(52.1) Zhāng Zhāo 張昭 [Zǐbù 子布]

Zhāng Chéng 張承 [Zhòngsì 仲嗣], Zhāng Xiū 張休 [Shūsì 叔嗣]



Zhāng Zhāo appellation Zǐbù was a Péngchéng man. When young he enjoyed study, was good with Clerical Script, and from Báihóu Zǐ’ān received education on the Zuǒshì Chūnqiū, read extensively all books, and with Lángyé’s Zhào Yù and Dōnghǎi’s Wáng Lǎng all had reputation and were friendly. When capped he was examined as Filial and Incorrupt candidate, did not accept, and with [Wáng] Lǎng together discussed the matter of ancient ruler’s forbidden names, and the province’s and local talented scholars Chén Lín and others all praised it. (1) Inspector Táo Qiān recommended him as Abundant Talent candidate, he did not answer, and [Táo] Qiān believed it disparaging to himself, and therefore he met with arrest. [Zhào] Yù personally went to plead for him, and by this he obtained release.

張昭字子布,彭城人也。少好學,善隸書,從白侯子安受左氏春秋,博覽眾書,與琅邪趙昱、東海王朗俱發名友善。弱冠察孝廉,不就,與朗共論舊君諱事,州里才士陳琳等皆稱善之。〔一〕刺史陶謙舉茂才,不應,謙以為輕己,遂見拘執。昱傾身營救,方以得免。

At Hàn’s end there was great chaos, and of Xú [Province]’s scholars and people many fled the troubles to Yáng [Province] land, and Zhāo also to the south crossed the Jiāng. Sūn Cè began his enterprise, and appointed Zhāo as his Chief Clerk and Supporting the Army Internal Cadet General, ascended hall to pay respects to his mother, treated him as an equal old friend, and in civil and military affairs, always trusted in Zhāo. (2) Zhāo always obtained letters from northern scholar officials, filled with praises of Zhāo. Zhāo wished to be silent but if he did not announce then he feared being considered as having private [ulterior] motives, but if announcing then he feared it was not appropriate, and so going and leaving he was not at ease. [Sūn] Cé heard this, and happily laughed: “In the past Guǎn Zhòng was Chancellor for Qí, first was called Zhòngfù [lit. second after father, i.e. father’s oldest younger brother], second after being called Zhòngfù, thus Duke Huán [of Qí] became Overlord. Now you Zǐbù are worthy, and I can employ you, are your achievements and reputation alone not with me?”

漢末大亂,徐方士民多避難揚土,昭皆南渡江。孫策創業,命昭為長史、撫軍中郎將,升堂拜母,如比肩之舊,文武之事,一以委昭。〔二〕昭每得北方士大夫書疏,專歸美於昭,昭欲嘿而不宣則懼有私,宣之則恐非宜,進退不安。策聞之,歡笑曰:「昔管仲相齊,一則仲父,二則仲父,而桓公為霸者宗。今子布賢,我能用之,其功名獨不在我乎!」

  • (1) At the time Rǔnán Registrar Yìng Shào discussed whether it was appropriate to for the ancient rulers maintain forbidden names, and the debaters all had differences and similarities; the matter is in Fēngsú Tōng. Zhāo wrote a discussion that said: “I have seen the great state’s commentary, and the scholar’s and gentlemen’s discussion, saying that from the inauguration of Jiànwǔ [25-56] onward, the ancient ruler’s forbidden personal names are of fifty six men, and believe later people cannot use them. Selecting from the classics in discussion, giving example in various things, the righteousness is high and words beautiful, and deeply can be lauded and envied. My humble opinions are narrow and shallow, but I yet have doubts. Since heaven and earth were separated, and all things settled and formed, first there was the principle of father and son and of ruler and servant. Therefore the sagely men followed Heaven’s nature, regulating ritual to receive veneration, by the three principles, the ruler truly feeds them, at the mourning for their sorrows, the ruler personally overlooks them, and in generosity none is heavier, and in grace none is greater, truly what the ministers and subjects honor and look up to, like how all things on Heaven depend, so how can they be had and then use the same [name] as them? However closeness has decline, honors have weakening, and therefore by the  mourning clothes going up does not pass the great-great grandfather, going down does not pass the great-great grandson. Also the Zhuàn records for four generations then linen hemp is the clothes of mourning; for the fifth generation then bare [left arm] and remove [cap], such is the decline in close relation; for the sixth generation then kinship is exhausted. Also the Qūlǐ has it that if there was no principle of enshrining then there was no forbidding of personal name, to not forbid personal name, covers speaking of name, the principle of ending of relations, is not confined to sharing [name], so all the more then for the ancient rulers of fifty six! Zhū-zǐ made alliance, Jìyǒu came to submit, and they were not called by their personal name, all writing their appellations, and at the time this was the Lǔ people praising them. How is one to resolve servants and sons for rulers and father forbidding personal name? Zhōu King ‘s forbidden personal name was Mǎn, reaching King Dìng‘s time there was Wáng Sūnmǎn, he became a Grandee, and this was a servant sharing name with ruler. Also King ‘s forbidden personal name was Hú, and King Zhuāng‘s son was named Hú, and those similar to this are very many. These sorts of matters and commentaries, the classics have explanations, the narratives have examples, so afterward in attacking or defending [in debate], in all things there is no defeat, and passing down through a hundred generations, there is ever no fault. Now although Yìng Shào above honors the names of ancient rulers, yet below there is no definite levels, and so there is doubt. In the Qūlǐ‘s sheets, in doubtful matters without reference, observing and examining high and low, mistakes are themselves proof. Composing writing can be done, but instigating is not proper, and how is the future to observe it? Words once spoken, is like something spilled. When mistaken words are already past, regretting it is of what use!”

