(6.3) Yuán Shù 袁術 [Gōnglù 公路]

Yuán Shù appellation Gōnglù, was Excellency of Works [Yuán] Féng’s son, [Yuán] Shào’s younger cousin. For his adventuring he had reputation. He was nominated as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate, sent out as Cadet Internal, successively held office inside and outside [the capital], and later became Breaking Charge Colonel and Tiger Elite Internal Cadet General. When Dǒng Zhuó deposed the Emperor, he appointed Shù as General of the Rear; Shù also feared [Dǒng] Zhuó’s disaster, and went out and fled to Nányáng.

袁術字公路,司空逢子,紹之從弟也。以俠氣聞。舉孝廉,除郎中,歷職內外,後為折衝校尉、虎賁中郎將。董卓之將廢帝,以術為後將軍;術亦畏卓之禍,出奔南陽。

It happened that Chángshā Administrator Sūn Jiān killed Nányáng Administrator Zhāng Zī, and Shù obtained and occupied his prefecture. Nányáng’s population was several million, but Shù was extravagant and unrestrained in desires, his summons and collections were without limit, and the common people suffered from it. When he and [Yuán] Shào had discord, he also with Liú Biǎo were not at peace, and so he to the north allied with Gōngsūn Zàn; [Yuán] Shào with [Gōngsūn] Zàn were not in harmony and so he to the south allied with Liú Biǎo. These brothers betrayed each other, abandoning the close to join with the distant like this. (1) He led his army to enter Chénliú. Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] with [Yuán] Shào together struck, greatly defeating Shù’s army. Shù with his remaining army fled to Jiǔjiāng, killing Yáng Province Inspector Chén Wēn, and taking office over his province, (2) and appointing Zhāng Xūn and Qiáo Ruí and others as his Chief Generals. Lǐ Jué entered Cháng’ān, and wished to ally with Shù to be assistance, and appointed Shù as General of the Left, with fief as Yángdí Marquis, with Acting Staff, and sent Grand Tutor Mǎ Mìdī to therefore go and give bestowment. Shù seized away [Mǎ] Mìdī’s Staff, and detained him and did not send him. (3)

會長沙太守孫堅殺南陽太守張咨,術得據其郡。南陽戶口數百萬,而術奢淫肆欲,徵斂無度,百姓苦之。既與紹有隙,又與劉表不平而北連公孫瓚;紹與瓚不和而南連劉表。其兄弟攜貳,舍近交遠如此。〔一〕引軍入陳留。太祖與紹合擊,大破術軍。術以餘眾奔九江,殺揚州刺史陳溫,領其州。〔二〕以張勳、橋蕤等為大將軍。李傕入長安,欲結術為援,以術為左將軍,封陽翟侯,假節,遣太傅馬日磾因循行拜授。術奪日磾節,拘留不遣。〔三〕

