之有斐,譬如人家有盜狗而善捕鼠,盜雖有小損,而完我囊貯。」遂復斐官,聽用如初。後數歲,病亡。謐少不肯交游,但博觀書傳。為人沈毅,頗有才略。太和中,常住鄴,借人空屋,居其中。而諸王亦欲借之,不知謐已得,直開門入。謐望見王,交腳臥而不起,而呼其奴客曰:「此何等人?促呵使去。」王怒其無禮,還具上言。明帝收謐,繫鄴獄,以其功臣子,原出。後帝聞其有父風,召拜度支郎中。曹爽宿與相親,時爽為武衛將軍,數為帝稱其可大用。會帝崩,爽輔政,乃拔謐為散騎常侍,遂轉尚書。謐為人外似疏略,而內多忌。其在臺閣,數有所彈駮,臺中患之,事不得行。又其意輕貴,多所忽略,雖與何晏、鄧颺等同位,而皆少之,唯以勢屈於爽。爽亦敬之,言無不從。故于時謗書,謂「臺中有三狗,二狗崖柴不可當,一狗憑默作疽囊。」三狗,謂何、鄧、丁也。默者,爽小字也。其意言三狗皆欲嚙人,而謐尤甚也。奏使郭太后出居別宮,及遣樂安王使北詣鄴,又遣文欽令還淮南,皆謐之計。司馬宣王由是特深恨之。畢軌,字昭先。父字子禮,建安中為典農校尉。軌以才能,少有名聲。明帝在東宮時,軌在文學中。黃初末,出為長史。明帝即位,入為黃門郎,子尚公主,居處殷富。遷并州刺史。其在并州,名為驕豪。時雜虜數為暴,害吏民,軌輒出軍擊鮮卑軻比能,失利。中護軍蔣濟表曰:「畢軌前失,既往不咎,但恐是後難可以再。凡人材有長短,不可彊成。軌文雅志意,自為美器。今失并州,換置他州,若入居顯職,不毀其德,於國事實善。此安危之要,唯聖恩察之。」至正始中,入為中護軍,轉侍中尚書,遷司隸校尉。素與曹爽善,每言於爽,多見從之。李勝字公昭。父休字子朗,有智略。張魯前為鎮北將軍,休為司馬,家南鄭。時漢中有甘露降,子朗見張魯精兵數萬人,有四塞之固,遂建言赤氣久衰,黃家當興,欲魯舉號,魯不聽。會魯破,太祖以其勸魯內附,賜爵關內侯,署散官騎從,詣鄴。至黃初中,仕歷上黨、鉅鹿二郡太守,後以年老還,拜議郎。勝少游京師,雅有才智,與曹爽善。明帝禁浮華,而人白勝堂有四窗八達,各有主名。用是被收,以其所連引者多,故得原,禁錮數歲。帝崩,曹爽輔政,勝為洛陽令。夏侯玄為征西將軍,以勝為長史。玄亦宿與勝厚。駱谷之役,議從勝出,由是司馬宣王不悅於勝。累遷滎陽太守、河南尹。勝前後所宰守,未嘗不稱職,為尹歲餘,廳事前屠蘇壞,令人更治之,小材一枚激墮,正撾受符吏石虎頭,斷之。後旬日,遷為荊州刺史,未及之官而敗也。桓範字元則,世為冠族。建安末,入丞相府。延康中,為羽林左監。以有文學,與王象等典集皇覽。明帝時為中領軍尚書,遷征虜將軍、東中郎將,使持節都督青、徐諸軍事,治下邳。與徐州刺史鄭岐爭屋,引節欲斬岐,為岐所奏,不直,坐免還。復為兗州刺吏,怏怏不得意。又聞當轉為冀州牧。是時冀州統屬鎮北,而鎮北將軍呂昭才實仕進,本在範後。範謂其妻仲長曰:「我寧作諸卿,向三公長跪耳,不能為呂子展屈也。」其妻曰:「君前在東,坐欲擅斬徐州刺史,眾人謂君難為作下,今復羞為呂屈,是復難為作上也。」範忿其言觸實,乃以刀環撞其腹。