〔一〕 時汝南主簿應劭議宜為舊君諱,論者皆互有異同,事在風俗通。昭著論曰:「客有見大國之議,士君子之論,云起元建武已來,舊君名諱五十六人,以為後生不得協也。取乎經論,譬諸行事,義高辭麗,甚可嘉羨。愚意褊淺,竊有疑焉。蓋乾坤剖分,萬物定形,肇有父子君臣之經。故聖人順天之性,制禮尚敬,在三之義,君實食之,在喪之哀,君親臨之,厚莫重焉,恩莫大焉,誠臣子所尊仰,萬夫所天恃,焉得而同之哉?然親親有衰,尊尊有殺,故禮服上不盡高祖,下不盡玄孫。又傳記四世而緦麻,服之窮也;五世袒免,降殺同姓也;六世而親屬竭矣。又曲禮有不逮事之義則不諱,不諱者,蓋名之謂,屬絕之義,不拘於協,況乃古君五十六哉!邾子會盟,季友來歸,不稱其名,咸書字者,是時魯人嘉之也。何解臣子為君父諱乎?周穆王諱滿,至定王時有王孫滿者,其為大夫,是臣協君也。又厲王諱胡,及莊王之子名胡,其比眾多。夫類事建議,經有明據,傳有徵案,然後進攻退守,萬無奔北,垂示百世,永無咎失。今應劭雖上尊舊君之名,而下無所斷齊,猶歸之疑云。曲禮之篇,疑事無質,觀省上下,闕義自證,文辭可為,倡而不法,將來何觀?言聲一放,猶拾瀋也,過辭在前,悔其何追!」

  • (2) Wúshū states: [Sūn] Cé obtained Zhāo and was deeply pleased saying: “I am about to have matters across the Four Quarters, taking scholars and worthies as the highest, I with you cannot be frivolous.” Therefore he promoted him to Colonel, and treated him by the Rites due to a Teacher and Friend.

〔二〕 吳書曰:策得昭甚悅,謂曰:「吾方有事四方,以士人賢者上,吾於子不得輕矣。」乃上為校尉,待以師友之禮。


[Sūn] Cè was about to die, and entrusted his younger brother [Sūn] Quán to Zhāo, and Zhāo led the various ministers to establish and support him. (1) He sent up memorial to the Hàn House, sent down word to the subordinate cities, the inner and outer officers, ordering each to be devoted in duties. [Sūn] Quán’s sorrow and grief was such that he could not yet oversee matters, and Zhāo said to [Sūn] Quán: “One who is a successor, must be able to carry the burden of the previous course, accomplish prosperity and completion, in order to achieve the meritorious enterprise. Right now the realm Under Heaven is like a cauldron boiling, various bandits fill the mountains, how can you Filial and Incorrupt candidate lie down in sorrow and grief, like a coarse fellow’s situation?” Therefore he personally supported [Sūn] Quán to mount horse, line up the troops and go out, and afterwards the hearts of the masses knew where to turn.

策臨亡,以弟權託昭,昭率群僚立而輔之。〔一〕上表漢室,下移屬城,中外將校,各令奉職。權悲感未視事,昭謂權曰:「夫為人後者,貴能負荷先軌,克昌堂構,以成勳業也。方今天下鼎沸,群盜滿山,孝廉何得寢伏哀戚,肆匹夫之情哉?」乃身自扶權上馬,陳兵而出,然後眾心知有所歸。

  • (1) Wúlì states: [Sūn] Cè said to Zhāo: “If [Sūn Quán] Zhòngmǒu cannot handle affairs, you can yourself replace him. Even if you cannot triumph, you can slowly return west, and also have no worries.”