  • (1) Wúshū states: At the time commentators believed Emperor Líng [Liú Hóng] had lost principle, and caused the realm Under Heaven to rebel in chaos, and that the Young Emperor [Liú Xié] was young and weak, and had been by a rebel minister enthroned, and also it was not known what mother he was born from. Yōu Province Governor Liú Yú resided in virtue and hope, and [Yuán] Shào and others wished to enthrone him to calm the times, and sent someone to inform Shù. Shù observed the Hàn House was in decline, and secretly harbored ulterior ambitions, and therefore outside held to righteousness in order to resist [Yuán] Shào.
  • [Yuán] Shào again with Shù had letter: “Previously I with Hán [Fù] Wénjié together established a way to eternally prolong [the Hàn dynasty], wishing Within the Seas to see a restoration’s ruler. Now the west in name has a young ruler, not of true relation, and the Excellencies and Ministers down all flatter and serve [Dǒng] Zhuó, how can they again be trusted? We only need send troops to go garrison the critical passes, and they will all in distress die in the west. If the east enthrones a sagely ruler, Grand Peace can be hoped for, what is there to doubt? Also our house and family met with extermination, not remembering [the example of Wǔ] Zǐxū, can we again face north [as to a ruler]? Violating Heaven is inauspicious, may you thoroughly ponder this.”
  • Shù answered: “The Sagely Ruler [Liú Xié] is intelligent and wise, with Zhōu [King] Chéng‘s character. The rebel [Dǒng] Zhuó because of a time of danger and chaos, uses authority to force submission of the government officials, and this then is the Hàn Family’s coincidence of small distress. The chaos is not yet suppressed, but you again wish to increase it [by enthroning another ruler]. Then you say the present ruler is ‘without blood relation,’ how is not false slander? From our ancestors on, through the generations passing on, loyalty and righteousness were foremost. The Grand Tutor was benevolent and compassionate, and although he knew the rebel [Dǒng] Zhuó would certainly cause disaster, he trusted in righteousness, and could not bear to leave. Our household was exterminated, death and exile flow free, the fortune immersed far and near come to support each other, and to not therefore at this time above suppress the state’s traitor and below wipe away the family’s disgrace, and instead plan like this, it has never been heard of. Also you say: ‘house and family met with extermination, can we again face north,’ this was [Dǒng] Zhúo’s doing, how was it the state? The ruler’s mandate is Heaven, Heaven cannot be opposed, so all the more for opposing the ruler’s mandate! With humble bare heart, my ambition is to destroy [Dǒng] Zhuó, and not consider anything else.”

〔一〕 吳書曰:時議者以靈帝失道,使天下叛亂,少帝幼弱,為賊臣所立,又不識母氏所出。幽州牧劉虞宿有德望,紹等欲立之以安當時,使人報術。術觀漢室衰陵,陰懷異志,故外託公義以拒紹。紹復與術書曰:「前與韓文節共建永世之道,欲海內見再興之主。今西名有幼君,無血脈之屬,公卿以下皆媚事卓,安可復信!但當使兵往屯關要,皆自蹙死于西。東立聖君,太平可冀,如何有疑!又室家見戮,不念子胥,可復北面乎?違天不祥,願詳思之。」術答曰:「聖主聰叡,有周成之質。賊卓因危亂之際,威服百寮,此乃漢家小厄之會。亂尚未厭,復欲興之。乃云今主『無血脈之屬』,豈不誣乎!先人以來,奕世相承,忠義為先。太傅公仁慈惻隱,雖知賊卓必為禍害,以信徇義,不忍去也。門戶滅絕,死亡流漫,幸蒙遠近來相赴助,不因此時上討國賊,下刷家恥,而圖於此,非所聞也。又曰『室家見戮,可復北面』,此卓所為,豈國家哉?君命,天也,天不可讎,況非君命乎!慺慺赤心,志在滅卓,不識其他。」

  • (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī cites Yīngxióngjì: “Chén Wēn appellation Yuántì was a Rǔnán man. Previously he was Yáng Province Inspector, and from illness died. Yuán Shào sent Yuán Yí to take office over the Province, but he was defeated and scattered, fled to Pèi state, and was by troops killed. Yuán Shù again employed Chén Yǔ in Yáng Province. [Chén] Yǔ appellation Gōngwěi, was a Xiàpī man. [Chén] Yǔ took office of the Province, but Shù was defeated at Fēngqiū, and went south toward Shòuchūn, and [Chén] Yǔ resisted Shù and would not receive him. Shù retreated and defended Yīnlíng, and again gathered army to attack [Chén] Yǔ, [Chén] Yǔ was afraid and fled back to Xiàpī.” By this [Chén] Wēn was not by Shù killed, and this with the base biography is not the same.

