Zhāng Chéng 張承 [Zhòngsì 仲嗣], Zhāng Xiū 張休 [Shūsì 叔嗣]
Zhāng Zhāo appellation Zǐbù was a Péngchéng man. When young he enjoyed study, was good with Clerical Script, and from Báihóu Zǐ’ān received education on the Zuǒshì Chūnqiū, read extensively all books, and with Lángyé’s Zhào Yù and Dōnghǎi’s Wáng Lǎng all had reputation and were friendly. When capped he was examined as Filial and Incorrupt candidate, did not accept, and with [Wáng] Lǎng together discussed the matter of ancient ruler’s forbidden names, and the province’s and local talented scholars Chén Lín and others all praised it. (1) Inspector Táo Qiān recommended him as Abundant Talent candidate, he did not answer, and [Táo] Qiān believed it disparaging to himself, and therefore he met with arrest. [Zhào] Yù personally went to plead for him, and by this he obtained release.
At Hàn’s end there was great chaos, and of Xú [Province]’s scholars and people many fled the troubles to Yáng [Province] land, and Zhāo also to the south crossed the Jiāng. Sūn Cè began his enterprise, and appointed Zhāo as his Chief Clerk and Supporting the Army Internal Cadet General, ascended hall to pay respects to his mother, treated him as an equal old friend, and in civil and military affairs, always trusted in Zhāo. (2) Zhāo always obtained letters from northern scholar officials, filled with praises of Zhāo. Zhāo wished to be silent but if he did not announce then he feared being considered as having private [ulterior] motives, but if announcing then he feared it was not appropriate, and so going and leaving he was not at ease. [Sūn] Cé heard this, and happily laughed: “In the past Guǎn Zhòng was Chancellor for Qí, first was called Zhòngfù [lit. second after father, i.e. father’s oldest younger brother], second after being called Zhòngfù, thus Duke Huán [of Qí] became Overlord. Now you Zǐbù are worthy, and I can employ you, are your achievements and reputation alone not with me?”
- (1) At the time Rǔnán Registrar Yìng Shào discussed whether it was appropriate to for the ancient rulers maintain forbidden names, and the debaters all had differences and similarities; the matter is in Fēngsú Tōng. Zhāo wrote a discussion that said: “I have seen the great state’s commentary, and the scholar’s and gentlemen’s discussion, saying that from the inauguration of Jiànwǔ [25-56] onward, the ancient ruler’s forbidden personal names are of fifty six men, and believe later people cannot use them. Selecting from the classics in discussion, giving example in various things, the righteousness is high and words beautiful, and deeply can be lauded and envied. My humble opinions are narrow and shallow, but I yet have doubts. Since heaven and earth were separated, and all things settled and formed, first there was the principle of father and son and of ruler and servant. Therefore the sagely men followed Heaven’s nature, regulating ritual to receive veneration, by the three principles, the ruler truly feeds them, at the mourning for their sorrows, the ruler personally overlooks them, and in generosity none is heavier, and in grace none is greater, truly what the ministers and subjects honor and look up to, like how all things on Heaven depend, so how can they be had and then use the same [name] as them? However closeness has decline, honors have weakening, and therefore by the Lǐ mourning clothes going up does not pass the great-great grandfather, going down does not pass the great-great grandson. Also the Zhuàn records for four generations then linen hemp is the clothes of mourning; for the fifth generation then bare [left arm] and remove [cap], such is the decline in close relation; for the sixth generation then kinship is exhausted. Also the Qūlǐ has it that if there was no principle of enshrining then there was no forbidding of personal name, to not forbid personal name, covers speaking of name, the principle of ending of relations, is not confined to sharing [name], so all the more then for the ancient rulers of fifty six! Zhū-zǐ made alliance, Jìyǒu came to submit, and they were not called by their personal name, all writing their appellations, and at the time this was the Lǔ people praising them. How is one to resolve servants and sons for rulers and father forbidding personal name? Zhōu King Mù‘s forbidden personal name was Mǎn, reaching King Dìng‘s time there was Wáng Sūnmǎn, he became a Grandee, and this was a servant sharing name with ruler. Also King Lì‘s forbidden personal name was Hú, and King Zhuāng‘s son was named Hú, and those similar to this are very many. These sorts of matters and commentaries, the classics have explanations, the narratives have examples, so afterward in attacking or defending [in debate], in all things there is no defeat, and passing down through a hundred generations, there is ever no fault. Now although Yìng Shào above honors the names of ancient rulers, yet below there is no definite levels, and so there is doubt. In the Qūlǐ‘s sheets, in doubtful matters without reference, observing and examining high and low, mistakes are themselves proof. Composing writing can be done, but instigating is not proper, and how is the future to observe it? Words once spoken, is like something spilled. When mistaken words are already past, regretting it is of what use!”