妻時懷孕,遂墮胎死。範亦竟稱疾,不赴冀州。正始中拜大司農。範前在臺閣,號為曉事,及為司農,又以清省稱。範嘗抄撮漢書中諸雜事,自以意斟酌之,名曰世要論。蔣濟為太尉,嘗與範會社下,群卿列坐有數人,範懷其所撰,欲以示濟,謂濟當虛心觀之。範出其書以示左右,左右傳之示濟,濟不肯視,範心恨之。因論他事,乃發怒謂濟曰:「我祖薄德,公輩何似邪?」濟性雖彊毅,亦知範剛毅,睨而不應,各罷。範於沛郡,仕次在曹真後。于時曹爽輔政,以範鄉里老宿,於九卿中特敬之,然不甚親也。及宣王起兵,閉城門,以範為曉事,乃指召之,欲使領中領軍。範欲應召,而其子諫之,以車駕在外,不如南出。範疑有頃,兒又促之。範欲去而司農丞吏皆止範。範不從,乃突出至平昌城門,城門已閉。門候司蕃,故範舉吏也,範呼之,舉手中版以示之,矯曰:「有詔召我,卿促開門!」蕃欲求見詔書,範呵之,言「卿非我故吏邪,何以敢爾?」乃開之。範出城,顧謂蕃曰:「太傅圖逆,卿從我去!」蕃徒行不能及,遂避側。範南見爽,勸爽兄弟以天子詣許昌,徵四方以自輔。爽疑,羲又無言。範自謂羲曰:「事昭然,卿用讀書何為邪!於今日卿等門戶倒矣!」俱不言。範又謂羲曰:「卿別營近在闕南,洛陽典農治在城外,呼召如意。今詣許昌,不過中宿,許昌別庫,足相被假;所憂當在穀食,而大司農印章在我身。」羲兄弟默然不從,中夜至五鼓,爽乃投刀于地,謂諸從駕群臣曰:「我度太傅意,亦不過欲令我兄弟向己也。我獨有以不合于遠近耳!」遂進謂帝曰:「陛下作詔免臣官,報皇太后令。」範知爽首免而己必坐唱義也。範乃曰:「老子今茲坐卿兄弟族矣!」爽等既免,帝還宮,遂令範隨從。到洛水浮橋北,望見宣王,下車叩頭而無言。宣王呼範姓曰:「桓大夫何為爾邪!」車駕入宮,有詔範還復位。範詣闕拜章謝,待報。會司蕃詣鴻臚自首,具說範前臨出所道。宣王乃忿然曰:「誣人以反,於法何應?」主者曰:「科律,反受其罪。」乃收範於闕下。時人持範甚急,範謂部官曰:「徐之,我亦義士耳。」遂送廷尉。世語曰:初,爽夢二虎銜雷公,雷公若二升碗,放著庭中。爽惡之,以問占者,靈臺丞馬訓曰:「憂兵。」訓退,告其妻曰:「爽將以兵亡,不出旬日。」漢晉春秋曰:安定皇甫謐以九年冬夢至洛陽,自廟出,見車騎甚眾,以物呈廟云:「誅大將軍曹爽。」寤而以告其邑人,邑人曰:「君欲作曹人之夢乎!朝無公孫彊如何?且爽兄弟典重兵,又權尚書事,誰敢謀之?」謐曰:「爽無叔振鐸之請,苟失天機則離矣,何恃于彊?昔漢之閻顯,倚母后之尊,權國威命,可謂至重矣,閹人十九人一旦尸之,況爽兄弟乎?」世語曰:初,爽出,司馬魯芝留在府,聞有事,將營騎斫津門出赴爽。爽誅,擢為御史中丞。及爽解印綬,將出,主簿楊綜止之曰:「公挾主握灌,捨此以至東巿乎?」爽不從。有司奏綜導爽反,宣王曰:「各為其主也。」宥之,以為尚書郎。芝字世英,扶風人也。以後仕進至特進光祿大夫。綜字初伯,後為安東將軍司馬文王長史。臣松之案:夏侯湛為芝銘及干寶晉紀並云爽既誅,宣王即擢芝為并州刺史,以綜為安東參軍。與世語不同。