〔二〕 臣松之案英雄記:「陳溫字元悌,汝南人。先為揚州刺史,自病死。袁紹遣袁遺領州,敗散,奔沛國,為兵所殺。袁術更用陳瑀為揚州。瑀字公瑋,下邳人。瑀既領州,而術敗于封丘,南向壽春,瑀拒術不納。術退保陰陵,更合軍攻瑀,瑀懼走歸下邳。」如此,則溫不為術所殺,與本傳不同。

  • (3) Sānfǔ Juélù Zhù states: [Mǎ] Mìdī appellation Wēngshū, was Mǎ Róng’s distant cousin’s son. When young he carried on [Mǎ] Róng’s work, and for his talent and learning was advanced. He with Yáng Biāo, Lú Zhí, Cài Yōng and others managed and inspected Internal Documents, and successively held position in the Nine Ministers, and then ascended to terrace assistance [was ranked in the Three Excellencies level].
  • Xiàndì Chūnqiū states: Shù from [Mǎ] Mìdī borrowed Staff to observe it, and therefore stole and did not return it. He prepared in the army over a thousand men, and sent to hurriedly summon them. [Mǎ] Mìdī said to Shù: “Your family’s previous generations were Excellencies, what is summoning soldiers, and to hurry them, are you saying the Excellencies’ Staff Officials can be stolen and obtained?” He from Shù asked to leave, but Shù detained him and would not send him, and because he had lost his Staff he was humiliated, and in sorrow and rage he died.

〔三〕 三輔決錄注曰:日磾字翁叔,馬融之族子。少傳融業,以才學進。與楊彪、盧植、蔡邕等典校中書,歷位九卿,遂登台輔。獻帝春秋曰:術從日磾借節觀之,因奪不還,備軍中千餘人,使促辟之。日磾謂術曰:「卿家先世諸公,辟士云何,而言促之,謂公府掾可劫得乎!」從術求去,而術留之不遣;既以失節屈辱,憂恚而死。


At the time Pèi Chancellor Chén Guī of Xiàpī, was former Excellency Commandant [Chén] Qiú’s younger brother’s son. Shù with [Chén] Guī both were junior relatives in the clans of Excellencies, and when young together interacted and traveled, and sent letter to [Chén] Guī: “In the past Qín lost its governance, and the realm Under Heaven’s various powers fought over and seized it, and those with both wisdom and valor in the end received their submission. Now the world’s affairs are in turmoil, and again there is the situation of collapse, and it is truly the time for the outstanding to act. I with you are old friends, how can I make you an attendant? If gathering great affairs, you truly are my heart and backbone.”

時沛相下邳陳珪,故太尉球弟子也。術與珪俱公族子孫,少共交游,書與珪曰:「昔秦失其政,天下群雄爭而取之,兼智勇者卒受其歸。今世事紛擾,復有瓦解之勢矣,誠英乂有為之時也。與足下舊交,豈肯左右之乎?若集大事,子實為吾心膂。」

[Chén] Guī’s middle son [Chén] Yīng at the time was at Xiàpī, and Shù also coerced and took as hostage [Chén] Yīng, planning to force [Chén] Guī to come. [Chén] Guī’s answer letter said: “In the past at Qín’s end, the unrestrained and violent indulged their nature, the oppressive flowed across the realm Under Heaven, harming the people, subordinates could not bear orders, and therefore then the lands collapsed. Now though it is a final phase, it is not yet the fall of Qín’s severe violent chaos. General Cáo [Cāo] with divine military ability answers the times, raising again law and punishment, and will capture and pacify the vicious and evil, purify and settle Within the Seas, and truly this will occur. I believe you should join strength and be of same heart, to rectify and support the Hàn House, but to secretly plot other course, is to bring on yourself disaster, how is it not sorrowful? If you are lost but know to turn back, yet you can be forgiven. We are old friends, and therefore I explain utmost feeling, and though it is only opposing, it is kindness as to bone and flesh kin. If you wish for me to flatter and fawn, even to the death I am unable.”