- (2) Wúshū states: [Sūn] Cé obtained Zhāo and was deeply pleased saying: “I am about to have matters across the Four Quarters, taking scholars and worthies as the highest, I with you cannot be frivolous.” Therefore he promoted him to Colonel, and treated him by the Rites due to a Teacher and Friend.
[Sūn] Cè was about to die, and entrusted his younger brother [Sūn] Quán to Zhāo, and Zhāo led the various ministers to establish and support him. (1) He sent up memorial to the Hàn House, sent down word to the subordinate cities, the inner and outer officers, ordering each to be devoted in duties. [Sūn] Quán’s sorrow and grief was such that he could not yet oversee matters, and Zhāo said to [Sūn] Quán: “One who is a successor, must be able to carry the burden of the previous course, accomplish prosperity and completion, in order to achieve the meritorious enterprise. Right now the realm Under Heaven is like a cauldron boiling, various bandits fill the mountains, how can you Filial and Incorrupt candidate lie down in sorrow and grief, like a coarse fellow’s situation?” Therefore he personally supported [Sūn] Quán to mount horse, line up the troops and go out, and afterwards the hearts of the masses knew where to turn.
- (1) Wúlì states: [Sūn] Cè said to Zhāo: “If [Sūn Quán] Zhòngmǒu cannot handle affairs, you can yourself replace him. Even if you cannot triumph, you can slowly return west, and also have no worries.”
Zhāo again was [Sūn] Quán’s Chief Clerk, entrusted with responsibilities like before. (2) Later Liú Bèi memorialized [Sūn] Quán as Acting General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Zhāo was his Master of the Army.
- (2) Wúshū states: At the time the realm Under Heaven was divided apart, and those usurping orders were many. Sūn Cè’s administrating of matters was still short in time, his favor and grace not yet widespread, in one morning he suddenly perished, the scholars and people were in difficulties, similar in most and differing little. When Zhāo assisted [Sūn] Quán, he soothed and comforted the common people, and lords and guests and scholars traveling to seek refuge obtained refuge and were themselves secured. Every time [Sūn] Quán sent out on campaign, he left Zhāo to defend, and manage government office affairs. Later Yellow Headscarf rebels rose up, and Zhāo suppressed and pacified them. [Sūn] Quán campaigned against Héféi, and ordered Zhāo to separately suppress Kuāngqí, and also command and manage the various officers, attacking and defeating Yùzhāng rebel leader Zhōu Fèng and others at Nánchéng. After this he was rarely again commander, always kept at [Sūn Quán’s] side, as a planning official. [Sūn] Quán because Zhāo was an old official, treated him exceptionally well.
Every time [Sūn] Quán went hunting, he always rode horse to shoot tigers, and a tiger once charged forward and climbed and grasped the horse’s saddle. Zhāo changed color and went forward saying: “Why do you General act thus? One who is a ruler of men, is said to be able to drive on heroes, to lead on various worthies; how is it said to charge through open fields, comparing valor with wild beasts? If one morning there is misfortune, how can one but be by the realm Under Heaven laughed at?” [Sūn] Quán apologized to Zhāo: “I am young and my consideration of matters is not far-reaching, and by this have shamed you.” However he could not stop, and therefore made a shooting tiger carriage, with square openings, and when at leisure did not set up canopy, one man as driver, from the inside shooting. At times there were exceptional beasts, that would again break into the carriage, and [Sūn] Quán every time hand struck them and believed it fun. Although Zhāo remonstrated and opposed, [Sūn Quán] always laughed and did not answer.