〔一〕 吳歷曰:策謂昭曰:「若仲謀不任事者,君便自取之。正復不克捷,緩步西歸,亦無所慮。」

Zhāo again was [Sūn] Quán’s Chief Clerk, entrusted with responsibilities like before. (2) Later Liú Bèi memorialized [Sūn] Quán as Acting General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Zhāo was his Master of the Army.

昭復為權長史,授任如前。〔二〕後劉備表權行車騎將軍,昭為軍師。

  • (2) Wúshū states: At the time the realm Under Heaven was divided apart, and those usurping orders were many. Sūn Cè’s administrating of matters was still short in time, his favor and grace not yet widespread, in one morning he suddenly perished, the scholars and people were in difficulties, similar in most and differing little. When Zhāo assisted [Sūn] Quán, he soothed and comforted the common people, and lords and guests and scholars traveling to seek refuge obtained refuge and were themselves secured. Every time [Sūn] Quán sent out on campaign, he left Zhāo to defend, and manage government office affairs. Later Yellow Headscarf rebels rose up, and Zhāo suppressed and pacified them. [Sūn] Quán campaigned against Héféi, and ordered Zhāo to separately suppress Kuāngqí, and also command and manage the various officers, attacking and defeating Yùzhāng rebel leader Zhōu Fèng and others at Nánchéng. After this he was rarely again commander, always kept at [Sūn Quán’s] side, as a planning official. [Sūn] Quán because Zhāo was an old official, treated him exceptionally well.

〔二〕 吳書曰:是時天下分裂,擅命者眾。孫策蒞事日淺,恩澤未洽,一旦傾隕,士民狼狽,頗有同異。及昭輔權,綏撫百姓,諸侯賓旅寄寓之士,得用自安。權每出征,留昭鎮守,領幕府事。後黃巾賊起,昭討平之。權征合肥,命昭別討匡琦,又督領諸將,攻破豫章賊率周鳳等於南城。自此希復將帥,常在左右,為謀謨臣。權以昭舊臣,待遇尤重。

Every time [Sūn] Quán went hunting, he always rode horse to shoot tigers, and a tiger once charged forward and climbed and grasped the horse’s saddle. Zhāo changed color and went forward saying: “Why do you General act thus? One who is a ruler of men, is said to be able to drive on heroes, to lead on various worthies; how is it said to charge through open fields, comparing valor with wild beasts? If one morning there is misfortune, how can one but be by the realm Under Heaven laughed at?” [Sūn] Quán apologized to Zhāo: “I am young and my consideration of matters is not far-reaching, and by this have shamed you.” However he could not stop, and therefore made a shooting tiger carriage, with square openings, and when at leisure did not set up canopy, one man as driver, from the inside shooting. At times there were exceptional beasts, that would again break into the carriage, and [Sūn] Quán every time hand struck them and believed it fun. Although Zhāo remonstrated and opposed, [Sūn Quán] always laughed and did not answer.

權每田獵,常乘馬射虎,虎常突前攀持馬鞍。昭變色而前曰:「將軍何有當爾?夫為人君者,謂能駕御英雄,驅使群賢,豈謂馳逐於原野,校勇於猛獸者乎?如有一旦之患,奈天下笑何?」權謝昭曰:「年少慮事不遠,以此慚君。」然猶不能已,乃作射虎車,為方目,閒不置蓋,一人為御,自於中射之。時有逸群之獸,輒復犯車,而權每手擊以為樂。昭雖諫爭,常笑而不答。

Wèi in Huángchū Second Year [221] sent envoy Xíng Zhēn to honor [Sūn] Quán as King of Wú. [Xíng] Zhēn entered the Gates, but did not dismount carriage. Zhāo said to [Xíng] Zhēn: “Rites are not lacking in reverence, so that Law is not lacking in enactment. But you sir dare esteem yourself as so great, do you believe the Jiāng’s south is weak, without a square cùn of blade edge?” [Xíng] Zhēn at once hurriedly dismounted carriage. Zhāo was appointed General Pacifying the Distant, with fief as Marquis of Yóuquán. (3)

魏黃初二年,遣使者邢貞拜權為吳王。貞入門,不下車。昭謂貞曰:「夫禮無不敬,故法無不行。而君敢自尊大,豈以江南寡弱,無方寸之刃故乎!」貞即遽下車。拜昭為綏遠將軍,封由拳侯。〔三〕

  • (3) Wúlù states: Zhāo with Sūn Shào, Téng Yìn, Zhèng Lǐ and others drew from Zhōu and Hàn in compiling and deciding Court ceremonies.