珪中子應時在下邳,術並脅質應,圖必致珪。珪答書曰:「昔秦末世,肆暴恣情,虐流天下,毒被生民,下不堪命,故遂土崩。今雖季世,未有亡秦苛暴之亂也。曹將軍神武應期,興復典刑,將撥平凶慝,清定海內,信有徵矣。以為足下當戮力同心,匡翼漢室,而陰謀不軌,以身試禍,豈不痛哉!若迷而知反,尚可以免。吾備舊知,故陳至情,雖逆于耳,骨肉之惠也。欲吾營私阿附,有犯死不能也。」


Xīngpíng Second Year [195] Winter, Heaven’s Son was defeated at Cáoyáng. Shù gathered his subordinates and said: “Now the Liú clan is feeble and weak, and Within the Seas is like a tripod boiling [in confusion]. My family for four generations were Excellencies assisting, who the common people submitted to, and I wish to answer Heaven and follow the People, what do you sirs think of it?” Of everyone none dared answer.

興平二年冬,天子敗於曹陽。術會群下謂曰:「今劉氏微弱,海內鼎沸。吾家四世公輔,百姓所歸,欲應天順民,於諸君意如何?」眾莫敢對。

Registrar Yán Xiàng advanced and said: “In the past Zhōu from Hòu-jì up to Wén-wáng, accumulated virtue and achievement, of three parts of the realm Under Heaven they had two, yet they served Yīn. Though your enlightened excellency for generations had prosperity, it is not yet comparable to Zhōu’s flourishing, and though the Hàn House is weak, it is not yet comparable to Yīn Zhòu‘s tyranny.” Shù was silent and displeased.

主簿閻象進曰:「昔周自后稷至于文王,積德累功,三分天下有其二,猶服事殷。明公雖奕世克昌,未若有周之盛,漢室雖微,未若殷紂之暴也。」術嘿然不悅。

He employed Hénèi’s Zhāng Jiǒng’s talisman orders, and therefore usurped [Imperial] title, (1) turning Jiǔjiāng Administrator to Huáinán Intendant, installed Excellencies and Ministers, and sacrificed in South and North Suburbs. His wasteful extravagance grew extreme, the Rear Palace [harem]’s several hundred all wore clothes of fine brocade silk, storing quality millet and meat, (2) but the soldiers were cold and hungry, and between the Jiāng and Huái was emptied and exhausted, and the people ate each other.

用河內張炯之符命,遂僭號〔一〕以九江太守為淮南尹。置公卿,祠南北郊。荒侈滋甚,後宮數百皆服綺縠,餘粱肉,〔二〕而士卒凍餒,江淮閒空盡,人民相食。

Shù first was by Lǚ Bù defeated, and afterward was by Tàizǔ defeated, and fled to his guard retainers Léi Bó and Chén Lán to Qiánshān, again was by them resisted, and was anxious and did not know where to go. He was about to yield his Emperor’s title to [Yuán] Shào, wishing to go to Qīng Province and follow Yuán Tán, but fell ill and on the road died. (3) His wives and children depended on Shù’s former official Lújiāng Administrator Liú Xūn, Sūn Cè defeated [Liú] Xūn, and again they met with capture. Shù’s daughter entered Sūn Quán’s Palace, son [Yuán] Yào was appointed Cadet Internal, and [Yuán] Yào’s daughter also was matched to [Sūn] Quán’s son [Sūn] Fèn.

術前為呂布所破,後為太祖所敗,奔其部曲雷薄、陳蘭于灊山,復為所拒,憂懼不知所出。將歸帝號於紹,欲至青州從袁譚,發病道死。〔三〕妻子依術故吏廬江太守劉勳,孫策破勳,復見收視。術女入孫權宮,子燿拜郎中,燿女又配於權子奮。

  • (1) Diǎnlüè states: Shù believed the Yuán surname came from Chén, and Chén was Shùn’s descendant, and Earth carried on from Fire, and so was conforming with destiny’s succession. Also he observed the prophecy: “The successor to Hàn will be street’s high.” He believed his name and appellation matched this, and therefore established title as the Zhòng dynasty.
  • [Translator’s note: His name Shù and appellation Lù can both mean street. Zhòng can mean “second month of a season” or “second brother,” implying a natural succession from Hàn. In actuality, the prophecy was instead fulfilled by Wèi, which can mean the watchtower gate over a road, which is “street’s high.”]

