(30.4) Introduction to the Dōngyí

The Shū states: “East reaching to the sea, West meeting to the flowing sands.” This Nine Areas system, can be understood and spoken of. However the wilderness regions and beyond, with repeated translators arrive, are not what by walking or carriage courses can be reached, and there are not yet those that know these states’ special customs. From Yú to Zhōu, the Xīróng had presentation of white rings, the Dōngyí had the tribute of the Sùshèn, all incomparable and arriving, they were distant and remote like this.

書稱「東漸于海,西被于流沙」。其九服之制,可得而言也。然荒域之外,重譯而至,非足跡車軌所及,未有知其國俗殊方者也。自虞暨周,西戎有白環之獻,東夷有肅慎之貢,皆曠世而至,其遐遠也如此。

Reaching the Hàn dynasty sending Zhāng Qiān as envoy to the Western regions, reaching the utmost Hé’s source, he passed through various states, and therefore installed Regional Protector to manage and govern them, and afterward the Western Region’s affairs were prepared and preserved, and therefore scribe officials were able to in detail record.

及漢氏遣張騫使西域,窮河源,經歷諸國,遂置都護以總領之,然後西域之事具存,故史官得詳載焉。

At Wèi’s rise, though the Western Regions could not completely arrive, their large states Qiūcí, Yúzhì, Kāngjū, Wūsūn, Shūlè, Yuèzhī, Shànshàn, Chēshī and their sort, did not have a year where they did not present tribute, overall like the Hàn dynasty’s precedent. But Gōngsūn Yuān from his father and grandfather for three generations possessed Liáodōng, Heaven’s Son because it was a cut off region, entrusted him with matters beyond the seas, and therefore he divided up the Dōngyí, and did not allow them to communicate with the heartlands. During Jǐngchū [237-239], there was great mobilization of the armies, executing [Gōngsūn] Yuān, and also secret army crossed the sea, collecting Lèlàng and Dàifāng prefectures, and afterward the sea’s borders were quieted, and the Dōngyí yielded and submitted. Afterward Gāogōulí turned back and rebelled, and again armies were sent to suppress, utterly pursuing to the most remote, crossing the Wūhuán and Gǔdū, passing the Wòjǔ, treading the Sùshèn’s Court, east overlooking the great ocean. Elders say there are different faced people, and in recent days they appeared, and therefore they went around and observed the various states, collecting their laws and customs, distinguishing small and large, each having name, and they could be in detail recorded. Although they are foreign countries, yet their sacrificial vessel images are preserved. The central states lost rituals, sought them from the four [directions’] foreigners, and were yet truthful. Therefore one compiles next these states, arranging their similarities and differences, to connect with what previous histories did not yet prepare.

魏興,西域雖不能盡至,其大國龜茲、于寘、康居、烏孫、疏勒、月氏、鄯善、車師之屬,無歲不奉朝貢,略如漢氏故事。而公孫淵仍父祖三世有遼東,天子為其絕域,委以海外之事,遂隔斷東夷,不得通於諸夏。景初中,大興師旅,誅淵,又潛軍浮海,收樂浪、帶方之郡,而後海表謐然,東夷屈服。其後高句麗背叛,又遣偏師致討,窮追極遠,踰烏丸、骨都,過沃沮,踐肅慎之庭,東臨大海。長老說有異面之人,近日之所出,遂周觀諸國,采其法俗,小大區別,各有名號,可得詳紀。雖夷狄之邦,而俎豆之象存。中國失禮,求之四夷,猶信。故撰次其國,列其同異,以接前史之所未備焉。

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