Wèi in Huángchū Second Year  sent envoy Xíng Zhēn to honor [Sūn] Quán as King of Wú. [Xíng] Zhēn entered the Gates, but did not dismount carriage. Zhāo said to [Xíng] Zhēn: “Rites are not lacking in reverence, so that Law is not lacking in enactment. But you sir dare esteem yourself as so great, do you believe the Jiāng’s south is weak, without a square cùn of blade edge?” [Xíng] Zhēn at once hurriedly dismounted carriage. Zhāo was appointed General Pacifying the Distant, with fief as Marquis of Yóuquán. (3)
- (3) Wúlù states: Zhāo with Sūn Shào, Téng Yìn, Zhèng Lǐ and others drew from Zhōu and Hàn in compiling and deciding Court ceremonies.
[Sūn] Quán at Wǔchāng, overlooked Diào Terrace, drank liquor and was greatly intoxicated. [Sūn] Quán sent someone to with water spray the various ministers saying: “Today drink completely, only once drunk to falling in the terrace, can they then stop and that is all.” Zhāo with hard look did not speak, and went out and in his carriage sat. [Sūn] Quán sent someone to call Zhāo back, saying: “Everyone is making merry and that is all, why is your excellency angry?” Zhāo replied: “In the past Zhòu made a liquor dregs mountain and a liquor lake in the long night drinking, and at the time also believed it merry, not believing it an evil.” [Sūn] Quán was silent, and had a shamed look, and therefore ceased the drinking of liquor.
Previously, [Sūn] Quán was about to install a Chancellor, and everyone recommended Zhāo. [Sūn] Quán said: “Now there are many matters, the office’s responsibilities are heavy, and not of benefit to him.” Later [Chancellor] Sūn Shào died, and the officials again nominated Zhāo. [Sūn] Quán said: “How can I for Zǐbù have favor? Managing the Chancellor’s affairs is troublesome, but this elder’s nature is stubborn, and if what he says is not followed, then his complaints and blames will rise, and this is not of benefit.” Therefore he employed Gù Yōng.
When [Sūn] Quán claimed Imperial Title, Zhāo claimed old age and illness, and returned his government rank and those he commanded. (1) He was again appointed General Supporting Wú, ranked after the Three Excellencies, and changed in fief to Marquis of Lóu, with supply fief of ten thousand households. At his residence he had no [government] matters, and therefore composed a Chūnqiū Zuǒshì Zhuàn Xiè and Lùnyǔ Zhù. [Sūn] Quán once asked Minister of the Guard Yán Jùn: “Do you still remember the books you recited when you were young or not?” [Yán] Jùn therefore recited the Xiàojīng‘s Zhòngní Jū. Zhāo said: “Yán Jùn is a rustic student, I your servant ask to for Your Majesty recite.” Then he recited Jūnzǐ zhī Shìshàng, and all believed Zhāo understood what he recited.
- (1) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: When [Sūn] Quán took Imperial Title, he invited and met the officials, and gave credit to Zhōu Yú. Zhāo raised his ceremonial tablet wishing to commend and praise achievements and virtue, but before he spoke, [Sūn] Quán said: “If it I had use Excellency Zhāng’s plan, today I would be begging for my food.” Zhāo was greatly shamed, and bowed on the ground with sweat. Zhāo was loyal and bold and clearly upright, and had a great minister’s integrity, [Sūn] Quán heavily respected him, but the reason he did not appoint Zhāo as Chancellor, was overall because in the past he opposed the suggestions of Zhōu Yú and Lǔ Sù and others as wrong.
