Zhào Yù 趙昱 [Yuándá 元達]
Táo Qiān appellation Gōngzǔ was a Dānyáng man. (1)
- (1) Wúshū states: Qiān’s father was a former Yúyáo Chief. Qiān when young was orphaned, and at first for his lack of restraint was heard of in his county. At fourteen years, he sewed together silk into a banner, rode a bamboo horse and played, and the village children all followed him. Former Administrator of Cāngwú Gān Gōng of the same county went out and encountered him on the road, saw his appearance, was impressed and called to him, stopped his chariot to converse, was deeply pleased, and therefore agreed to give a daughter in marriage. Gān Gōng’s wife heard of this, and angrily said: “I hear that Táo family’s boy plays around without restraint. How could you give a daughter to him?” Gān Gōng said: “He has special appearance, and when grown will certainly have great achievement.” Therefore he arranged the marriage.
From youth he was good at his studies, became a scholar, served in province and prefecture, was nominated as an Abundant Talent candidate, and sent out as Magistrate of Lú. (2)
- (2) Wúshū states: Qiān by nature was rigid and upright, had great moral character, when young was examined as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate, appointed Secretariat Cadet, sent out as Magistrate of Shū. The prefecture Administrator Zhāng Pán was of same prefecture of a senior generation, and with Qiān’s father was friends, and thought he was very close with him, but Qiān was ashamed to be his subordinate. With his crowds he returned to the city, because of public affairs came forward to meet, and after the meeting, [Zhāng] Pán always privately went back to with Qiān drink and feast, but sometimes [Táo Qiān] would refuse and not stay. [Zhāng Pán] always encouraged Qiān to dance, but Qiān would not rise, and therefore he forced him. At the dance, he also would not spin. [Zhāng] Pán said: “Why do you not spin?” [Táo Qiān] said: “I cannot spin. To spin is to then surpass others.” Because of this he was not happy, and in the end, they became estranged. Qiān as an official was honest and pure, had no entangled dealings in nominations. In sacrifices for spirits and stars, there was surplus money, and [Zhāng Pán] wished to hide it. Qiān resigned his office and left.
He was promoted to Inspector of Yōu Province, summoned and appointed Consultant Cadet and Advisor to General of Chariots and Cavalry Zhāng Wēn’s military affairs, in the west suppressing Hán Suì. (3)
- (3) Wúshū states: At the time the western Qiáng plundered the borders, Huángfǔ Sōng became General Campaigning West, and memorialized to invite him as a military General. Qiān was summoned and appointed Commandant Raising Martiality, and with [Huángfǔ] Sōng campaigned against the Qiāng, and greatly defeated them. Later Biān Zhāng and Hán Suì rebelled, Excellency of Works Zhāng Wēn accepted orders to campaign to suppress, and also invited Qiān as Military Advisor, who received and encountered deep favor, but Qiān thought little of his conduct in affairs, and in his heart did not accept him. When the army stopped and returned, the officials held a great gathering, [Zhāng] Wēn assigned Qiān to pass out wine, and Qiān with the army insulted [Zhāng] Wēn. [Zhāng] Wēn was furious, and Qiān to the frontier. Someone advised [Zhāng] Wēn: “Táo Gōngzǔ originally by his ability and planning met with heavy appreciation by you, but in one morning because of intoxication had a mistake, did not receive your tolerance and forgiveness, and was discarded far away to [barren lands]. Your generosity and virtue is not exhaustive, so how can the great men of the world follow and look to you? It is not as good as resolving resentment and discarding hatred, and be able to return to the original treatment, and so the distant will hear of your virtue and goodness.” [Zhāng] Wēn agreed with these words, and therefore recalled Qiān. Qiān arrived, and someone said to Qiān: “You disparaged and insulted [one of] the Three Excellencies, and the crime was of your own doing. Now you receive forgiveness, and his virtue cannot be more generous. You should abandon your ambitions and humbly resign to thank him.” Qiān said: “Alright.” [The someone] also said to [Zhāng] Wēn: “Táo Gōngzǔ now deeply himself acknowledges responsibility for his crime, and his thoughts are set on a change. Once his apology to Heaven’s Son is complete, he will certainly come to your gates. You should meet him, to reassure his intentions.” At the time [Zhāng] Wēn was at the Palace Gates to meet Qiān, Qiān looked up and said: “I myself came to apologize to the Court, how was it for you?” [Zhāng] Wēn said: “Gōngzǔ, has your illness not yet resolved?” Then he prepared wine for him, and treated him as before.