During Jiàpíng, to continue a meritorious minister’s succession, fief was given on [Cáo] Zhēn’s cousin’s grandson [Cáo] Xī as Xīnchāng precinct marquis, fief of 300 households, to serve as [Cáo] Zhēn’s descendants. (2)

嘉平中,紹功臣世,封真族孫熙為新昌亭侯,邑三百戶,以奉真後。〔二〕

  • (2) Gān Bǎo’s Jìnjì states: Jiǎng Jì believed Cáo Zhēn had achievement and ability, and it was not appropriate to cut off sacrifices, and therefore had [Cáo] Xī [note: Cáo Zhēn’s cousin’s grandson 熙, not his son 羲] be his descendant. [Jiǎng] Jì also resented that his words had broken promise to Shuǎng, and fell ill and died.

〔二〕 干寶晉紀曰:蔣濟以曹真之勳力,不宜絕祀,故以熙為後。濟又病其言之失信于爽,發病卒。


[Hé] Yàn was Hé Jìn’s grandson. His mother lady Yǐn became Tàizǔ‘s consort. [Hé] Yàn grew up in the palaces, was also bestowed with a princess, and when young for his exceptional talent was well known. He liked Lǎo’s and Zhuǎng’s teachings, and composed Dàodé Lùn and various literature and rhapsodies and writings altogether ten piān. (1)

晏,何進孫也。母尹氏,為太祖夫人。晏長于宮省,又尚公主,少以才秀知名,好老莊言,作道德論及諸文賦著述凡數十篇。〔一〕

  • [Hé] Yàn appellation Píngshū
  • Wèilüè states: At the time Tàizǔ was Excellency of Works, he accepted as concubine [Hé] Yàn’s mother and also adopted [Hé] Yàn. At this time Qín Yílù’s son Ā’sū also accompanied his mother to the Excellency’s house, and both met with favor like the Excellency’s sons. Sū was [Qín] Lǎng. Sū by nature was cautious and prudent, but [Hé] Yàn had nothing he feared, his clothes and adornments imitated the Heir-Apparent’s, and therefore Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] specially detested him, always not calling his surname and appellation, always calling him ‘False son.’ [Hé] Yàn was bestowed with princess, and also was lecherous, and therefore during Huángchū’s [220-226] time he had no appointment. When Míng-dì was enthroned, he was sidelined in superfluous offices. Reaching Zhèngshǐ’s beginning, he attached to Cáo Shuǎng, and also because he had talent and ability, therefore Shuǎng employed him as Cavalier Attendant Cadet, promoted to Attendant Internal Secretariat. [Hé] Yàn previousy was bestowed with princess, obtained noble rank as a Ranked Marquis, and also his mother was in the Inner court, and so [Hé] Yàn by nature cared for his own pleasure, in all activities white cosmetic powder did not leave his hands, when walking he looked back at his shadow. [Hé] Yàn became Secretariat, managed selections and promotions, and of those he was close to for a long time, many were selected for promotion.
  • Wèimòzhuàn states: [Hé] Yàn’s wife the princess of Jīnxiāng, was [Hé] Yàn’s younger sister of the same mother. The princess was virtuous, and said to her mother the King of Pèi’s Dowager: “[Hé] Yàn’s wrongs daily increase, how can he protect himself?” Her mother laughed and said: “Isn’t it that you envy [Hé] Yàn?” Very soon [Hé] Yàn died. They had one son, five to six years, and [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng sent someone to seize him. [Hé] Yàn’s mother hid the son in the King’s Palace, to the envoy beat her own cheeks, begging to spare his life. The envoy reported everything to [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng also heard [Hé] Yàn’s wife had made prescient words, and his heart was secretly impressed with them; moreover for the King of Pèi, he specially spared and did not kill.
  • Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Previously, Xiàhóu Xuán, Hé Yàn and others had reputation flourishing at the time, and Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng also was among them. [Hé] Yàn once said: “Thinking with depth, and therefore able to reach the realm Under Heaven’s will, Xiàhóu [Xuán] Tàichū is that. Thinking with precision, and therefore able to accomplish the realm Under Heaven’s affairs, Sīmǎ [Shī] Zǐyuán is that. Thinking with spirituality, to not be swift but be fast, to not go but arrive, I have heard of such, but have not yet seen such a man.” Overall he wished to use spirits to compare to himself. Previously, [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng had [Hé] Yàn participate in judging the case against Shuǎng and the rest. [Hé] Yàn harshly judged the group, hoping to obtain pardon. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng said: “Altogther there are eight clans.” [Hé] Yàn listed Dīng and Dèng and the rest of seven surnames. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng said: “You are not finished.” [Hé] Yàn was thoroughly anxious, and therefore said: “Are you speaking of me?” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng: “Yes.” Therefore they arrested [Hé] Yàn.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: Wèimòzhuàn says that [Hé] Yàn took his own younger sister of the same mother as wife, this is something gentlemen could not bear to speak of. Even the King of Chǔ taking his sister-in-law as wife, was very inappropriate already. Supposing such words came from old histories, yet none should automatically believe, so all the more for such inferior history books [as Wèimòzhuàn]. According to the biographies of the Kings and Dukes [SGZ 20], the King of Pèi was by lady Dù. [Hé] Yàn’s mother was surnamed Yǐn. If the princess was with the King of Pèi of the same womb, how could it be said she and [Hé] Yàn had the same mother?
  • Huángfǔ Mì’s Liènǜzhuàn states: Shuǎng’s younger cousin [Cáo] Wénshū, took as wife Pèi prefecture‘s Xiàhóu Wénníng’s daughter, named Lìngnǚ. [Cáo] Wénshū died young, and after the mourning, because she was young and had no sons, was afraid her family would certainly marry her off, and therefore cut her hair as pledge. After this, her family indeed wished to marry her off, Lìngnǚ heard, and at once again with knife cut her two ears, and in her regular life she depended on Shuǎng. When Shuǎng was executed, the Cáo clan was completely dead. Lìngnǚ’s father’s younger brother sent up letter that the marriage connection to Cáo clan was cut, and forced Lìngnǚ to return. At the time [Xiàhóu] Wénníng was Chancellor of Liáng, pited that she was young but maintained integrity, and also because the Cáo clan had none remaining, hoped her intentions would stop, and therefore secretly sent someone to persuade her. Lìngnǚ sighed and wept and said: “I also agree with it, and will permit it.” Her family believed this, and let their guard of her decrease a little. Lìngnǚ therefore secretly entered the room, with a knife cut off her nose, covered with blanket and lied down. Her mother called her to speak, she did not answer, removed the blanket and looked at her, the blood had flowed and filled the bed. The family was alarmed, and hurried to go look at her, and none did not grieve. Someone said to her: “A person’s life in the world, is like light dust on weak grass and that is all, why be in such hardship? Moreover your husband’s family is exterminated completely, maintaining this is for whose sake?” Lìngnǚ said: “One hears the benevolent do not by flourishing or decline change integrity, the righteous do not by survival or destruction change heart. At the time when the Cáo clan previously flourished, yet I wished to protect to the end, so all the more now at their decline and fall, how can I bear to abandon them! That is the conduct of beasts. Could I be that?” Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng heard and praised this, and listened to and permitted her plea for a son to adopt, to be the Cáo clan’s descendant, with reputation know through the world.