- Your Servant Sōngzhī believes that Zhāng Zhāo‘s advice to welcome Excellency Cáo [Cāo], was it not considering the far reaching? He was of uplifting character and firm countenance, his submission to the Sūn clan, truly was amid adversity an unexpected meeting, amid extreme distress a beginning, and from [Sūn] Cé to [Sūn] Quán, he with ability and planning sufficiently served, and therefore thoroughly and sincerely rectified and assisted, in order to achieve their enterprise, above serving as vassal to the Hàn House, below protecting the people; the plan of tripartite division, originally was not his intention. Excellency Cáo [Cāo] wielded obedience and rose up, his achievements by righteous were established, from Jì to Qīng [Provinces] he united all civilization, expanding to pacify Jīng-Yǐng, and the opportunity for great settlement, was at this time. If Zhāo’s commentary was followed, then the Six Directions would be united, and how would there be continuous warfare and calamity, and therefore destruction like the Warring States? Although this was not an achievement to the Sūn clan, it would have been a great one to the realm Under Heaven. In the past Dòu Róng submitted to Hàn, and with the state rose and fell; Zhāng Lǔ surrendered to Wèi, his rewards enduring through the generations. All the more for [Sūn] Quán raising and protecting Wú, watching the situation to submit, the depth of generous reward [he would have received], it can be judged! Therefore Zhāo’s planning for others, how was it not loyal and correct!
Zhāo at every Court meeting, spoke with strong and severe manner, his meaning shown on his face, and once because his blunt speech opposed Imperial wishes, for a while he was not allowed to enter to meet. Later a Shǔ envoy arrived, praised Shǔ’s virtue and beauty, and of the various ministers none could oppose, and [Sūn] Quán sighed and said: “If Excellency Zhāng was seated here, this [envoy] without debating would be defeated, how could he even boast?” The next day, he sent an internal envoy to ask after him, and therefore invite and meet Zhāo. Zhāo left the mat to apologize, and [Sūn] Quán knelt and stopped him. Zhāo was seated, and looked up and said: “In the past the Dowager-Empress and King Huán [Sūn Cè] did not entrust this old servant to Your Majesty, but entrusted Your Majesty to this old servant. Therefore I thoroughly pondered a minister’s integrity, in order to repay generous kindness, so that after my death, there would be something worth praising and telling, but my thoughts and considerations were narrow and short, I disobeyed Imperial intentions, casting myself into seclusion and ruin, to ever be abandoned in ravine and ditch, and did not plan on again being summoned to meet, to be able to serve within the curtains. But I your servant’s humble intentions are to serve the state, my ambition to loyal give benefit, until my death and nothing more. If then there is change in my heart or thought, to steal glory and seek appearance, this is what I your servant cannot do.” [Sūn] Quán gratefully declined his apologies.
[Sūn] Quán because Gōngsūn Yuān declared himself vassal, sent Zhāng Mí and Xǔ Yàn to Liáodōng to appoint [Gōngsūn] Yuān as King of Yān. Zhāo remonstrated: “[Gōngsūn] Yuān betrayed Wèi and fears suppression, from afar coming to ask for help, is not his original intention. If [Gōngsūn] Yuān changes plans, wishing to turn to Wèi, then the two envoys will not return, and will it not also be laughed at by the realm Under Heaven?” [Sūn] Quán with him opposed and argued, and Zhāo’s intentions became more firm.
[Sūn] Quán could not stand it, and grabbed saber and angrily said: “Wú state’s elites entering the palace then bow to me, going out of the palace then bow to you, and my veneration of you, is also of the utmost, but repeatedly you lead the masses to oppose me, and I always fear I will lose my composure.”
Zhāo closely watched [Sūn] Quán and said: “Although I your servant know my words are not used, every time I thoroughly exhaust myself in loyalty, is truly because when the Dowager-Empress was about to pass, she called this old servant below the bed, and her posthumous Imperial Order’s words are ever therefore in my ear.” Therefore he shed tears overflowing. [Sūn] Quán threw his saber to the ground, and with Zhāo wept in answer.
However in the end he sent [Zhāng] Mí and [Xǔ] Yàn to go. Zhāo was angry his advice was not used, and claiming illness would not attend Court. [Sūn] Quán resented this, and with soil blocked his gates. Zhāo also on the inside with soil sealed it.