It happened that Xú Province Yellow Headscarves rose up, so Qiān was appointed Inspector of Xú Province, attacked the Yellow Headscarves, and defeated and drove them away. In Dǒng Zhuō’s chaos, the provinces and prefectures raised troops, Heaven’s Son moved the capital to Cháng’ān, and all four sides were cut off. Qiān sent envoy that arrived and presented tribute, so he was promoted to General Securing East, Governor of Xú Province, with fief as Marquis of Lìyáng.
At that time, Xú Province’s common people prospered, grain and rice filled the reserves, and of the refugees many joined him, but Qiān turned his back on principle and recklessly did as he pleased. Administrator of Guǎnglíng, Zhào Yù of Lángyé, was the Xú [province] region’s famed scholar, and for his loyalty and uprightness met with estrangement. (4) Cáo Hóng and others were slanderous and evil petty men, and Qiān closely appointed them. Punishment and government became abused, of the good many came to harm, and because of this gradually there was chaos.
- (4) Xiè Chéng’s Hòuhànshū states: When [Zhào] Yù was aged thirteen, his mother was once ill, for three months. Yù was miserable and sad, so that he could not close his eyes [to sleep], took millet out for divination, prayed to the point of sobbing blood [silently], and the village people praised his filial nature. Later he became a private scholar, and from Dōngguǎn’s Qí Guànjūn received study of the Gōngyáng Zhuàn, while also studying other industries. For several years he immersed himself in his work, did not peer into other fields, and his relatives rarely saw his face. At the time he would go see his father and mother, and then immediately go back [to studying]. He was incorruptible and upright, held himself to courtesy, was pure and dignified, and nothing could change his intentions, made manifest goodness to influence and cultivate, and prohibited evil to correct custom. The province and prefecture summoned him [for office], but he always plead illness and would not accept. The state’s Chancellor Tán Mó and Chén Zūn were summoned at the same time, and they did not accept. Some were in raging temper, but to the end he did not respond. He was nominated Filial and Incorrupt candidate and appointed Chief of Jǔ, made widely known the Five Teachings, and his government was a state model. When the Yellow Scarves rebelled, disrupting all prefectures, the prefectures and counties sent troops, he served at the front. Inspector of Xú Province Bā Qí was memorialized as having the first rank achievements, receiving promotion and rewards, and Yù was deeply shamed by this, resigning his office and returning home. Governor of Xú Province Táo Qiān first recruited him as Aide-de-Camp Advisor, but he declined citing illness and modestly refused. [Táo] Qiān again ordered Yáng Province Advisor, Wú Fàn of Kuàijī, to announce summons, but [Zhào] Yù held firm and would not accept, so [Táo Qiān] wished to overpower him with punishments, and therefore [Zhào Yù] accepted. He was nominated as Abundant Talent candidate and promoted to Administrator of Guǎnglíng. The bandit Zé Róng at Línhuái was defeated, and fled into the prefecture borders. Yù led troops to resist and battle, but was utterly defeated and killed.
Xiàpī’s Què Xuān declared himself Heaven’s Son. Qiān at first with him allied and followed in plundering, but later killed Què Xuān, and took over his armies.
Chūpíng fourth year , Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] campaigned against Qiān, attacking and capturing over ten cities, reaching Péngchéng in a great battle. Qiān’s troops were defeated and fled, the dead were several tens of thousands, and the Sì river because of this could not flow. Qiān retreated to defend Tán. Tàizǔ because his provisions were few led the army back. (1)
- (1) Wúshū states: Excellency Cáo’s father at Tàishān was killed, and he placed the blame on Qiān, wished to attack Qiān but feared his strength, and therefore memorialized to order the provinces and prefectures to for a time dismiss troops. Imperial Order said: “Now Within the Seas is in disorder, the provinces and prefectures raise troops, campaigning soldiers are toiled and worn, the troubles of bandits are not yet stopped, but some officers and officials are harmful, taking opportunity to rob and seize, invading and hurting the common people, leaving behind crowds of victims. As soon as rumors are heard, it shakes cities and towns, behind walls they are afraid of brutal violence, the chaste and good transform into crowds of evil; how is this different from carrying firewood to put out fire, or fanning the flame to stop boiling? Now the four peoples drift and move, entrusting their bodies to other regions, carrying white heads [elders] into mountains and fields, abandoning young children in ravines, looking back at their former homelands and sadly sighing, facing road and shedding tears, hungry and distressed in destitution, already it is so extreme. Although there are those that regret past wrongs, thinking of presenting teachings to present day, however troops link and armies join, spears and arrows cover fields, and they fear if in one morning they are dissolved, in the evenings they will be bound prisoners, and therefre they block and garrison troops, wishing to stop but not daring to scatter. Written Imperial Order arrives, for each to dismiss and send away armored soldiers, to return to their parents and to farming and silk cultivation, only leaving regular officials to provide for government bureaus, to comfort the far and near, to have all hear and know.”