〔三〕 吳錄曰:昭與孫紹、滕胤、鄭禮等,採周、漢,撰定朝儀。

[Sūn] Quán at Wǔchāng, overlooked Diào Terrace, drank liquor and was greatly intoxicated. [Sūn] Quán sent someone to with water spray the various ministers saying: “Today drink completely, only once drunk to falling in the terrace, can they then stop and that is all.” Zhāo with hard look did not speak, and went out and in his carriage sat. [Sūn] Quán sent someone to call Zhāo back, saying: “Everyone is making merry and that is all, why is your excellency angry?” Zhāo replied: “In the past Zhòu made a liquor dregs mountain and a liquor lake in the long night drinking, and at the time also believed it merry, not believing it an evil.” [Sūn] Quán was silent, and had a shamed look, and therefore ceased the drinking of liquor.

權於武昌,臨釣臺,飲酒大醉。權使人以水灑群臣曰:「今日酣飲,惟醉墮臺中,乃當止耳。」昭正色不言,出外車中坐。權遣人呼昭還,謂曰:「為共作樂耳,公何為怒乎?」昭對曰:「昔紂為糟丘酒池長夜之飲,當時亦以為樂,不以為惡也。」權默然,有慚色,遂罷酒。

Previously, [Sūn] Quán was about to install a Chancellor, and everyone recommended Zhāo. [Sūn] Quán said: “Now there are many matters, the office’s responsibilities are heavy, and not of benefit to him.” Later [Chancellor] Sūn Shào died, and the officials again nominated Zhāo. [Sūn] Quán said: “How can I for Zǐbù have favor? Managing the Chancellor’s affairs is troublesome, but this elder’s nature is stubborn, and if what he says is not followed, then his complaints and blames will rise, and this is not of benefit.” Therefore he employed Gù Yōng.

初,權當置丞相,眾議歸昭。權曰:「方今多事,職統者責重,非所以優之也。」後孫邵卒,百寮復舉昭,權曰:「孤豈為子布有愛乎?領丞相事煩,而此公性剛,所言不從,怨咎將興,非所以益之也。」乃用顧雍。


When [Sūn] Quán claimed Imperial Title, Zhāo claimed old age and illness, and returned his government rank and those he commanded. (1) He was again appointed General Supporting Wú, ranked after the Three Excellencies, and changed in fief to Marquis of Lóu, with supply fief of ten thousand households. At his residence he had no [government] matters, and therefore composed a Chūnqiū Zuǒshì Zhuàn Xiè and Lùnyǔ Zhù. [Sūn] Quán once asked Minister of the Guard Yán Jùn: “Do you still remember the books you recited when you were young or not?” [Yán] Jùn therefore recited the Xiàojīng‘s Zhòngní Jū. Zhāo said: “Yán Jùn is a rustic student, I your servant ask to for Your Majesty recite.” Then he recited Jūnzǐ zhī Shìshàng, and all believed Zhāo understood what he recited.

權既稱尊號,昭以老病,上還官位及所統領。〔一〕更拜輔吳將軍,班亞三司,改封婁侯,食邑萬戶。在里宅無事,乃著春秋左氏傳解及論語注。權嘗問衛尉嚴峻:「寧念小時所闇書不?」峻因誦孝經「仲尼居」。昭曰:「嚴畯鄙生,臣請為陛下誦之。」乃誦「君子之事上」,咸以昭為知所誦。

  • (1) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: When [Sūn] Quán took Imperial Title, he invited and met the officials, and gave credit to Zhōu Yú. Zhāo raised his ceremonial tablet wishing to commend and praise achievements and virtue, but before he spoke, [Sūn] Quán said: “If it I had use Excellency Zhāng’s plan, today I would be begging for my food.” Zhāo was greatly shamed, and bowed on the ground with sweat. Zhāo was loyal and bold and clearly upright, and had a great minister’s integrity, [Sūn] Quán heavily respected him, but the reason he did not appoint Zhāo as Chancellor, was overall because in the past he opposed the suggestions of Zhōu Yú and Lǔ Sù and others as wrong.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes that Zhāng Zhāo‘s advice to welcome Excellency Cáo [Cāo], was it not considering the far reaching? He was of uplifting character and firm countenance, his submission to the Sūn clan, truly was amid adversity an unexpected meeting, amid extreme distress a beginning, and from [Sūn] Cé to [Sūn] Quán, he with ability and planning sufficiently served, and therefore thoroughly and sincerely rectified and assisted, in order to achieve their enterprise, above serving as vassal to the Hàn House, below protecting the people; the plan of tripartite division, originally was not his intention. Excellency Cáo [Cāo] wielded obedience and rose up, his achievements by righteous were established, from Jì to Qīng [Provinces] he united all civilization, expanding to pacify Jīng-Yǐng, and the opportunity for great settlement, was at this time. If Zhāo’s commentary was followed, then the Six Directions would be united, and how would there be continuous warfare and calamity, and therefore destruction like the Warring States? Although this was not an achievement to the Sūn clan, it would have been a great one to the realm Under Heaven. In the past Dòu Róng submitted to Hàn, and with the state rose and fell; Zhāng Lǔ surrendered to Wèi, his rewards enduring through the generations. All the more for [Sūn] Quán raising and protecting Wú, watching the situation to submit, the depth of generous reward [he would have received], it can be judged! Therefore Zhāo’s planning for others, how was it not loyal and correct!