[Gōngsūn] Yuān indeed killed [Zhāng] Mí and [Xǔ] Yàn. [Sūn] Quán repeatedly consoled and apologized to Zhāo, but Zhāo firmly would not rise. [Sūn] Quán therefore went out and passing his gate called to Zhāo, but Zhāo claimed his illness was severe. [Sūn] Quán burned his gates, wishing to by this scare him, but Zhāo again closed his doors. [Sūn] Quán sent someone to extinguish the fire, and stayed at the gates for a good while. Zhāo’s various sons together supported Zhāo to rise, [Sūn] Quán conveyed him to return to the Palace, deeply reproaching himself. Zhāo could not but go, and afterward attended Court. (1)
- Xí Zuòchǐ states: Zhāng Zhāo was thus this unbecoming of a servant! A servant of another, after three remonstrants not followed should then turn body and withdraw, if it is instead unceasing, what anger and resentment is there to have? Moreover Qín [Duke] Mù violated remonstrants, but in the end was overlord over the Western Róng; Jìn [Duke] Wén was temporarily furious, but finally achieved his great enterprise. [Qín Duke Mù made] legacy pledge so that his regrets would be recorded; Hú Yǎn had no resentful words. When the Way of Ruler and Servant is greatest, high and low all thrive. Now [Sūn] Quán regretted his wrong actions and sought Zhāo, and later could all the more return to consider his fallen heart, to not be remote and yet return, and this was his goodness. Zhāo as servant of another, did not judge [Sūn] Quán’s attainment of the Way, rectify his later faults, from morning to night labor, in order to prolong coming acclaim, but instead pursued anger at not being used, placing blame upon his ruler, closing door and refusing command, sitting and waiting for the burning to be extinguished, how was this not rebellion!
Zhāo’s appearance was stern, and had authoritative manner, and [Sūn] Quán once said: “When I with Excellency Zhāng speak, I do not dare be presumptuous.” The whole country feared him.
At eighty-one years, Jiāhé Fifth Year  he died. His legacy order was for strip of headscarf and plan coffin, and reduced time of mourning. [Sūn] Quán wore white mourning clothes and oversaw lamentations. Posthumous name Wén-hóu “Cultured Marquis.” (1) His eldest son [Zhāng] Chéng already himself had fief as Marquis, so his younger son [Zhāng] Xiū inherited the noble rank.
- (1) Diǎnlüè states: I in former times heard that Liú [Biǎo of] Jīng Province once himself composed letter wishing to send to Sūn [Cè] Bófú, and showed it to Mí [Héng] Zhèngpíng, and Zhèngpíng mocked it, saying: “Is this wishing to have Sūn Cè’s banner boys read it? Or to have Zhāng Zǐbù see it?” Going by Zhèngpíng’s words, did he believe Zǐbù’s ability was high? Even though yet his own writings were elegant, it he could not say another was without calligraphy skill. Moreover I have heard in Wú he is praised and called Zhòngfù, and by this, this man truly must be the time’s greats. What a regret that he was not among the resources of Sōng and other mountains [i.e. the north], but instead moved to live in Kuàijī [in the south].
Zhāo’s younger brother’s son [Zhāng] Fèn was twenty years, built for attacking cities a great siege cart, and was by Bù Zhì recommended. Zhāo was unwilling, saying: “Your years are yet few, why entrust yourself to the army?” [Zhāng] Fèn answered: “In the past the boy Wāng died for a difficult cause, Zǐqí [at sixteen] governed Ā. I truly am untalented and that is all, but in years I am not few.” Therefore he led troops as a General, and continuously had achievements, reaching Bànzhōu Commander, with fief as Marquis of Lèxiāng precinct.
