(42.3) Dù Qióng 杜瓊 [Bóyú 伯瑜]

Dù Qióng appellation Bóyú was a Shǔ prefecture Chéngdū man. When young he received schooling from Rén Ān, and was exceptional in investigating [Rén] Ān’s methods. In Liú Zhāng’s time he was recruited as an Attending Official. When Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi] settled Yì Province, taking office as Governor, he appointed Qióng as Commentary Department Attending Official. When Hòuzhǔ [Liú Shàn] ascended the throne, he was appointed Remonstrance Grandee, promoted to Left Internal Cadet General, Minister Herald, and Minister of Ceremonies.

杜瓊字伯瑜,蜀郡成都人也。少受學於任安,精究安術。劉璋時辟為從事。先主定益州,領牧,以瓊為議曹從事。後主踐阼,拜諫議大夫,遷左中郎將、大鴻臚、太常。

As a man he was silent and seldom spoke, closed door and maintained himself, not getting involved in worldly affairs. Jiǎng Wǎn and Fèi Yī and others all highly valued him. Although his scholarship was very deep, at first he did not inspect Heaven’s Signs but had discussions. Later he advanced to communicate with Classicist Qiáo Zhōu who once asked his thinking, and Qióng answered: “Wishing to understand these methods is very difficult, and must be personally observed, to note its form and appearance, it cannot trust in others. Morning and night painstakingly working, afterward knowing it, yet worrying of leaks. It is not as good as not knowing, and therefore I do not again investigate.”

為人靜默少言,闔門自守,不與世事。蔣琬、費禕等皆器重之。雖學業入深,初不視天文有所論說。後進通儒譙周常問其意,瓊答曰:「欲明此術甚難,須當身視,識其形色,不可信人也。晨夜苦劇,然後知之,復憂漏泄,不如不知,是以不復視也。」

[Qiáo] Zhōu therefore asked: “In the past Zhōu Zhǐjūn believed on the street’s high was Wèi. What is its meaning?” Qióng answered: “Wèi is a word for watchtower, it is on the street but high, sages take this sort and speak and that is all.”

周因問曰:「昔周徵君以為當塗高者魏也,其義何也?」瓊答曰:「魏,闕名也,當塗而高,聖人取類而言耳。」

Also he asked [Qiáo] Zhōu: “Do you have other bewildering things?” [Qiáo] Zhōu said: “I do not yet know.”

又問周曰:「寧復有所怪邪?」周曰:「未達也。」

Qióng also said: “The ancients in the naming of official positions did not speak of Departments [Cáo]; it began from Hàn onward. Naming officials completely speaking of Departments [Cáo], causing officials to speak of belonging to Departments [Cáo], soldiers speaking of serving Departments [Cáo]; this probably was Heaven’s Will.”

瓊又曰:「古者名官職不言曹;始自漢已來,名官盡言曹,使言屬曹,卒言侍曹,此殆天意也。」

Qióng at over eighty years, Yánxī Thirteenth Year [250] died.

瓊年八十餘,延熙十三年卒。

He wrote Hán Shī Zhāngjù of over a hundred thousand words, did not teach it to his students, and his inner studies had no one to pass on his work. [Qiáo] Zhōu went along with Qióng’s words, and therefore gathered up this sort and spread it saying: “The Chūnqiū Zhuàn writes Jìn Mù-hóu named his Heir-Apparent as Qiú, and [Qiú’s] younger brother as Chéngshī. Shī Fú said: ‘How strangely you have named your son! A happy match is called consort [Fēi], an unhappy match called spouse [Qiú]. Now you name your Heir-Apparent as Qiū, and his younger brother as Chéngshī, this is a first omen of chaos. Will the elder brother be replaced?’ After this indeed it was as [Shī] Fú said. When Hàn Líng-dì [Liú Hóng] named his two sons as Lord Shǐ and Lord Dǒng, they were enthroned as Emperor, and later both were dismissed to vassal Lords, this with Shī Fú’s words resemble. Xiānzhǔ’s name was Bèi, this meaning to prepare. Hòuzhǔ’s name was Shàn, this meaning to give. By these words the Liú was already prepared, to give to another. The meaning is more extreme than Mù-hóu and Líng-dì naming their sons.”

著韓詩章句十餘萬言,不教諸子,內學無傳業者。周緣瓊言,乃觸類而長之曰:「春秋傳著晉穆侯名太子曰仇,弟曰成師。師服曰:『異哉君之名子也!嘉耦曰妃,怨偶曰仇,今君名太子曰仇,弟曰成師,始兆亂矣,兄其替乎?』其後果如服言。及漢靈帝名二子曰史侯、董侯,既立為帝,後皆免為諸侯,與師服言相似也。先主諱備,其訓具也,後主諱禪,其訓授也,如言劉已具矣,當授與人也;意者甚於穆侯、靈帝之名子。」

Later the eunuch Huáng Hào controlled power inside, Jǐngyào Fifth Year [262], inside the Palace a large tree without reason itself broke, [Qiáo] Zhōu was deeply worried by this, had no one to speak with, and therefore wrote on a pillar: “Masses and big, phases at meeting, preparing and giving, how can there be restoration?” This was saying Departments [Cáo] were masses, Watchtowers [Wèi] were big, and masses and big, was the realm Under Heaven by them meeting. Prepare and give, how could there again be another established? When Shǔ was destroyed, all believed [Qiáo] Zhōu’s words were proven. Zhōu said: “Although this was what I personally examined, yet the reasoning for it, was by taking sir Dù [Qíong]’s words and expanding them and that is all. It was completely without any uniqueness of divine thought independently arriving.”

後宦人黃皓弄權於內,景耀五年,宮中大樹無故自折,周深憂之,無所與言,乃書柱曰:「眾而大,期之會,具而授,若何復?」言曹者眾也,魏者大也,眾而大,天下其當會也。具而授,如何復有立者乎?蜀既亡,咸以周言為驗。周曰:「此雖己所推尋,然有所因,由杜君之辭而廣之耳,殊無神思獨至之異也。」

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