(9.3) Cáo Rén 曹仁 [Zǐxiào 子孝]

Cáo Chún 曹 [Zǐhé 子和]


Cáo Rén appellation Zǐxiào was Tàizǔ‘s younger cousin. (1) When young he enjoyed bow and horse shooting and hunting. Later when powerful figures all rose up, Rén also secretly gathered youths, obtaining over a thousand people, going about the Huái and Sì, and then followed Tàizǔ as a Separate Division Major, and Acting Severe Vanguard Colonel.

曹仁字子孝,太祖從弟也。〔一〕少好弓馬弋獵。後豪傑並起,仁亦陰結少年,得千餘人,周旋淮、泗之間,遂從太祖為別部司馬,行厲鋒校尉。

In Tàizǔ‘s defeat of Yuán Shù [192], those beheaded and captured by Rén were very many. In following the campaign against Xú province [193], Rén always commanded the cavalry, serving as the army’s front vanguard. He separately attacked Táo Qiān’s officer Lǚ Yóu, defeated him, and returned to rejoin the main army at Péngchéng, greatly defeating [Táo] Qiān’s army. He followed in attacking Fèi, Huá, Jímò, Kāiyáng, and [Táo] Qiān sent separate division officers to rescue these various counties, and Rén with cavalry struck and defeated them. Tàizǔ campaigned against Lǚ Bù [194], and Rén separately attacked Jùyáng, captured it, and captured alive [Lǚ] Bù’s officer Liú Hé.

太祖之破袁術,仁所斬獲頗多。從征徐州,仁常督騎,為軍前鋒。別攻陶謙將呂由,破之,還與大軍合彭城,大破謙軍。從攻費、華、即墨、開陽,謙遣別將救諸縣,仁以騎擊破之。太祖征呂布,仁別攻句陽,拔之,生獲布將劉何。

Tàizǔ pacified the Yellow Headscarves, welcoming Heaven’s Son to set capital at Xǔ, and as Rén repeatedly had achievements, he was appointed Guǎngyáng Administrator. Tàizǔ was impressed with his valor and planning, and did not send him to that prefecture, and had him as Consultant Cadet command cavalry. Tàizǔ campaigned against Zhāng Xiù, and Rén separately went about the neighboring counties, capturing its men and women of over 3000 people. Tàizǔ‘s army returned, was by [Zhāng] Xiù pursued, the army was not successful, and the soldiers were demoralized. Rén led his strict officers and soldiers to extremely exert themselves, Tàizǔ was impressed with them, and they therefore defeated [Zhāng] Xiù.

太祖平黃巾,迎天子都許,仁數有功,拜廣陽太守。太祖器其勇略,不使之郡,以議郎督騎。太祖征張繡,仁別徇旁縣,虜其男女三千餘人。太祖軍還,為繡所追,軍不利,士卒喪氣,仁率厲將士甚奮,太祖壯之,遂破繡。

  • (1) Wèishū states: Rén’s grandfather [Cáo] Bāo was a Yǐngchuān Administrator. His father Chì was an Attendant Internal and Cháng River Colonel.

〔一〕 魏書曰:仁祖褒,潁川太守。父熾,侍中、長水校尉。


Tàizǔ with Yuán Shào were long locked together at Guāndù, and [Yuán] Shào sent Liú Bèi to go about Yǐnqiáng’s various counties, and many gathered to answer in support of him. From Xǔ on south, the officials and people were not secure, and Tàizǔ believed it worrisome. Rén said: “The south believes the main army has emergency in front of its eyes, and its strength cannot also save them, so with Liú Bèi leading strong troops to overlook them, their betrayal is surely appropriate. [Liú] Bèi newly commands [Yuán] Shào’s troops, and cannot yet obtain their use, so striking them they can be defeated.” Tàizǔ agreed with his words, and therefore sent him to command cavalry to strike [Liú] Bèi, defeating and driving him away, and Rén completely recovered the various rebelling counties and returned. [Yuán] Shào sent separate office Hán Xún to plunder and cut off the western roads, Rén struck [Hán] Xún at Jīluò mountain, and greatly defeated him. Because of this [Yuán] Shào did not dare again divide troops to send out. He again with Shǐ Huàn and others plundered [Yuán] Shào’s transport carts, burning their provisions and grain.

