(49.3) Shì Xiè 士燮 [Wēiyàn 威彥]

Shì Yī 士壹, Shì Wěi 士䵋, Shì Wǔ 士武, Shì Huī 士徽, Shì Kuāng 士匡

Shì Xiè appellation Wēiyàn was a Cāngwú Guǎngxìn man. His ancestors were originally Lǔ state Wènyáng men, and reaching Wáng Mǎng’s chaos, they fled the land to Jiāo Province. Six generations reached to Xiè’s father [Shì] Cì, who in Huán-dì‘s time was Rìnán Administrator. Xiè when young traveled and studied in the capital, from Yǐngchuān’s Liú Zǐqí, and researching the Zuǒshì Chūnqiū. He was examined as Filial and Incorrupt candidate, filled vacancy as Secretariat Cadet, and by a public affair was dismissed from office. After mourning for his father [Shì] Cì ended, he was nominated as Abundant Talent candidate, sent out as Wū Magistrate, promoted to Jiāozhǐ Administrator.


His younger brother [Shì] Yī, previously was a prefecture investigator. Inspector Dīng Gōng was summoned back to the capital, Yī attended and escorted him with diligent respect, [Dīng] Gōng was moved by him, and on parting said: “If I the Inspector by favor manage Three [Excellencies] affairs, I will recruit you.” Later [Dīng] Gōng became Excellency over the Masses, and recruited Yī. When he arrived, [Dīng] Gōng had already been dismissed, Huáng Wǎn succeeded as Excellency over the Masses, and with deep courtesy treated Yī. Dǒng Zhuó created chaos, Yī fled back to his hometown. (1)


Jiāo Province Inspector Zhū Fú was by Yí bandits killed, the province and prefectures were disturbed and in chaos. Xiè therefore memorialized Yī to take office as Hépǔ Administrator, their next younger brother Xúwén Magistrate [Shì] Wěi to take office as Jiǔzhēn Administrator, Wěi’s younger brother [Shì] Wǔ to take office as Nánhǎi Administrator. [note: annotations give the pronunciation of Wěi as Yǐ, but this might cause confusion with the name of his older brother Yī]


  • (1) Wúshū states: [Huáng] Wǎn with [Dǒng] Zhúo opposed each other, but Yī was of utmost heart with [Huáng] Wǎn, and deeply had praise. [Dǒng] Zhuó hated him, and therefore set up instructions: “Excellency over the Masses’ Official Shì Yī is not to be employed.” Therefore for years he was not promoted. It happened that [Dǒng] Zhuó entered the Passes, and Yī then fled back.

〔一〕 吳書曰:琬與卓相害,而壹盡心於琬,甚有聲稱。卓惡之,乃署教曰:「司徒掾士壹,不得除用。」故歷年不遷。會卓入關,壹乃亡歸。

Xiè by nature was tolerant and generous, modest to his subordinates, and the central states’ scholars that went to join and take refuge were in the hundreds. He indulged in studying the Chūnqiū, and for it made explanatory annotations.


Chén state’s Yuán Huī with Secretariat Director Xún Yù sent letter: “Jiāozhǐ’s administrator Shì’s learning is superior and extensive, and also has eminence in government; residing in the middle of great chaos, he protected and preserved one prefecture, for over twenty years his orders had no problems, the people did not lose their enterprise, and travelers, all are given his celebrations; even Dòu Róng protecting the Hé’s west, how can it surpass him? When office matters have a small reprieve, then at once he enjoys studying books, his understanding of the Chūnqiū Zuǒshì Zhuàn is outstandingly succinct and profound, and I have frequently consulted and asked about various doubts in the texts, and in all cases he teaches explanation, his meanings extremely thorough. Also the Shàngshū he communicates from ancient to present, explaining in detail its main principles. One hears in the capital the ancient and modern scholars, angrily debate on right and wrong, and now he wishes to select out the Zuǒshì and Shàngshū‘s constant principles and present it up.” He met with praise like this.


