(30.3) Xiānbēi 鮮卑

Bùdùgēn 步度根

Kē Bǐnéng 軻比能

Xiānbēi (1)

  • (1) Wèishū states:
  • The Xiānbēi also were remnants of Eastern Hú, separately protected Xiānbēi mountain, and therefore were named that. Their language and customs with the Wūhuán were the same. Their lands to the east meet the Liáo river, to the west reach Xīchéng. Always at the end of spring they have a great assembly, making merry on the river, marrying off daughters and taking wives, shaving head and drinking feast. Their beasts are different from those of the central states, feral horses, ibexes, origin oxen. Origin oxen horns are made into bows, and so the times called them horn origins. Also they have ferrets, steppe monkeys, rodents, skin and fur soft and supple, and therefore the realm Under Heaven made them into famed fur coats.
  • The Xiānbēi from when they were by Màodùn defeated, distantly fled to Liáodōng beyond the Passes, did not with the remaining states struggle for control, and did not yet have their names reach Hàn, but with the Wūhuán joined together. Reaching Guāng-Wǔ [Liú Xiù]’s time [r. 25-57], the Southern and Northern Shànyú again attacked each other, the Xiōngnú were worn down, and the Xiānbēi therefore flourished. Jiànwǔ Thirtieth Year [54], Xiānbēi Chieftain Yū Qiúbēn led his tribesmen to visit the Palace and present tribute, and fief was given on [Yū] Qiúbēn as King. During Yǒngpíng [58-75], Zhái Róng became Liáodōng Administrator, enticed and bribed the Xiānbēi, to have them behead the rebelling Wūhuán Qīnzhìbēn and others, and therefore the Xiānbēi from Dùnhuáng and Jiǔquán on east, villages and tribes and Chieftains, all visited Liáodōng to receive rewards, and Qīng and Xú two provinces gave coins, each year 270,000,000 as standard. In Hé-dì’s [Liú Zhào] time [r. 88-105], Xiānbēi Chief Regional Protector Xiàowèi Huì led his division horde to accompany the Wūhuán Colonel Rén Shàng to strike rebels, and fief was given on Xiàowèi Huì as Leading Horde King. During Shāng-dì [Liú Lóng]’s Yánpíng [106], the Xiānbēi then went east to enter the passes, and killed Yúyáng Administrator Zhāng Xiǎn.
  • In Ān-dì [Liú Hù]’s time [r. 106-125], Xiānbēi Chieftain Yānlìyáng entered Court, and Hàn bestowed on him seal and ribbon as King of the Xiānbēi, with red chariot of three horses, stopping below the Wūhuán Colonel’s headquarters at Níng. They connected a Hú market, built Southern and Northern two divisions hostage palaces, receiving village and tribe hostages from 120 divisions. From this afterward some rebelled and some surrendered, some with the Xiōngnú and Wūhuán attacked each other. At Ān-dì‘s end, there were sent along the border infantry and cavalry of over 20,000 men, garrisoning along critical crossroads. Later Xiānbēi of eight to nine thousand cavalry went through Dài prefecture and Mǎchéng Pass to enter and harm the chief officials, and Hàn sent Crossing Liáo General Dèng Zūn and Internal Cadet General Mǎ Xù to go out of the passes to pursue and defeated them. Xiānbēi Chieftains Wūlún and Qízhìjiān and others with over 7000 