太祖與袁紹久相持於官渡,紹遣劉備徇濦彊諸縣,多舉眾應之。自許以南,吏民不安,太祖以為憂。仁曰:「南方以大軍方有目前急,其勢不能相救,劉備以彊兵臨之,其背叛固宜也。備新將紹兵,未能得其用,擊之可破也。」太祖善其言,遂使將騎擊備,破走之,仁盡復收諸叛縣而還。紹遣別將韓荀鈔斷西道,仁擊荀於雞洛山,大破之。由是紹不敢復分兵出。復與史渙等鈔紹運車,燒其糧穀。


When the Hé’s north was settled, he followed in besieging Húguān. Tàizǔ‘s Order said: “When the city is taken, bury them all.” For continuous moons it was not taken. Rén said to Tàizǔ: “A besieged city must be shown a survival gate, and therefore open a road to survival. Now it is publicly announced they will certainly die, causing the people to defend themselves. Moreover the city is firm and its provisions many, if attacking them then the soldiers are injured, if defending against them then the days stretch long; now arranging troops firmly below the city, to attack certain to die enemies, is not a good plan.” Tàizǔ followed this, and the city surrendered. Therefore recording Rén’s beginning to end achievements, he was given fief as a capital precinct Marquis.

河北既定,從圍壺關。太祖令曰:「城拔,皆坑之。」連月不下。仁言於太祖曰:「圍城必示之活門,所以開其生路也。今公告之必死,將人自為守。且城固而糧多,攻之則士卒傷,守之則引日久;今頓兵堅城之下,以攻必死之虜,非良計也。」太祖從之,城降。於是錄仁前後功,封都亭侯。


He followed in pacifying Jīng Province [208], and Rén was made Acting General Campaigning South, remaining to garrison Jiānglíng, and resisted Wú officer Zhōu Yú. [Zhōu] Yú commanded an army of several tens of thousands to come attack, its front line of several thousand men first arrived, Rén ascended the city wall to observe them, and therefore recruited and gained 300 men, sending his close retainer commander Niú Jīn to oppose and challenge them to battle. The rebels were many, [Niú] Jīn’s army was few, and therefore were by them surrounded.

從平荊州,以仁行征南將軍,留屯江陵,拒吳將周瑜。瑜將數萬眾來攻,前鋒數千人始至,仁登城望之,乃募得三百人,遣部曲將牛金逆與挑戰。賊多,金眾少,遂為所圍。

Chief Clerk Chén Jiǎo was also atop the city wall, saw that [Niú] Jīn and the rest was almost destroyed, and those around all lost color. Rén’s thoughts and spirit became very furious, and he said to those around him to bring his horse, [Chén] Jiǎo and the rest together grabbed him, saying to Rén: “The rebel army is flourishing, and cannot be opposed. Supposing we losing several hundred men what is the hardship, but you General personally go to them!”

長史陳矯俱在城上,望見金等垂沒,左右皆失色。仁意氣奮怒甚,謂左右取馬來,矯等共援持之。謂仁曰:「賊眾盛,不可當也。假使棄數百人何苦,而將軍以身赴之!」

Rén did not answer, and therefore donned armor and mounted horse, commanding his bannermen soldiers of several tens of cavalry to go out of the city. He was from the rebels over a hundred bù, reached a gully, and [Chén] Jiǎo and the rest believed Rén would station above the gully, to be [Niú] Jīn’s support. Rén directly crossed the gully and went forward, charging into the rebel encirclement, and [Niú] Jīn and others thus obtained escape. The rest of the army were not yet completely out, Rén again directly returned and charged to them, drawing out [Niú] Jīn’s troops, the lost were [only] several men, and the rebel army therefore withdrew.

仁不應,遂被甲上馬,將其麾下壯士數十騎出城。去賊百餘步,迫溝,矯等以為仁當住溝上,為金形勢也,仁徑渡溝直前,衝入賊圍,金等乃得解。餘眾未盡出,仁復直還突之,拔出金兵,亡其數人,賊眾乃退。

[Chén] Jiǎo and others previously saw Rén go out, and all were afraid, and when they saw Rén return, they then sighed and said: “You General are truly a Heavenly Man!” The Three Armies admired his valor. Tàizǔ increased his impression of him, and transferred his fief to Ānpíng precinct Marquis.

矯等初見仁出,皆懼,及見仁還,乃歎曰:「將軍真天人也!」三軍服其勇。太祖益壯之,轉封安平亭侯。


Tàizǔ suppressed Mǎ Chāo, appointing Rén as Acting General Securing West, to command the various officers resisting at Tóngguān, and they defeated [Mǎ] Chāo at Wèi’s south. Sū Bó and Tián Yín rebelled, and Rén was Acting General of Valiant Cavalry, Regional Commander of seven armies to suppress [Tián] Yín and the rest, and defeated them.