〔一〕 江表傳曰:權既即尊位,請會百官,歸功周瑜。昭舉笏欲褒贊功德,未及言,權曰:「如張公之計,今已乞食矣。」昭大慚,伏地流汗。昭忠謇亮直,有大臣節,權敬重之,然所以不相昭者,蓋以昔駮周瑜、魯肅等議為非也。臣松之以為張昭勸迎曹公,所存豈不遠乎?夫其揚休正色,委質孫氏,誠以厄運初遘,塗炭方始,自策及權,才略足輔,是以盡誠匡弼,以成其業,上藩漢室,下保民物;鼎峙之計,本非其志也。曹公仗順而起,功以義立,冀以清一諸華,拓平荊郢,大定之機,在於此會。若使昭議獲從,則六合為一,豈有兵連禍結,遂為戰國之弊哉!雖無功於孫氏,有大當於天下矣。昔竇融歸漢,與國升降;張魯降魏,賞延于世。況權舉全吳,望風順服,寵靈之厚,其可測量哉!然則昭為人謀,豈不忠且正乎!


Zhāo at every Court meeting, spoke with strong and severe manner, his meaning shown on his face, and once because his blunt speech opposed Imperial wishes, for a while he was not allowed to enter to meet. Later a Shǔ envoy arrived, praised Shǔ’s virtue and beauty, and of the various ministers none could oppose, and [Sūn] Quán sighed and said: “If Excellency Zhāng was seated here, this [envoy] without debating would be defeated, how could he even boast?” The next day, he sent an internal envoy to ask after him, and therefore invite and meet Zhāo. Zhāo left the mat to apologize, and [Sūn] Quán knelt and stopped him. Zhāo was seated, and looked up and said: “In the past the Dowager-Empress and King Huán [Sūn Cè] did not entrust this old servant to Your Majesty, but entrusted Your Majesty to this old servant. Therefore I thoroughly pondered a minister’s integrity, in order to repay generous kindness, so that after my death, there would be something worth praising and telling, but my thoughts and considerations were narrow and short, I disobeyed Imperial intentions, casting myself into seclusion and ruin, to ever be abandoned in ravine and ditch, and did not plan on again being summoned to meet, to be able to serve within the curtains. But I your servant’s humble intentions are to serve the state, my ambition to loyal give benefit, until my death and nothing more. If then there is change in my heart or thought, to steal glory and seek appearance, this is what I your servant cannot do.” [Sūn] Quán gratefully declined his apologies.

昭每朝見,辭氣壯厲,義形於色,曾以直言逆旨,中不進見。後蜀使來,稱蜀德美,而群臣莫拒,權歎曰:「使張公在坐,彼不折則廢,安復自誇乎?」明日,遣中使勞問,因請見昭。昭避席謝,權跪止之。昭坐定,仰曰:「昔太后、桓王不以老臣屬陛下,而以陛下屬老臣,是以思盡臣節,以報厚恩,使泯沒之後,有可稱述,而意慮淺短,違逆盛旨,自分幽淪,長棄溝壑,不圖復蒙引見,得奉帷幄。然臣愚心所以事國,志在忠益,畢命而已。若乃變心易慮,以偷榮取容,此臣所不能也。」權辭謝焉。


[Sūn] Quán because Gōngsūn Yuān declared himself vassal, sent Zhāng Mí and Xǔ Yàn to Liáodōng to appoint [Gōngsūn] Yuān as King of Yān. Zhāo remonstrated: “[Gōngsūn] Yuān betrayed Wèi and fears suppression, from afar coming to ask for help, is not his original intention. If [Gōngsūn] Yuān changes plans, wishing to turn to Wèi, then the two envoys will not return, and will it not also be laughed at by the realm Under Heaven?” [Sūn] Quán with him opposed and argued, and Zhāo’s intentions became more firm.