men went to [Dèng] Zūn and surrendered, and fief was given on Wūlún as King, Qízhìjiān as Marquis, with bestowment of colored silk. After [Dèng] Zūn left, Qízhìjiān again rebelled, besieged the Wūhuán Colonel at Mǎchéng, and Crossing Liáo General Gěng Kuí and the Yōu Province Inspector rescued and relieved them. Qízhìjiān therefore flourished, controlling archers of several tens of thousand cavalry, repeatedly took the roads to enter the passes, capturing Wǔyuán Mànbǎi, attacking the Xiōngnú Southern Shànyú, and killing Zuǒàojiānrìzhúwáng. In Shùn-dì [Liú Bǎo]’s time [r. 125-144], he again entered the passes, killing the Dài Prefecture Administrator. Hàn sent Líyáng Regiment Troops to garrison Zhōngshān, along the border’s prefecture troops to garrison below the passes, and transferred the Five Regiment Crossbow Commander with orders to teach battle and shooting, and the Southern Shànyú led infantry and cavalry of over 10,000 men to assist Hàn in striking and repulsing them. Later Wūhuán Colonel Gěng Yè led the Leading Horde King to go of the passes and strike the Xiānbēi, and beheaded many caitiffs, and therefore Xiānbēi of over 30,000 tribes visited to Liáodōng to surrender. After the Xiōngnú and Northern Shànyú had fled, the remaining kinds of over 10,000 tribes, visited Liáodōng and mixed together, and all called themselves Xiānbēi Troops.
  • Tóulùhóu accompanied the Xiōngnú army for three years, his wife was at home, and had a son. Tóulùhóu returned, was suspicious and wished to kill it. The wife said: “Once during the day I went and heard thunder shaking, looking up at the sky lightning entered my mouth, and therefore I swallowed it, and therefore became pregnant, and in ten months gave birth. This son certainly will be special, and should be allowed to grow up.” Tóulùhóu firmly would not believe this. The wife therefore told her family, having them accept and raise him, calling him Tánshíhuái, when grown up he was valorous and strong, with wisdom and planning outside the ordinary. At fourteen to fifteen years, a different division’s Chieftain Bǔbēnyì raided and took his family’s oxen and sheep, Tánshíhuái whipped horse to pursue and strike, wherever he went none could withstand, and all recovered what was lost. Because of this the tribe was fearful and submitted, he enacted law and prohibitions, judged wrong and right, and none dared violate, and therefore he was elected as Chieftain. Tánshíhuái was established, and therefore set court at Gāoliǔ’s north of over 300 lǐ at Dànhàn mountain above Chuòqiú river, and the eastern and western division Chieftains all submitted to him. His troops and horses deeply flourished, to the south raided Hàn’s borders, to the north resisted the Dīnglíng, to the east repulsed the Fūyú, to the west struck the Wūsūn, completely occupying the Xiōngnú’s former territory, east to west over 12000 lǐ [~5000 km], encompassing all the mountains and rivers, water pools, salt pans deep and wide. Hàn worried about this, and in Huán-dì [Liú Zhì]’s time [r. 146-168] sent Xiōngnú Internal