〔一〕 晏字平叔。魏略曰:「太祖為司空時,納晏母并收養晏,其時秦宜祿兒阿蘇亦隨母在公家,並見寵如公子。蘇即朗也。蘇性謹慎,而晏無所顧憚,服飾擬於太子,故文帝特憎之,每不呼其姓字,嘗謂之為「假子」。晏尚主,又好色,故黃初時無所事任。及明帝立,頗為冗官。至正始初,曲合于曹爽,亦以才能,故爽用為散騎侍郎,遷侍中尚書。晏前以尚主,得賜爵為列侯,又其母在內,晏性自喜,動靜粉白不去手,行步顧影。晏為尚書,主選舉,其宿與之有舊者,多被拔擢。魏末傳曰:晏婦金鄉公主,即晏同母妹。公主賢,謂其母沛王太妃曰:「晏為惡日甚,將何保身?」母笑曰:「汝得無妒晏邪!」俄而晏死。有一男,年五六歲,宣王遣人錄之。晏母歸藏其子王宮中,向使者搏頰,乞白活之,使者具以白宣王。宣王亦聞晏婦有先見之言,心常嘉之;且為沛王故,特原不殺。魏氏春秋曰:初,夏侯玄、何晏等名盛於時,司馬景王亦預焉。晏嘗曰:「唯深也,故能通天下之志,夏侯泰初是也;唯幾也,故能成天下之務,司馬子元是也;惟神也,不疾而速,不行而至,吾聞其語,未見其人。」蓋欲以神況諸己也。初,宣王使晏與治爽等獄。晏窮治黨與,冀以獲宥。宣王曰:「凡有八族。」晏疏丁、鄧等七姓。宣王曰:「未也。」晏窮急,乃曰:「豈謂晏乎!」宣王曰:「是也。」乃收晏。臣松之案:魏末傳云晏取其同母妹為妻,此搢紳所不忍言,雖楚王之妻(嫂)〔媦〕,不是甚也已。設令此言出于舊史,猶將莫之或信,況底下之書乎!案諸王公傳,沛王出自杜夫人所生。晏母姓尹,公主若與沛王同生,焉得言與晏同母?皇甫謐列女傳曰:爽從弟文叔,妻譙郡夏侯文寧之女,名令女。文叔早死,服闋,自以年少無子,恐家必嫁己,乃斷髮以為信。其後,家果欲嫁之,令女聞,即復以刀截兩耳,居止常依爽。及爽被誅,曹氏盡死。令女叔父上書與曹氏絕婚,彊迎令女歸。時文寧為梁相,憐其少,執義,又曹氏無遺類,冀其意沮,迺微使人諷之。令女歎且泣曰:「吾亦惟之,許之是也。」家以為信,防之少懈。令女於是竊入寢室,以刀斷鼻,蒙被而臥。其母呼與語,不應,發被視之,血流滿床席。舉家驚惶,奔往視之,莫不酸鼻。或謂之曰:「人生世間,如輕塵棲弱草耳,何至辛苦迺爾!且夫家夷滅已盡,守此欲誰為哉?」令女曰:「聞仁者不以盛衰改節,義者不以存亡易心,曹氏前盛之時,尚欲保終,況今衰亡,何忍棄之!禽獸之行,吾豈為乎?」司馬宣王聞而嘉之,聽使乞子字養,為曹氏後,名顯于世。

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