(30.2) Wūhuán 烏丸

At Hàn’s end, Liáoxī’s Wūhuán Chieftain Qiūlìjū, with horde of over 5000 tribes, Shànggǔ’s Wūhuán Chieftain Nánlóu, with horde of over 9000 tribes, each were declared King, but Liáodōng Dependent State’s Wūhuán Chieftain Sūpúyán, with horde of over 1000 tribes, declared himself King of Qiào, Yòuběipíng’s Wūhuán Chieftain Wūyán, with horde of over 800 tribes, declared himself King of Hànlǔ, and all had strategy and valor. Zhōngshān Administrator Zhāng Chún rebelled and entered into Qiūlìjiū’s horde, declaring himself Filling Heaving King of Āndìng, and was the three prefectures’ Wūhuán’s overall commander, plundering Qīng, Xú, Yōu, and Jì four provinces, killing and robbing officials and people.

漢末,遼西烏丸大人丘力居,眾五千餘落,上谷烏丸大人難樓,眾九千餘落,各稱王,而遼東屬國烏丸大人蘇僕延,眾千餘落,自稱峭王,右北平烏丸大人烏延,眾八百餘落,自稱汗魯王,皆有計策勇健。中山太守張純叛入丘力居眾中,自號彌天安定王,為三郡烏丸元帥,寇略青、徐、幽、冀四州,殺略吏民。

At Líng-dì [Liú Hóng]’s end, Liú Yú was appointed Provincial Governor, and he recruited Hú and beheaded [Zhāng] Chún, and the northern provinces therefore were settled. Later Qiūlìjū died, his son Lóubān was young, his cousin’s son Tàdùn had military strategy, and succeeded position, assembling and absorbing the three Kings’ divisions, and the hordes all followed his instructions and orders. Yuán Shào with Gōngsūn Zàn continuously battled without resolution, Tàdùn sent envoy to visit [Yuán] Shào to ask for marriage alliance, assisted [Yuàn] Shào in striking [Gōngsūn] Zàn, and defeated him. [Yuán] Shào faked Imperial Regulation to bestow on Tàdùn, the King of Qiào, and King of Hànlǔ seals and ribbons, all as Shànyú. (1)

靈帝末,以劉虞為州牧,募胡斬純首,北州乃定。後丘力居死,子樓班年小,從子蹋頓有武略,代立,總攝三王部,眾皆從其教令。袁紹與公孫瓚連戰不決,蹋頓遣使詣紹求和親,助紹擊瓚,破之。紹矯制賜蹋頓、(難)峭王、汗魯王印綬,皆以為單于。〔一〕

  • (1) Yīngxióngjì states: [Yuán] Shào sent envoy immediately to appoint the Wūhuán’s three Kings as Shànyú, all with Secure Chariot, Flowery Canopy, Feather Banners, Yellow Rooms, and Left Fans. The register writing said: “Envoy Wielding Staff, General-in-Chief, Commander of Yōu, Qīng, Bìng, with office as Jì Province Governor, and Ruǎn village Marquis [Yuán] Shào, conveys Regulation and Imperial Order on Liáodōng Dependent State’s leader of hordes King Bānxià, Wūhuán Liáoxī’s leader of hordes King Tàdùn, Yòuběipíng’s leader of hordes King Hànlúwéi: Your ancestors admired righteousness and moved to the good, called at the passes to come inside and submit, to the north warding off the Xiǎnyǔn, to the east resisting the Huìmò, for generations defending the northern frontiers, to for the common people be safeguard, and although at times violated the Ruler to plunder, so order was given to offices to campaign to punish crime, always it was not for a long time, to regret transgression and reform, so compared against the outer Yí they were the most intelligent and kind. In the beginning there thousands of chiefs, hundreds of chiefs together leading, using ability to all then know heart, overcome with achievements and strength for the state, and gradually received appointments as Kings and Marquis. Since our Ruling House had many problems, Gōngsūn Zàn created trouble, killing the leaders of the Yí lands, and so insulting Heaven and disrespecting Ruler, and therefore within the Four Seas, all grasped shield and spear to protect the State Altars. The Three Kings exerted aura in their inherited lands, angered at treachery and anxious for the state, drawing bow string to with Hàn’s troops join together, truly with extreme loyalty and filial piety, what the Court praises. However tigers and long serpents, follow each other blocking the roads, so the Ruler’s orders of rank and title, were blocked and not heard. To have merits not rewarded, is to cause the industrious to become negligent. Now sending Acting Visitor Yáng Lín, to present Shànyú’s seal and ribbon and chariots and robes, to answer your toils. Each soothe and calm your tribes, instructing them to be prudent, to have no action of viciousness or evil thought. For generations again maintain sacrifices, and expand as the chief of the hundred foreigners. If there are faults and not correct, it will remove your fortunes, and lessen your contributions, how can you not exhort yourselves! Wūhuán Shànyú command and protect the divisions of hordes, the Left and Right Shànyú receive his directives, the rest following precedents.”