Xiè and his brothers together held the series of prefectures, dominating the whole province, ten thousand lǐ away, and their authority and honor had no superior. Exiting and entering they were announced with bells and chimes, furnishing their majestic presence, whistles and flutes blowing, their chariots and riders filled the roads, and the Hú peoples between the wheels burning incense were always several tens. Their wives and concubines rode covered and curtained carriages, their younger relatives had escorts of infantry and cavalry. At the time their wealth and nobility, shook and submitted the hundred Mán peoples, and Commandant Tā [Zhào Tuó] could not surpass it. (1) Wǔ first died of illness.


  • (1) Gě Hóng’s Shénxiānzhuàn states: Xiè once fell ill and died, and after three days, the mystical man Dǒng Fèng gave him a dose of a pill drug, with water put it into his mouth, clasping his head and rocking to dissolve it, and in a short while, he opened his eyes and moved his hands, his color gradually returned, and after half a day he could rise and sit. In four days he could again speak, and therefore returned to normal.
  • [Dǒng] Fèng appellation Jūnyì was a Hóuguān man.

〔一〕 葛洪神仙傳曰:燮嘗病死,已三日,仙人董奉以一丸藥與服,以水含之,捧其頭搖(捎)〔消〕之,食頃,即開目動手,顏色漸復,半日能起坐,四日復能語,遂復常。奉字君異,侯官人也。

After Zhū Fú died, Hàn sent Zhāng Jīn as Jiāo Province Inspector, but [Zhāng] Jīn later also was by his officer Ōu Jǐng killed, and Jīng Province Governor Liú Biǎo sent Línglíng’s Lài Gōng to succeed [Zhāng] Jīn. At the time Cāngwǔ Administrator Shǐ Huáng died, [Liú] Biǎo also sent Wú Jù to succeed him, and with [Lài] Gōng they both arrived. Hàn heard Zhāng Jīn was dead, and bestowed on Xiè seal and letter that said: “Jiāo Province is a cut-off region, the southern belt of rivers and sea, and the Ascended’s grace cannot be announced, and the subordinate’s righteousness are obstructed and separated. It is know the rebel traitor Liú Biǎo also sent Lài Gōng to spy and watch the southern lands, so now Xiè is appointed as Soothing South Internal Cadet General, to direct and command seven prefectures, with office as Administrator of Jiāozhǐ as before.” Later Xiè sent his official Zhāng Mín to present tribute to the capital. At the time the realm Under Heaven was in tragic chaos, the roads were cut off, but Xiè did not abandon his tribute duties, and so again Imperial Order was specially sent down to appoint him General Securing Distant, with fief as Marquis of Lóngdù precinct.


Later [Wú] Jù with [Lài] Gōng became estranged, and raised troops to pursue [Lài] Gōng, and [Lài] Gōng fled back to Línglíng.


Jiàn’ān Fifteenth Year [210] Sūn Quán sent Bù Zhì as Jiāo Province Inspector. [Bù] Zhì arrived, and Xiè led his brothers to flatter and welcome his authority. But Wú Jù harbored disloyal heart, and [Bù] Zhì beheaded him. [Sūn] Quán added to Xiè office as General of the Left.


Jiàn’ān’s final years, Xiè sent his son [Shì] Xīn to enter as hostage, and [Sūn] Quán appointed him Wǔchāng Administrator. Xiè’s and Yī’s sons in the south were all appointed Internal Cadet Generals. Xiè also encouraged Yìzhōu [prefecture] powerful clans Yōng Kǎi and others, to lead their prefecture’s people to distantly submit east [to Sūn Quán], and [Sūn] Quán increased his praise of him, promoting him to General of the Guard, with fief as Marquis of Lóngbiān, and his younger brother Yī to Assistant General, and a capital village Marquis.


Xiè in every time sending envoy to visit [Sūn] Quán, conveyed various perfumes and fine hemp cloth, the luggage in the thousands, of bright pearls, large seashells, sparkling glass, green jadeite, tortoise shells, rhinoceros and elephant horns, strange things and unusual fruits, bananas, coconuts, dragon eyes and their sorts, with no year failing to arrive. Yī at the time gave tribute of horses of several hundred. [Sūn] Quán then made letter, generously increasing their favor and bestowment, to answer and comfort them.


Xiè was in the prefecture for over forty years, Huángwǔ Fifth Year [226], aged ninety years he died.