Cadet General Zhāng Huàn to campaign against them, but could not overcome them. Therefore they again sent envoys to present seals and ribbons, and give fief on Tánshíhuái as King, wishing to with him have marriage alliance. Tánshíhuái refused and would not accept, and his plundering and raiding became increasingly extreme. Then he divided his territory into Central, Eastern, and Western three divisions. From Yòuběipíng on east to the Liáo, to the east reaching the Fūyú and Huìmò, was the Eastern Division, with over twenty villages, their Chieftains called Míjiā, Quējī, Sùlì, and Huáitóu. From Yòuběipíng on west to Shànggǔ was the Central Division, of over ten villages, their Chieftains called Kēzuì, Quējū, Mùróng and others, as the Chief Commanders. From Shànggǔ on west to Dùnhuáng, to the west reaching the Wūsūn, was the Western Division, over twenty villages, their Chieftains called Zhìjiānluòluó, Rìlǜtuīyǎn, Yànlìyóu and others, all as Chief Commanders, and controlled and subordinate to Tánshíhuái. Reaching Líng-dì [Liú Hóng]’s time [r. 168-189], they greatly raided and plundered Yōu and Bìng two provinces, and along the border’s various prefectures, there was no year they did not suffer their harm. Xīpíng Sixth Year [177], they sent Protector of the Wūhuán Colonel Xià Yù, Breaking the Xiānbēi Internal Cadet General Tián Yàn, and Xiōngnú Internal Cadet General Zāng Mín with the Southern Shànyú to go out Yànmén pass, on three roads together advance, crossing over 2000 lǐ [~830 km] to campaign against them. Tánshíhuái led his division horde to oppose and strike, and [Zāng] Mín and the rest were defeated and fled, and the troops and horses that returned were one out of ten and nothing more. The Xiānbēi horde daily increased, and farms and livestock and shooting and hunting, was not enough to feed them. Later Tánshíhuái then went to Wūhóuqín river, wide and vast by several hundred lǐ, still and not flowing, and inside was fish but he could not obtain it. He heard Hán people were good at catching fish, and therefore Tánshíhuái to the east struck Hán state, obtaining over 1000 families, and moving and installing them above Wūhóuqín river, having them catch fish to help provisions. Reaching the present, Wūhóuqín river’s above has Hán people of several hundred households. Tánshíhuái at forty-five years died, his son Hélián succeeded position. Hélián’s ability and strength did not match his father’s, and he was greedy and excessive, broke law and was not just, and the horde that rebelled was half. In Líng-dì‘s final years they repeatedly plundered and raided, attacked Běidì, and a Běidì Shù man good with crossbow shooting shot and hit Hélián, and Hélián then died. His son Qiānmàn was young, and his elder brother’s son Kuítóu succeeded position. After Kuítóu was established, Qiānmàn grew up, with Kuítóu fought for the state, and the horde therefore scattered. Kuítóu died, and his younger brother Bùdùgēn succeeded position. From Tánshíhuái died afterward, the various Chieftains therefore for generations attacked each other.