[Zhāng] Chéng appellation Zhòngsì, when young for his talent and learning had reputation, and with Zhūgě Jìn, Bù Zhì, and Yán Jùn were friendly with each other. When [Sūn] Quán became General of Elite Cavalry, he was recruited as West Department Official, sent out as Chángshā West Division Commandant. He suppressed and pacified mountain bandits, obtaining elite troops of 15,000 men. Later he became Rúxū Commander, General Exerting Authority, with fief as a capital village Marquis, commanding personal retainers of 5000 men. Chéng as a man was robust and firm and loyal and honest, able to evaluate and note people, selecting out Péngchéng’s Cài Kuǎn, Nányáng’s Xiè Jǐng out of orphans small and young, and later all were statesmen. [Cài] Kuǎn reached Minister of the Guard, [Xiè] Jǐng Yùzhāng Administrator. (1) Also at the time Zhūgě Kè’s years were few, everyone was impressed with his exceptional talent, but Chéng said in the end the downfall of the Zhūgě clan would be [Zhūgè Kè] Yuánxùn. He was industrious in progress, sincere to all sorts, and all in many dealings, none did not pass his gates. At sixty seven years, Chìwū Seventh Year  he died, posthumous name Dìng-hóu “Decisive Marquis.” His son [Zhāng] Zhèn succeeded.
Previously, Chéng mourned his wife, and Zhāo wished him to remarry with Zhūgě Jǐn’s daughter, but Chéng because he was friends with him [Zhūgě Jǐn] found it difficult. [Sūn] Quán heard and encouraged it, and therefore he became [Zhūgě Jǐn’s] son-in-law. (2) He begat a daughter, and [Sūn] Quán had his son [Sūn] Hé accept her as concubine. [Sūn] Quán repeatedly ordered [Sūn] Hé to cultivate veneration for Chéng, and act with the rites of a son-in-law. [Zhāng] Zhèn at the time of Zhūgě Kè’s execution was already dead.
- (1) Wúlù states: [Cài] Kuǎn appellation Wéndé, successively was employed inside and out, and for his purity was prominent at the time. Later he was Minister of the Guard and Internal Documents Director, with fief as Marquis of Liú. He had two sons [Cài] Tiáo and [Cài] Jī. [Cài] Tiáo in Sūn Hào’s time reached Secretariat Director and Junior Tutor to the Heir-Apparent. [Cài] Jī became Línchuān Administrator.
- Xiè Jǐng’s matter is in Sūn Dēng’s biography (SGZ 59).
(2) Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: Chéng with Zhūgě Jǐn both during Chìwū died. One calculates Chéng was only four years younger than [Zhūgě] Jǐn.
[Zhāng] Xiū appellation Shūsì, when capped he with Zhūgě Kè, Gù Tán and others all were the Heir-Apparent [Sūn] Dēng’s officials and friends, and taught [Sūn] Dēng the Hànshū. (1) From Internal Companion he was transferred to Right Assistance Commandant. [Sūn] Quán once went hunting, only until sunset returning, Xiū sent up memorial admonishing, [Sūn] Quán greatly praised it, and showed it to Zhāo. When [Sūn] Dēng died afterward, he became Attendant Colonel, appointed Feather Forest Commander, pacifying Three Arranger of the Army affairs, promoted to General Raising Martial, was by the King of Lǔ [Sūn] Bà’s friends and faction slandered, that he with Gù Tán and Chéng together at the Quèpí discussion of achievements, Xiū and Chéng had with Arranger of the Army Chén Xún communicated, to falsely increase their forces, and all were exiled to Jiāo Province. Internal Documents Director Sūn Hóng was a false flatterer, Xiū previously had angered him, (2) and [Sūn] Hóng therefore slandered and complained, so that Imperial Order was sent down bestowing Xiū with suicide, at the time forty-one years.
- (1) Wúshū states: Xiū advanced to teach, was able to criticize the document’s meanings, distinguish between things, all with ordered reasoning. Every time he ascended the hall to feast and drink, he would become intoxicated and make merry, and [Sūn] Dēng then would join and together have merriment. Xiū as a man was open-minded, [Sūn] Dēng deeply favored him, and always kept him at his side.
- (2) Wúlù states: [Sūn] Hóng was a Kuàijī man.