〔一〕 英雄記曰:紹遣使即拜烏丸三王為單于,皆安車、華蓋、羽旄、黃屋、左纛。版文曰:「使持節大將軍督幽、青、并領冀州牧阮鄉侯紹,承制詔遼東屬國率眾王頒下、烏丸遼西率眾王蹋頓、右北平率眾王汗盧維:乃祖慕義遷善,款塞內附,北捍玁狁,東拒濊貊,世守北陲,為百姓保障,雖時侵犯王略,命將徂征厥罪,率不旋時,悔愆變改,方之外夷,最又聰惠者也。始有千夫長、百夫長以相統領,用能悉乃心,克有勳力於國家,稍受王侯之命。自我王室多故,公孫瓚作難,殘夷厥土之君,以侮天慢主,是以四海之內,並執干戈以衛社稷。三王奮氣裔土,忿姦憂國,控弦與漢兵為表裏,誠甚忠孝,朝所嘉焉。然而虎兕長蛇,相隨塞路,王官爵命,否而無聞。夫有勳不賞,俾勤者怠。今遣行謁者楊林,齎單于璽綬車服,以對爾勞。其各綏靜部落,教以謹慎,無使作凶作慝。世復爾祀位,長為百蠻長。厥有咎有不臧者,泯於爾祿,而喪於乃庸,可不勉乎!烏桓單于都護部眾,左右單于受其節度,他如故事。」


Later Lóubān grew up, and the King of Qiào led his division horde to honor Lóubān as Shànyú, with Tàdùn as King. However Tàdùn had many strategies. Guǎngyáng’s Yán Róu, when young was lost among the Wūhuán and Xiānbēi, and was by the tribe he joined trusted. [Yán] Róu therefore borrowed Xiānbēi armies, killed the Wūhuán Colonel Xíng Jǔ and replaced him, and [Yuán] Shào therefore favored and consoled him to secure the northern borders. Later Yuán Shàng was defetaed and fled to Tàdùn, relying on his strength, and again plotted for Jì Province. It happened that Tàizǔ pacified the Hé’s north, and [Yán] Róu led the Xiānbēi and Wūhuán to join him, and therefore [Yán] Róu was appointed Colonel, still Wielding Staff as Hàn’s envoy, headquarters at Guǎngníng as before.

後樓班大,峭王率其部眾奉樓班為單于,蹋頓為王。然蹋頓多畫計策。廣陽閻柔,少沒烏丸、鮮卑中,為其種所歸信。柔乃因鮮卑眾,殺烏丸校尉邢舉代之,紹因寵慰以安北邊。後袁尚敗奔蹋頓,憑其勢,復圖冀州。會太祖平河北,柔帥鮮卑、烏丸歸附,遂因以柔為校尉,猶持漢使節,治廣甯如舊。

Jiàn’ān Eleventh Year [206], Tàizǔ personally campaigned against Tàdùn at Liǔchéng, secretly moving army by side roads, and had not yet arrived by over a hundred lǐ, when the caitiffs became aware. [Yuán] Shàng with Tàdùn commanded the armies to oppose and battle at Fánchéng, their troops and horses extremely flourishing. Tàizǔ climbed high and observed the caitiffs lines, restrained the army and did not yet advance, observed their small movements, and therefore struck and defeated their armies, on the battle lines beheading Tàdùn, and the dead covered the fields. Quickly Fùwán [successor to Sūpúyán], Lóubān, and Wūyán and others fled to Liáodōng, and Liáodōng beheaded them all, sending their heads. The rest all surrendered. Then Yōu Province’s and Bìng Province’s Wūhuán led by [Yán] Róu of over 10,000 tribes, all moved their clans to reside in the central states, the commanders following their Marquis and Kings and Chieftains hordes on campaign. Because of this the three prefectures’ Wūhuán became the realm Under Heaven’s famed cavalry. (1)

建安十一年,太祖自征蹋頓於柳城,潛軍詭道,未至百餘里,虜乃覺。尚與蹋頓將眾逆戰於凡城,兵馬甚盛。太祖登高望虜陳,(柳)〔抑〕軍未進,觀其小動,乃擊破其眾,臨陳斬蹋頓首,死者被野。速附丸、樓班、烏延等走遼東,遼東悉斬,傳送其首。其餘遺迸皆降。及幽州、并州柔所統烏丸萬餘落,悉徙其族居中國,帥從其侯王大人種眾與征伐。由是三郡烏丸為天下名騎。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: Jǐngchū Inaugural Year [237] Autumn, Yōu Province Inspector Guànqiū Jiǎn was sent to lead his armies to suppress Liáodōng. Yòuběipíng’s Wūhuán Shànyú Kòulóudūn, Liáoxī’s Wūhuán Commander and leader of hordes King Hùliúyè, in the past accompanied Yuán Shàng to flee to Liáoxī, heard [Guànqiū] Jiǎn’s army arrived, and led their hordes of over 5000 men to surrender. Kòulóudūn sent his younger brother Āluópán and others to visit the Court to present tribute, and fief was given on their great commanders of over thirty as Kings, bestowed with carriages and horses and silks chosen each on individual basis.

〔一〕 魏略曰:景初元年秋,遣幽州刺史毌丘儉率眾軍討遼東。右北平烏丸單于寇婁敦、遼西烏丸都督率眾王護留葉,昔隨袁尚奔遼西,聞儉軍至,率眾五千餘人降。寇婁敦遣弟(阿羅獎)〔阿羅槃〕等詣闕朝貢,封其渠帥三十餘為王,賜輿馬繒采各有差。

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