權以公孫淵稱藩,遣張彌、許晏至遼東拜淵為燕王,昭諫曰:「淵背魏懼討,遠來求援,非本志也。若淵改圖,欲自明於魏,兩使不反,不亦取笑於天下乎?」權與相反覆,昭意彌切。

[Sūn] Quán could not stand it, and grabbed saber and angrily said: “Wú state’s elites entering the palace then bow to me, going out of the palace then bow to you, and my veneration of you, is also of the utmost, but repeatedly you lead the masses to oppose me, and I always fear I will lose my composure.”

權不能堪,案刀而怒曰:「吳國士人入宮則拜孤,出宮則拜君,孤之敬君,亦為至矣,而數於眾中折孤,孤嘗恐失計。」

Zhāo closely watched [Sūn] Quán and said: “Although I your servant know my words are not used, every time I thoroughly exhaust myself in loyalty, is truly because when the Dowager-Empress was about to pass, she called this old servant below the bed, and her posthumous Imperial Order’s words are ever therefore in my ear.” Therefore he shed tears overflowing. [Sūn] Quán threw his saber to the ground, and with Zhāo wept in answer.

昭熟視權曰:「臣雖知言不用,每竭愚忠者,誠以太后臨崩,呼老臣於床下,遺詔顧命之言故在耳。」因涕泣橫流。權擲刀致地,與昭對泣。

However in the end he sent [Zhāng] Mí and [Xǔ] Yàn to go. Zhāo was angry his advice was not used, and claiming illness would not attend Court. [Sūn] Quán resented this, and with soil blocked his gates. Zhāo also on the inside with soil sealed it.

然卒遣彌、晏往。昭忿言之不用,稱疾不朝。權恨之,土塞其門,昭又於內以土封之。

[Gōngsūn] Yuān indeed killed [Zhāng] Mí and [Xǔ] Yàn. [Sūn] Quán repeatedly consoled and apologized to Zhāo, but Zhāo firmly would not rise. [Sūn] Quán therefore went out and passing his gate called to Zhāo, but Zhāo claimed his illness was severe. [Sūn] Quán burned his gates, wishing to by this scare him, but Zhāo again closed his doors. [Sūn] Quán sent someone to extinguish the fire, and stayed at the gates for a good while. Zhāo’s various sons together supported Zhāo to rise, [Sūn] Quán conveyed him to return to the Palace, deeply reproaching himself. Zhāo could not but go, and afterward attended Court. (1)

淵果殺彌、晏。權數慰謝昭,昭固不起,權因出過其門呼昭,昭辭疾篤。權燒其門,欲以恐之,昭更閉戶。權使人滅火,住門良久,昭諸子共扶昭起,權載以還宮,深自克責。昭不得已,然後朝會。〔一〕

  • Xí Zuòchǐ states: Zhāng Zhāo was thus this unbecoming of a servant! A servant of another, after three remonstrants not followed should then turn body and withdraw, if it is instead unceasing, what anger and resentment is there to have? Moreover Qín [Duke] violated remonstrants, but in the end was overlord over the Western Róng; Jìn [Duke] Wén was temporarily furious, but finally achieved his great enterprise. [Qín Duke made] legacy pledge so that his regrets would be recorded; Hú Yǎn had no resentful words. When the Way of Ruler and Servant is greatest, high and low all thrive. Now [Sūn] Quán regretted his wrong actions and sought Zhāo, and later could all the more return to consider his fallen heart, to not be remote and yet return, and this was his goodness. Zhāo as servant of another, did not judge [Sūn] Quán’s attainment of the Way, rectify his later faults, from morning to night labor, in order to prolong coming acclaim, but instead pursued anger at not being used, placing blame upon his ruler, closing door and refusing command, sitting and waiting for the burning to be extinguished, how was this not rebellion!

〔一〕 習鑿齒曰:張昭於是乎不臣矣!夫臣人者,三諫不從則奉身而退,身苟不絕,何忿懟之有?且秦穆違諫,卒霸西戎,晉文暫怒,終成大業。遺誓以悔過見錄,狐偃無怨絕之辭,君臣道泰,上下俱榮。今權悔往之非而求昭,後益迴慮降心,不遠而復,是其善也。昭為人臣,不度權得道,匡其後失,夙夜匪懈,以延來譽,乃追忿不用,歸罪於君,閉戶拒命,坐待焚滅,豈不悖哉!


Zhāo’s appearance was stern, and had authoritative manner, and [Sūn] Quán once said: “When I with Excellency Zhāng speak, I do not dare be presumptuous.” The whole country feared him.