〔一〕 魏書曰:鮮卑亦東胡之餘也,別保鮮卑山,因號焉。其言語習俗與烏丸同。其地東接遼水,西當西城。常以季春大會,作樂水上,嫁女娶婦,髡頭飲宴。其獸異於中國者,野馬、羱羊、端牛。端牛角為弓,世謂之角端者也。又有貂、豽、鼲子,皮毛柔蠕,故天下以為名裘。鮮卑自為冒頓所破,遠竄遼東塞外,不與餘國爭衡,未有名通於漢,而(由)自與烏丸相接。至光武時,南北單于更相攻伐,匈奴損耗,而鮮卑遂盛。建武三十年,鮮卑大人於仇賁率種人詣闕朝貢,封於仇賁為王。永平中,祭肜為遼東太守,誘賂鮮卑,使斬叛烏丸欽志賁等首,於是鮮卑自燉煌、酒泉以東邑落大人,皆詣遼東受賞賜,青、徐二人州給錢,歲二億七千萬以為常。和帝時,鮮卑大都護校尉廆帥部眾從烏丸校尉任尚擊叛者,封校尉廆為率眾王。殤帝延平中,鮮卑乃東入塞,殺漁陽太守張顯。安帝時,鮮卑大人燕荔陽入朝,漢賜鮮卑王印綬,赤車參駕,止烏丸校尉所治甯下。通胡市,築南北兩部質宮,受邑落質者〔百〕二十部。是後或反或降,或與匈奴、烏丸相攻擊。安帝末,發緣邊步騎二萬餘人,屯列衝要。後鮮卑八九千騎穿代郡及馬城塞入害長吏,漢遣度遼將軍鄧遵、中郎將馬續出塞追破之。鮮卑大人烏倫、其至鞬等七千餘人詣遵降,封烏倫為王,其至鞬為侯,賜采帛。遵去後,其至鞬復反,圍烏丸校尉於馬城,度遼將軍耿夔及幽州刺史救解之。其至鞬遂盛,控弦數萬騎,數道入塞,趣五原(寧貊)〔曼柏〕,攻匈奴南單于,殺左奧鞬日逐王。順帝時,復入塞,殺代郡太守。漢遣黎陽營兵屯中山,緣邊郡兵屯塞下,調五營弩帥令教戰射,南單于將步騎萬餘人助漢擊卻之。後烏丸校尉耿曄將率眾王出塞擊鮮卑,多斬首虜,於是鮮卑三萬餘落,詣遼東降。匈奴及北單于遁逃後,餘種十餘萬落,詣遼東雜處,皆自號鮮卑兵。投鹿侯從匈奴軍三年,其妻在家,有子。投鹿侯歸,怪欲殺之。妻言:「嘗晝行聞雷震,仰天視而電入其口,因吞之,遂妊身,十月而產,此子必有奇異,且長之。」投鹿侯固不信。妻乃語家,令收養焉,號檀石槐,長大勇健,智略絕眾。年十四五,異部大人卜賁邑鈔取其外家牛羊,檀石槐策騎追擊,所向無前,悉還得所亡。由是部落畏服,施法禁,〔平〕曲直,莫敢犯者,遂推以為大人。檀石槐既立,乃為庭於高柳北三百餘里彈汗山啜仇水上,東西部大人皆歸焉。兵馬甚盛,南鈔漢邊,北拒丁令,東卻夫餘,西擊烏孫,盡據匈奴故地,東西萬二千餘里,南北七千餘里,罔羅山川、水澤、鹽池甚廣。漢患之,桓帝時使匈奴中郎將張奐征之,不克。乃更遣使者齎印綬,即封檀石槐為王,欲與和親。檀石槐拒不肯受,寇鈔滋甚。乃分其地為中東西三部。從右北平以東至遼,(遼)〔東〕接夫餘、〔濊〕貊為東部,二十餘邑,其大人曰彌加、闕機、素利、槐頭。從右北平以西至上谷為中部,十餘邑,其大人曰柯最、闕居、慕容等,為大帥。從上谷以西至燉煌,西接烏孫為西部,二十餘邑,其大人曰置鞬落羅、日律推演、宴荔游等,皆為大帥,而制屬檀石槐。至靈帝時,大鈔略幽、并二州。緣邊諸郡,無歲不被其毒。(嘉)〔熹〕平六年,遣護烏丸校尉夏育,破鮮卑中郎將田晏,匈奴中郎將臧旻與南單于出鴈門塞,三道並進,徑二千餘里征之。檀石槐帥部眾逆擊,旻等敗走,兵馬還者什一而己。鮮卑眾日多,田畜射獵,不足給食。後檀石槐乃案行烏侯秦水,廣袤數百里,停不流,中有魚而不能得。聞汗人善捕魚,於是檀石槐東擊汗國,得千餘家,徙置烏侯秦水上,使捕魚以助糧。至于今,烏侯秦水上有汗人數百戶。檀石槐年四十五死,子和連代立。和連材力不及父,而貪淫,斷法不平,眾叛者半。靈帝末年數為寇鈔,攻北地,北地庶人善弩射者射中和連,和連即死。其子騫曼小,兄子魁頭代立。魁頭既立後,騫曼長大,與魁頭爭國,眾遂離散。魁頭死,弟步度根代立。自檀石槐死後,諸大人遂世相襲也。