- Qiān received the Order, and therefore sent up letter: “I your servant have heard in embracing the distant to yield and submit, if there is no virtue there is no gathering; in overcoming trouble and pacifying chaos, if there are no troops there is no relief. Therefore Zhuōlù’s, Bǎnquán’s, and Sānmiáo’s fields had the Five Emperor’s armies, and there were Hù, Guǐfāng, Shāng, Yǎn, four states, that had rulers’s campaigns, from the ancients in the past, there has never been no raising of authority to repress chaos, rousing warfare to stop the cruel. I your servant previously began by dealing with the Yellow Headscarves chaos, receiving order to drive on, and not leisurely reside. Although there is statute regulation ordering to stop, serving announcement of authoritative spirit, respectfully enacting Heavenly punishment, every campaign then is successful, however the monstrous bandits gather and accumulate, and very much do not fear death, when fathers and elder brothers are destroyed, then sons and younger brothers all rise, building camps and linking troops, reaching the present to become trouble. If one carries out order to remove armor, it will weaken the state and hollow it, releasing warfare preparations will serve chaos, decreasing official authority will benefit bandits, if today troops are dismissed, tomorrow disaster will certainly arrive, above shaming the roots of the Court’s favor and teaching, below allowing the numerous villains to daily and monthly grow and spread, and this is not the business of strong truck weak branches restraining evil and stopping chaos. Although I your servant am foolish and ignorant, my loyalty and mercy not shining, I cherish kindness and ponder repayment, and so cannot bear to enact it. So then I lead retainers, command garrison preparations, going out to cut down strong bandits, only strength in consideration, to enter and announce virtuous beneficence, personally devoting to duty and affairs, hoping to enact small achievement, to atone for this crime.”
- He also said: “The central plains are in turmoil and disturbed, and to now it is not yet ended, bundled reeds [of tribute] do not enter [Court], taxes and tribute are greatly deficient, and awake or asleep we are sorrowful and sigh, and there is no day we dare be at peace. Sincerely I think that tribute must arrive, straw delicacy [sacrifices] must connect, and only afterward can one fasten spear and remove armor; this is I your servant’s hope. I your servant previously prepared grain of one million hú, it is already on river transport, and so I order troops to guard and escort.”
- Excellency Cáo obtained Qiān’s sent up matter, and knew he would not dismiss troops. Therefore he advanced and attacked Péngchéng, excessively killing the people. Qiān led troops to attack him, and Inspector of Qīng Province Tián Kǎi also led troops to reinforce Qiān. The Excellency led his troops back.
- Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: At this time Heaven’s Son was at Cháng’ān, and Excellency Cáo did not yet manage the government. This Imperial Order dismissing troops could not have been sent out because of Cáo.
Xìngpíng first year , there was another eastern campaign, plundering and settling Lángyé’s and Dōnghǎi’s various counties. Qiān was terrified, and wished to flee back to Dānyáng. It happened that Zhāng Miǎo rebelled and invited Lǚ Bù, so Tàizǔ returned to strike [Lǚ] Bù. That year, Qiān of illness died. (2)
- (2) Wúshū states: At the time of Qiān’s death he was sixty three years. Zhāng Zhāo and others made a mourning dirge for him: “Oh you sir, you Marquis and General, harboring and maintaining virtue, both martial and civil, form and bearing firm and upright, holding to warm benevolence. As Magistrate to Shū and Lú, leaving behind love to the people; as Governor to Yōu and Xú, equal to Gāntáng. The distant Yí and Mò, depended on you for purity, the restless monstrous bandits, if not for you there would be no peace. The Emperor ponders achievement, gave noble rank order with regulation, both Governor and moreover Marquis, to enlighten the lands of Lìyáng. Therefore you ascended to high General, receiving title of Securing East, commanding pacification of the world’s troubles, and the State Altars were esteemed. But provided years are not eternal, suddenly you died, mourning downfall and losing what one relied on, the people knew difficulty and destitution. In not even ten days, five prefectures fester and collapse, how sorrowful we are like this, whom can we look up to and rely on? Memorials do not reach, looking up to call to August Sky. Oh Alas!”
- Qiān’s two sons Shāng and Yìng both were not appointed officials.