昭容貌矜嚴,有威風,權常曰:「孤與張公言,不敢妄也。」舉邦憚之。

At eighty-one years, Jiāhé Fifth Year [236] he died. His legacy order was for strip of headscarf and plan coffin, and reduced time of mourning. [Sūn] Quán wore white mourning clothes and oversaw lamentations. Posthumous name Wén-hóu “Cultured Marquis.” (1) His eldest son [Zhāng] Chéng already himself had fief as Marquis, so his younger son [Zhāng] Xiū inherited the noble rank.

年八十一,嘉禾五年卒。遺令幅巾素棺,斂以時服。權素服臨弔,諡曰文侯。〔一〕長子承已自封侯,少子休襲爵。

  • (1) Diǎnlüè states: I in former times heard that Liú [Biǎo of] Jīng Province once himself composed letter wishing to send to Sūn [Cè] Bófú, and showed it to Mí [Héng] Zhèngpíng, and Zhèngpíng mocked it, saying: “Is this wishing to have Sūn Cè’s banner boys read it? Or to have Zhāng Zǐbù see it?” Going by Zhèngpíng’s words, did he believe Zǐbù’s ability was high? Even though yet his own writings were elegant, it he could not say another was without calligraphy skill. Moreover I have heard in Wú he is praised and called Zhòngfù, and by this, this man truly must be the time’s greats. What a regret that he was not among the resources of Sōng and other mountains [i.e. the north], but instead moved to live in Kuàijī [in the south].

〔一〕 典略曰:余曩聞劉荊州嘗自作書欲與孫伯符,以示禰正平,正平蚩之,言:「如是為欲使孫策帳下兒讀之邪,將使張子布見乎?」如正平言,以為子布之才高乎?雖然,猶自蘊藉典雅,不可謂之無筆跡也。加聞吳中稱謂之仲父,如此,其人信一時之良幹,恨其不於嵩岳等資,而乃播殖於會稽。


Zhāo’s younger brother’s son [Zhāng] Fèn was twenty years, built for attacking cities a great siege cart, and was by Bù Zhì recommended. Zhāo was unwilling, saying: “Your years are yet few, why entrust yourself to the army?” [Zhāng] Fèn answered: “In the past the boy Wāng died for a difficult cause, Zǐqí [at sixteen] governed Ā. I truly am untalented and that is all, but in years I am not few.” Therefore he led troops as a General, and continuously had achievements, reaching Bànzhōu Commander, with fief as Marquis of Lèxiāng precinct.

昭弟子奮年二十,造作攻城大攻車,為步騭所薦。昭不願曰:「汝年尚少,何為自委於軍旅乎?」奮對曰:「昔童汪死難,子奇治阿,奮實不才耳,於年不為少也。」遂領兵為將軍,連有功效,至(平州)〔半州〕都督,封樂鄉亭侯。


[Zhāng] Chéng appellation Zhòngsì, when young for his talent and learning had reputation, and with Zhūgě Jìn, Bù Zhì, and Yán Jùn were friendly with each other. When [Sūn] Quán became General of Elite Cavalry, he was recruited as West Department Official, sent out as Chángshā West Division Commandant. He suppressed and pacified mountain bandits, obtaining elite troops of 15,000 men. Later he became Rúxū Commander, General Exerting Authority, with fief as a capital village Marquis, commanding personal retainers of 5000 men. Chéng as a man was robust and firm and loyal and honest, able to evaluate and note people, selecting out Péngchéng’s Cài Kuǎn, Nányáng’s Xiè Jǐng out of orphans small and young, and later all were statesmen. [Cài] Kuǎn reached Minister of the Guard, [Xiè] Jǐng Yùzhāng Administrator. (1) Also at the time Zhūgě Kè’s years were few, everyone was impressed with his exceptional talent, but Chéng said in the end the downfall of the Zhūgě clan would be [Zhūgè Kè] Yuánxùn. He was industrious in progress, sincere to all sorts, and all in many dealings, none did not pass his gates. At sixty seven years, Chìwū Seventh Year [244] he died, posthumous name Dìng-hóu “Decisive Marquis.” His son [Zhāng] Zhèn succeeded.