太祖討馬超,以仁行安西將軍,督諸將拒潼關,破超渭南。蘇伯、田銀反,以仁行驍騎將軍,都督七軍討銀等,破之。

Again Rén was Acting General Campaigning Staff, with Acting Staff, garrisoning Fán, and defending Jīng Province. Hóu Yīn led Wǎn to rebel, plundering the surrounding counties of several thousand people, Rén led the various armies to attack and defeated [Hóu] Yīn, beheading his head, returned to garrison Fán, and was appointed General Campaigning South.

復以仁行征南將軍,假節,屯樊,鎮荊州。侯音以宛叛,略傍縣眾數千人,仁率諸軍攻破音,斬其首,還屯樊,即拜征南將軍。

Guān Yǔ attacked Fán [219], at the time the Hàn river suddenly flooded, Yú Jīn’s and other’s seven armies were all drowned, and [Yú] Jīn surrendered to [Guān] Yǔ. Rén’s men and horses of several thousand defended the city, and of the city wall what was not submerged was only several bǎn [in height]. [Guān] Yǔ rode boat to face the city, the encirclement was several lines, outside and inside was cut off, the provisions were almost exhausted, and rescue troops had not arrived. Rén roused his officers and soldiers, showing he would certainly die [before surrender], the officers and soldiers were moved by this and all had no second [thoughts]. Xú Huǎng’s rescue arrived, and the water also gradually receded, [Xú] Huǎng from outside struck [Guān] Yǔ, Rén was able to disperse the encirclement and go out, and [Guān] Yǔ retreated and fled.

關羽攻樊,時漢水暴溢,于禁等七軍皆沒,禁降羽。仁人馬數千人守城,城不沒者數板。羽乘船臨城,圍數重,外內斷絕,糧食欲盡,救兵不至。仁激厲將士,示以必死,將士感之皆無二。徐晃救至,水亦稍減,晃從外擊羽,仁得潰圍出,羽退走。


Rén when young did not cultivate conduct and restraint, but when grown and became an officer, he was strict and orderly in carrying out law and orders, always setting up regulations about him, and consulting them when carrying out affairs. Marquis of Yānlíng [Cáo] Zhāng campaigned north against the Wūhuán, Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] was at the East Palace, and made letter warning [Cáo] Zhāng: “As a General carrying out law, should not one be like the [General] Campaigning South [Cáo Rén]!” When [Cáo Pī] succeeded as King, he appointed Rén as General of Chariots and Cavalry, Regional Commander over Jīng, Yáng, and Yì Provinces’ various Military affairs, advancing fief to Marquis of Chén, and increasing fief by 2000, adding with the previous to 3500 households. He gave posthumous bestowment on Rén’s father [Cáo] Chì with posthumous name as Chén Mù-hóu “Solemn Marquis,” installing ten families to guard the tombs.

仁少時不脩行檢,及長為將,嚴整奉法令,常置科於左右,案以從事。鄢陵侯彰北征烏丸,文帝在東宮,為書戒彰曰:「為將奉法,不當如征南邪!」及即王位,拜仁車騎將軍,都督荊、揚、益州諸軍事,進封陳侯,增邑二千,并前三千五百戶。追賜仁父熾諡曰陳穆侯,置守冢十家。

Later he was summoned back to garrison Wǎn. Sūn Quán sent his officer Chén Shào to occupying Xiāngyáng, and Imperial Order had Rén suppress them. Rén with Xú Huǎng attacked and defeated [Chén] Shào, and therefore entered Xiāngyáng, sending General Gāo Qiān and others to relocate the people south of the Hàn [river] who had attached [to Wèi] to the Hàn’s north. Wén-dì sent envoy to appoint Rén as General-in-Chief, and also had Imperial Order to Rén to shift garrison to Línyǐng, promoted to Marshal-in-chief, again commanding the various armies occupying Wūjiāng, returning to garrison Héféi.

後召還屯宛。孫權遣將陳邵據襄陽,詔仁討之。仁與徐晃攻破邵,遂入襄陽,使將軍高遷等徙漢南附化民於漢北,文帝遣使即拜仁大將軍。又詔仁移屯臨潁,遷大司馬,復督諸軍據烏江,還屯合肥。

Huángchū Fourth Year he died, posthumous name Zhōng-hóu “Loyal Marquis.” (1) His son [Cáo] Tài succeeded, office reaching General Defending East, with Acting Staff, transferred fief to Marquis of Nínglíng. [Cáo] Tài died, and his son [Cáo] Chū succeeded. Also they divided fief to [Cáo] Tài’s younger brothers Kǎi and Fàn all as Ranked Marquis, and Niú Jīn’s office reached General of the Rear.