Bùdùgēn was established, his horde gradually declined and weakened, and his second elder brother Fúluóhán also separately gathered a horde of several tens of thousands to become a Chieftain. During Jiàn’ān, Tàizǔ settled Yōu Province, and Bùdùgēn with Kē Bǐnéng and others because of Wūhuán Colonel Yán Róu sent up tribute. Later Dài prefecture’s Wūhuán Néngchén Dī and others rebelled, and asked to join Fúluóhán, and Fúluóhán led over ten thousand cavalry to welcome them. Reaching Sāngqián, [Néngchén] Dī and the others discussed, believing Fúluóhán’s divisions were powerful and restrictions relieved, and feared they would not meet with relief, and again sent someone to call on Kē Bǐnéng. [Kē] Bǐnéng then led over ten thousand cavalry to arrive, about to together swear alliance. [Kē] Bǐnéng then at the meeting went up and killed Fúluóhán, and Fúluóhán’s son Xiè Guīní and followers all joined [Kē] Bǐnéng. [Kē] Bǐnéng himself because he had killed [Xiè] Guīní’s father, specially also well treated him. Bùdùgēn because of this resented [Kē] Bǐnéng.


Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] ascended the throne, and Tián Yù became Wūhuán Colonel. Wielding Staff to gather and protect the Xiānbēi, garrisoning Chāngpíng. Bùdùgēn sent envoy to present horses, and the Emperor appointed him as King. Later he repeatedly with Kē Bǐnéng then attacked each other, Bùdùgēn’s divisions and horde gradually weakened, and he led his horde of over 10,000 tribes to protect Tàiyuán and Yànmén prefectures. Bùdùgēn therefore sent someone to call on Xiè Guīní saying: “Your father was by [Kē] Bǐnéng killed, but you do not remember to take revenge, but on the contrary join with the guilty house. Now although he generously treats you, it is a plan wishing to kill you. It is not as good as returning to me, I and you are bone and flesh closest kin, how can you join with enemies?” Because of this [Xiè] Guīní led his tribe to flee to join Bùdùgēn, and [Kē] Bǐnéng pursued him but did not catch him. Reaching Huángchū Fifth Year [224], Bùdùgēn visited the Palace to present tribute, and was generously added reward, and then afterward he wholeheartedly defended the borders, not plundering and harming, but Kē Bǐnéng’s horde therefore became strong and flourished.


Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] succeeded the throne, and worked on wishing to soothe and harmonize the Róng and Dí, to cease the expeditions and campaigns, and restrained the two divisions and nothing more. Reaching Qīnglóng Inaugural Year [233], [Kē] Bǐnéng enticed Bùdùgēn to deeply connect in marriage alliance, and therefore Bùdùgēn led Xiè Guīní and their divisions to all protect [Kē] Bǐnéng, plunder and raid Bìng Province, and kill and rob the officials and people. The Emperor sent Valiant Cavalry General Qín Lǎng to campaign against them, [Xiè] Guīní rebelled against [Kē] Bǐnéng, and led his division horde to surrender, and was appointed Returning to Righteousness King, bestowed with banners and flags, chariot canopy, and drums and horns, residing in Bìng Province as before. Bùdùgēn was by [Kē] Bǐnéng killed.


Kē Bǐnéng originally was of a small tribe of Xiānbēi, and for his valor and strength, deciding of law with fairness, not coveting of wealth and property, the horde elected him as Chieftain. The tribe was near the passes, and from when Yuán Shào occupied the Hé’s north, of the central states’ people many fled and rebelled to join them, taught them to make weapons and armor, and also to learn writing. Therefore they led and managed the division horde, imitated the central states, going out and in shooting and hunting, they set up banners and flags, and with drums signaled advancing and withdrawing. During Jiàn’ān [196-220], because of Yán Róu they sent up tribute. When Tàizǔ campaigned west Inside the Passes, Tián Yín rebelled in Héjiān, and [Kē] Bǐnéng led over 3000 cavalry to accompany [Yán] Róu in striking and defeating [Tián] Yín.


Later Dài prefecture’s Wūhuán rebelled, [Kē] Bǐnéng again assisted them in plundering and harming, and Tàizǔ sent Yánlíng Marquis [Cáo] Zhāng as Valiant Cavalry General on northern campaign, and greatly defeated them. [Kē] Bǐnéng fled beyond the passes, and afterward again sent tribute. At Yánkāng’s [220] beginning, [Kē] Bǐnéng sent envoy to present horses, and Wén-dì also established [Kē] Bǐnéng as Joining Righteousness King.


Huángchū Second Year [221], [Kē] Bǐnéng sent out the various Wèi people among the Xiānbēi of over 500 families, to return and reside in Dài prefecture. The next year, [Kē] Bǐnéng led his tribes chieftains and youngsters and Dài prefecture Wūhuán Xiǔwǔlú and others of over 3000 cavalry, driving on oxen and horses of over 70,000 to trade in market, sending Wèi people of over 1000 families to reside in Shànggǔ. Later he with the Eastern Division Xiānbēi Chieftain Sùlì and Bùdùgēn’s three divisions fought, and again they attacked each other. Tián Yù made peace, to have them not invade each other.