承字仲嗣,少以才學知名,與諸葛瑾、步騭、嚴畯相友善。權為驃騎將軍,辟西曹掾,出為長沙西部都尉。討平山寇,得精兵萬五千人。後為濡須都督、奮威將軍,封都鄉侯,領部曲五千人,承為人壯毅忠讜,能甄識人物,拔彭城蔡款、南陽謝景於孤微童幼,後並為國士,款至衛尉,景豫章太守。〔一〕又諸葛恪年少時,眾人奇其英才,承言終敗諸葛氏者元遜也。勤於長進,篤於物類,凡在庶幾之流,無不造門。年六十七,赤烏七年卒,諡曰定侯。子震嗣。

Previously, Chéng mourned his wife, and Zhāo wished him to remarry with Zhūgě Jǐn’s daughter, but Chéng because he was friends with him [Zhūgě Jǐn] found it difficult. [Sūn] Quán heard and encouraged it, and therefore he became [Zhūgě Jǐn’s] son-in-law. (2) He begat a daughter, and [Sūn] Quán had his son [Sūn] Hé accept her as concubine. [Sūn] Quán repeatedly ordered [Sūn] Hé to cultivate veneration for Chéng, and act with the rites of a son-in-law. [Zhāng] Zhèn at the time of Zhūgě Kè’s execution was already dead.

初,承喪妻,昭欲為索諸葛瑾女,承以相與有好,難之,權聞而勸焉,遂為婿。〔二〕生女,權為子和納之。權數令和脩敬於承,執子婿之禮。震諸葛恪誅時亦死。

  • (1) Wúlù states: [Cài] Kuǎn appellation Wéndé, successively was employed inside and out, and for his purity was prominent at the time. Later he was Minister of the Guard and Internal Documents Director, with fief as Marquis of Liú. He had two sons [Cài] Tiáo and [Cài] Jī. [Cài] Tiáo in Sūn Hào’s time reached Secretariat Director and Junior Tutor to the Heir-Apparent. [Cài] Jī became Línchuān Administrator.
  • Xiè Jǐng’s matter is in Sūn Dēng’s biography (SGZ 59).

〔一〕 吳錄曰:款字文德,歷位內外,以清貞顯於當世。後以衛尉領中書令,封留侯。二子,條、機。條孫皓時位至尚書令、太子少傅。機為臨川太守。謝景事在孫登傳。

(2) Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: Chéng with Zhūgě Jǐn both during Chìwū died. One calculates Chéng was only four years younger than [Zhūgě] Jǐn.

〔二〕 臣松之案:承與諸葛瑾同以赤烏中卒,計承年小瑾四歲耳。


[Zhāng] Xiū appellation Shūsì, when capped he with Zhūgě Kè, Gù Tán and others all were the Heir-Apparent [Sūn] Dēng’s officials and friends, and taught [Sūn] Dēng the Hànshū. (1) From Internal Companion he was transferred to Right Assistance Commandant. [Sūn] Quán once went hunting, only until sunset returning, Xiū sent up memorial admonishing, [Sūn] Quán greatly praised it, and showed it to Zhāo. When [Sūn] Dēng died afterward, he became Attendant Colonel, appointed Feather Forest Commander, pacifying Three Arranger of the Army affairs, promoted to General Raising Martial, was by the King of Lǔ [Sūn] Bà’s friends and faction slandered, that he with Gù Tán and Chéng together at the Quèpí discussion of achievements, Xiū and Chéng had with Arranger of the Army Chén Xún communicated, to falsely increase their forces, and all were exiled to Jiāo Province. Internal Documents Director Sūn Hóng was a false flatterer, Xiū previously had angered him, (2) and [Sūn] Hóng therefore slandered and complained, so that Imperial Order was sent down bestowing Xiū with suicide, at the time forty-one years.

休字叔嗣,弱冠與諸葛恪、顧譚等俱為太子登僚友,以漢書授登。〔一〕從中庶子轉為右弼都尉。權常游獵,迨暮乃歸,休上疏諫戒,權大善之,以示於昭。及登卒後,為侍中,拜羽林都督,平三典軍事,遷揚武將軍。為魯王霸友黨所譖,與顧譚、承俱以芍陂論功事,休、承與典軍陳恂通情,詐增其伐,並徙交州。中書令孫弘佞偽險詖,休素所忿,〔二〕弘因是譖訴,下詔書賜休死,時年四十一。

  • (1) Wúshū states: Xiū advanced to teach, was able to criticize the document’s meanings, distinguish between things, all with ordered reasoning. Every time he ascended the hall to feast and drink, he would become intoxicated and make merry, and [Sūn] Dēng then would join and together have merriment. Xiū as a man was open-minded, [Sūn] Dēng deeply favored him, and always kept him at his side.

〔一〕 吳書曰:休進授,指摘文義,分別事物,並有章條。每升堂宴飲,酒酣樂作,登輒降意與同歡樂。休為人解達,登甚愛之,常在左右。

  • (2) Wúlù states: [Sūn] Hóng was a Kuàijī man.

〔二〕 吳錄云:弘,會稽人也。

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