黃初四年薨,諡曰忠侯。〔一〕子泰嗣,官至鎮東將軍,假節,轉封甯陵侯。泰薨,子初嗣。又分封泰弟楷、範,皆為列侯,而牛金官至後將軍。

  • Wèishū states: Rén at the time was fifty-six years.
  • Fù-zǐ states: Marshal-in-Chief Cáo [Rén]’s valor, [Mèng] Bēn and [Xià] Yù could not surpass. Zhāng Liáo is next after him.

〔一〕 魏書曰:仁時年五十六。傅子曰:曹大司馬之勇,賁、育弗加也。張遼其次焉。


Rén’s younger brother Chún, (1) previously as Consultant Cadet was Advisor to the Excellency of Work’s Military affairs, commanded the Tiger-Leopard Cavalry in following the siege of Nánpí. Yuán Tán went out to battle, and of the soldiers many died. Tàizǔ wished to withdraw them, but Chún said: “Now we have crossed a thousand lǐ to oppose them, if advancing we cannot overcome them, then retreating will certainly damage our authority; moreover the division brigades are penetrated deeply, and difficult to last long. They are winning and so arrogant, we are losing and so afraid, using fear to oppose arrogance, they can certainly be overcome.” Tàizǔ agreed with his words, and therefore urgently attacked them, and Yuán Tán was defeated. Chún’s bannermen cavalry beheaded Tán’s head.

仁弟純,〔一〕初以議郎參司空軍事,督虎豹騎從圍南皮。袁譚出戰,士卒多死。太祖欲緩之,純曰:「今千里蹈敵,進不能克,退必喪威;且縣師深入,難以持久。彼勝而驕,我敗而懼,以懼敵驕,必可克也。」太祖善其言,遂急攻之,譚敗。純麾下騎斬譚首。

At the northern campaign against the Three Prefectures [Wúhuān], Chún’s division of cavalry captured Shànyú Tàdùn. For his beginning to end achievements he was given fief as Gāolíng precinct Marquis, with fief of 300 households. He followed the campaign against Jīng Province, pursued Liú Bèi at Chángbǎn, capturing his two daughters and heavy wagons, and collecting his scattered troops. He advanced and accepted the surrender of Jiānglíng, and followed back to Qiáo.

及北征三郡,純部騎獲單于蹋頓。以前後功封高陵亭侯,邑三百戶。從征荊州,追劉備於長阪,獲其二女輜重,收其散卒。進降江陵,從還譙。

Jiàn’ān Fifteenth Year [210] he died. When Wén-dì succeeded the throne, he gave posthumous name Wēi-hóu “Authoritative Marquis.” (2) His son [Cáo] Yǎn succeeded, office reaching General Managing the Army, and during Zhèngyuán [254-255] was advanced in fief to Pìnglè village Marquis. [Cáo] Yǎn died and his son [Cáo] Liàng succeeded.

建安十五年薨。文帝即位,追諡曰威侯。〔二〕子演嗣,官至領軍將軍,正元中進封平樂鄉侯。演薨,子亮嗣。

  • (1) Yīngxióng Jì states: Chún appellation Zǐhé. At fourteen years he lost his father, and with his elder brother of the same womb Rén had a separate residence. He succeeded his father’s business, wealthy in property, and his servants and guests were several hundred. Chún in managing and directing, did not lose reason, and in the village all believed him able. He enjoyed learning, and respected and favored scholars, and of scholars many joined him, and because of this far and near praised him. At eighteen years, he became Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet. At twenty, he followed Tàizǔ at Xiāngyì to recruit troops, and therefore always followed in campaign and battle.

〔一〕 英雄記曰:純字子和。年十四而喪父,與同產兄仁別居。承父業,富於財,僮僕人客以百數,純綱紀督御,不失其理,鄉里咸以為能。好學問,敬愛學士,學士多歸焉,由是為遠近所稱。年十八,為黃門侍郎。二十,從太祖到襄邑募兵,遂常從征戰。

  • (2) Wèishū states: Chún’s commanded Tiger-Leopard Cavalry, who were all the realm Under Heaven’s most valiant and elite. Someone with a hundred men asked to fill vacancies in them, but Tàizǔ believed it difficult to for him to be commander. Chún was selected as commander, comforting about and deeply gaining the people’s hearts. When he died, managing officials said to select a successor. Tàizǔ said: “One comparable to Chún, how can it again be obtained! Can I myself not be the interim commander?” Therefore he did not select.

〔二〕 魏書曰:純所督虎豹騎,皆天下驍銳,或從百人將補之,太祖難其帥。純以選為督,撫循甚得人心。及卒,有司白選代,太祖曰:「純之比,何可復得!吾獨不中督邪?」遂不選。

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s