Fifth Year [224], [Kē] Bǐnéng again struck Sùlì, and [Tián] Yù led light cavalry to directly advance and drag their rear. [Kē] Bǐnéng sent separate lesser commander Suǒnú to resist [Tián] Yù, [Tián] Yù advanced to suppress, defeated and drove him away, and therefore [Kē Bǐnéng] harbored second thoughts. Therefore he with Assisting the State General Xiānyú Fǔ wrote letter: “The Yí and Dí do not know writing, and therefore Colonel Yán Róu guaranteed me before Heaven’s Son. I with Sùlì are enemies, in previous years attacked and struck him, but Colonel Tián [Yù] assists Sùlì. I overlooking battle lines sent Suǒnú to go, heard envoy of the ruler had come, and immediately led army to withdraw. Bùdùgēn repeatedly and repeatedly raids and robs, and also killed my younger brother, but falsely accuses me of raiding and robbing. I as a Yí and Dí though do not know ritual and righteousness, my elder and younger brothers and sons and grandsons received from Heaven’s Son seals and ribbons, my oxen and horses yet know beautiful waters and grasses, and moreover I have a man’s heart! You General should guarantee and explain me to Heaven’s Son.”


[Xiānyú] Fǔ obtained the letter and reported it, and the Emperor again sent [Tián] Yù to collect support and secure and comfort. [Kē] Bǐnéng’s horde therefore strengthened and flourished, controlling archers of over 100,000 cavalry. Every raid and plunder obtained wealth and property, he equally divided over, anything in front of his eyes, to the end he would not take for himself, and therefore he obtained the horde’s to the death strength, and the remaining divisions’ Chieftains all respected and feared him, and therefore yet he could not reach Tánshíhuái.


Tàihé Second Year [228], [Tián] Yù sent Translator Xià Shè to visit [Kē] Bǐnéng’s daughter’s husband Yùzhù Jiān’s division, and [Xià] Shè was by [Yùzhù] Jiān killed. That autumn, [Tián] Yù led Western Division Xiānbēi Pútóu and Xiè Guīní to go out of the passes to suppress Yùzhù Jiān, and greatly defeated him. Returning to Mǎchéng, [Kē] Bǐnéng personally commanded 30,000 cavalry to besiege [Tián] Yù for seven days.


Shànggǔ Administrator Yán Zhì was [Yán] Ròu’s younger brother, and previously was by the Xiānbēi trusted. [Yán] Zhì went to explain and persuade, and after the siege was resolved left. Later Yōu Province Inspector Wáng Xióng also took office as Colonel, comforting with grace and faith. [Kē] Bǐnéng repeatedly bowed at the passes, visiting the province to present tribute.


Reaching Qīnglóng Inaugural Year [233], [Kē] Bǐnéng enticed and accepted Bùdùgēn, having him rebel in Bìng Province, with him joining in marriage alliance, and personally leading 10,000 cavalry to welcome his heavy supplies to the north of the passes. Bìng Province Inspector Bì Guǐ sent Generals Sū Shàng, Dǒng Bì and others to strike them, and [Kē] Bǐnéng sent his son to command cavalry to with [Sū] Shàng and the rest meet in battle at Lóufán, and on the battle lines killed [Sū] Shàng and [Dǒng] Bì. Reaching the Third Year [235], [Wáng] Xióng sent valorous soldier Hán Lóng to assassinate [Kē] Bǐnéng, and again established his younger brother.


Sùlì, Míjiā, and Juéjī all were Chieftains, at Liáoxī, Yòuběipíng, Yúyáng beyond the passes, and being far away at first did not harm the borders, however their tribes and hordes were more numerous than [Kē] Bǐnéng. During Jiàn’ān [196-220], because of Yán Róu they sent up tribute, connected markets, and Tàizǔ all memorialized favor to appoint them Kings. When Juéjī died, they also established his son Shāmòhán as Kin of Hàn King. At Yánkāng’s [220] beginning, they again each sent envoy to present horses. Wén-dì established Sùlì and Míjiā as Returning to Righteousness Kings. Sùlì with [Kē] Bǐnéng again attacked each other. Tàihé Second Year [228], Sùlì died. His son was young, and his younger brother Chénglǜguī became King, succeeding and taking over his horde.


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