(30.4) Introduction to the Dōngyí 東夷

The Shū states: “East reaching to the sea, West meeting to the flowing sands.” This Nine Areas system, can be understood and spoken of. However the wilderness regions and beyond, with repeated translators arrive, are not what by walking or carriage courses can be reached, and there are not yet those that know these states’ special customs. From Yú to Zhōu, the Xīróng had presentation of white rings, the Dōngyí had the tribute of the Sùshèn, all incomparable and arriving, they were distant and remote like this.


Reaching the Hàn dynasty sending Zhāng Qiān as envoy to the Western regions, reaching the utmost Hé’s source, he passed through various states, and therefore installed Regional Protector to manage and govern them, and afterward the Western Region’s affairs were prepared and preserved, and therefore scribe officials were able to in detail record.


At Wèi’s rise, though the Western Regions could not completely arrive, their large states Qiūcí, Yúzhì, Kāngjū, Wūsūn, Shūlè, Yuèzhī, Shànshàn, Chēshī and their sort, did not have a year where they did not present tribute, overall like the Hàn dynasty’s precedent. But Gōngsūn Yuān from his father and grandfather for three generations possessed Liáodōng, Heaven’s Son because it was a cut off region, entrusted him with matters beyond the seas, and therefore he divided up the Dōngyí, and did not allow them to communicate with the heartlands. During Jǐngchū [237-239], there was great mobilization of the armies, executing [Gōngsūn] Yuān, and also secret army crossed the sea, collecting Lèlàng and Dàifāng prefectures, and afterward the sea’s borders were quieted, and the Dōngyí yielded and submitted. Afterward Gāogōulí turned back and rebelled, and again armies were sent to suppress, utterly pursuing to the most remote, crossing the Wūhuán and Gǔdū, passing the Wòjǔ, treading the Sùshèn’s Court, east overlooking the great ocean. Elders say there are different faced people, and in recent days they appeared, and therefore they went around and observed the various states, collecting their laws and customs, distinguishing small and large, each having name, and they could be in detail recorded. Although they are foreign countries, yet their sacrificial vessel images are preserved. The central states lost rituals, sought them from the four [directions’] foreigners, and were yet truthful. Therefore one compiles next these states, arranging their similarities and differences, to connect with what previous histories did not yet prepare.


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