〔一〕 典略曰:術以袁姓出陳,陳,舜之後,以土承火,得應運之次。又見讖文云:「代漢者,當塗高也。」自以名字當之,乃建號稱仲氏。

  • (2) Jiǔzhōu Chūnqiū states: Director of Retainer Féng Fāng’s daughter, was a beauty [to destroy] nations, fled the chaos to Yáng Province, Shù ascended the city walls and saw and was pleased with her, and therefore accepted her as concubine, deeply loving and favoring her. The other women hated her treatment, and said to her: “The General is a nobleman with ambition and integrity, and if at the time you often shed tears and show worry, you will certainly long meet with heavy respect.” Lady Féng believed this was correct, and later meeting Shù at once shed tears, and Shù believed she had ambition, and increased his pity for her. The other women therefore together strangled and killed her, and hung her from the lavatory roof beam, and Shù truly believed it was because she could not achieve her ambition that she died, and therefore gave generous coffin and burial.

〔二〕 九州春秋曰:司隸馮方女,國色也,避亂揚州,術登城見而悅之,遂納焉,甚愛幸。諸婦害其寵,語之曰:「將軍貴人有志節,當時時涕泣憂愁,必長見敬重。」馮氏以為然,後見術輒垂涕,術以有心志,益哀之。諸婦人因共絞殺,懸之廁梁,術誠以為不得志而死,乃厚加殯斂。

  • (3) Wèishū states: Shù gave Emperor’s title to [Yuán] Shào saying: “Hàn’s loss of the realm Under Heaven has been for a long time, Heaven’s Son is captured, governance left their family, imposing powers contend, diving apart the world, and this with Zhōu’s final years dividing into Seven States has no difference, and in the end the powerful will take it. Moreover the Yuán clan receiving Mandate to be Ruler, the talismans and auspicious signs are manifest and clear. Now you possess four provinces, people and households of millions, in strength then there is none greater, and in discussing virtue then there is none higher. Cáo Cāo wishes to support the fallen and aid the weak, how can he continue an ended Mandate and rescue the already extinguished?” [Yuán] Shào secretly agreed with this.
  • Wúshū states: When Shù was by Léi Bó and the rest resisted, he remained stationed for three days, his soldiers and army exhausted provisions, and he therefore returned reaching Jiāngtíng, from Shòuchūn eighty lǐ [~33 km]. He asked kitchen subordinates, and there were still wheat crumbs of thirty hú [~60 L]. At the time it was very hot, and he wished to obtain honey broth, but there was no honey. He sat on a latticework of a bed, and sighed for a good while, and then greatly cried out: “How did Yuán Shù come to this?” Then he fell below the bed, vomited blood of over a dǒu [~2 L] and died.

〔三〕 魏書曰:術歸帝號于紹曰:「漢之失天下久矣,天子提挈,政在家門,豪雄角逐,分裂疆宇,此與周之末年七國分勢無異,卒彊者兼之耳。加袁氏受命當王,符瑞炳然。今君擁有四州,民戶百萬,以彊則無與比大,論德則無與比高。曹操欲扶衰拯弱,安能續絕命救已滅乎?」紹陰然之。吳書曰:術既為雷薄等所拒,留住三日,士眾絕糧,乃還至江亭,去壽春八十里。問廚下,尚有麥屑三十斛。時盛暑,欲得蜜漿,又無蜜。坐櫺床上,歎息良久,乃大吒曰:「袁術至于此乎!」因頓伏床下,嘔血斗餘而死。

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