[Sūn] Quán because Jiāozhǐ’s counties were distant, therefore divided from Hépǔ on north to become Guǎng Province, with Lǚ Dài as its Inspector; Jiāozhǐ on south was Jiāo Province, with Dài Liáng as its Inspector. He also sent Chén Shí to succeed Xiè as Jiāozhǐ Administrator.


[Lǚ] Dài remained at Nánhǎi, [Dài] Liáng with [Chén] Shí together advanced to Hépǔ, but Xiè’s son [Shì] Huī installed himself as Jiāozhǐ Administrator, and sent clan troops to resist [Dài] Liáng. [Dài] Liáng remained at Hépǔ.


Jiāozhǐ’s Huán Lín, was Xié’s nominated official, and bowed head to remonstrate Huī to welcome [Dài] Liáng. Huī was angry, and whipped and killed [Huán] Lín. [Huán] Lín’s elder brother [Huán] Zhì and son [Huán] Fā also gathered clan troops to strike Huī, Huī closed the gates and defended the city, and [Huán] Zhì and the rest attacked for several moons but could not take it, and therefore negotiated peace, each dismissing troops and returning.


But Lǚ Dài was given Imperial Order to execute Huī, and from Guǎng Province led troops day and night to hurriedly enter, passing Hépǔ, and with [Dài] Liáng together advanced. Yī’s son Internal Cadet General [Shì] Kuāng with [Lǚ] Dài had old relations, and [Lǚ] Dài appointed [Shì] Kuāng as Teacher Friend Attending Official, to first deliver letter to Jiāozhǐ, to inform and announce disasters and fortunes, and also sent [Shì] Kuāng to meet Huī, to persuade him to admit guilt, so that although he would lose the prefecture administration, he would be protected from other fears. [Lǚ] Dài waited after [Shì] Kuāng arrived, and Huī’s elder brother [Shì] Zhī, younger brother [Shì] Gàn, [Shì] Sòng and others of six people with bared flesh came to welcome. [Lǚ] Dài thanked and ordered them to restore their dress, and advanced to below the prefecture.


The next morning he early set up curtains and tents, inviting Huī and his brothers to in order enter, and the guests filled the seats. [Lǚ] Dài rose, and grasping Staff read aloud the Imperial Order, enumerating Huī’s crimes, and those around therefore turned and bound them and sent them out, and at once all were executed, sending their heads to Wǔchāng. (1)


Yī, Wěi, and Kuāng later went out, [Sūn] Quán pardoned their crimes, and with Xiè’s hostage son [Shì] Xīn, all were dismissed to be commoners. Several years later, Yī and Wěi in connection to law were executed. [Shì] Xīn died of illness, no sons, his wife lived as a widow, and Imperial Order there gave monthly salary of rice, and bestowed coins of four hundred thousand.


  • (1) Sūn Shèng states: To soothe the distant and encourage the near, nothing is as good as trust; to protect great settlement and achievement, nothing is as good as righteousness. Therefore Qí [Duke] Huán’s starting foundation, was manifesting virtue at the Kē Meeting; Jìn [Duke] Wén’s beginning of hegemony, was revealing righteousness at campaigning against Yuán. Therefore they were able to unite the Nine [Provinces] as One rectification, in the world govern the civilized’s alliance, their orders and reputation long endured, becoming a model for a Hundred Kings. Lǚ Dài took as teacher and friend Shì Kuāng, sending him to convey letter of pledge, Huī and his brothers bared flesh, committing hearts and entrusting lives, [Lǚ] Dài then exterminated them, to gain critical achievement and benefit. The superior gentleman therefore knew Sūn Quán could not plan for the long term, and the Lǚ clan’s fortunes would not last.

〔一〕 孫盛曰:夫柔遠能邇,莫善於信;保大定功,莫善於義。故齊桓創基,德彰於柯會;晉文始伯,義顯於伐原。故能九合一匡,世主夏盟,令問長世,貽範百王。呂岱師友士匡,使通信誓,徽兄弟肉袒,推心委命,岱因滅之,以要功利,君子是以知孫權之不能遠略,而呂氏之祚不延者也。

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