(42.3) Dù Qióng 杜瓊 [Bóyú 伯瑜]

Dù Qióng appellation Bóyú was a Shǔ prefecture Chéngdū man. When young he received schooling from Rén Ān, and was exceptional in investigating [Rén] Ān’s methods. In Liú Zhāng’s time he was recruited as an Attending Official. When Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi] settled Yì Province, taking office as Governor, he appointed Qióng as Commentary Department Attending Official. When Hòuzhǔ [Liú Shàn] ascended the throne, he was appointed Remonstrance Grandee, promoted to Left Internal Cadet General, Minister Herald, and Minister of Ceremonies.


As a man he was silent and seldom spoke, closed door and maintained himself, not getting involved in worldly affairs. Jiǎng Wǎn and Fèi Yī and others all highly valued him. Although his scholarship was very deep, at first he did not inspect Heaven’s Signs but had discussions. Later he advanced to communicate with Classicist Qiáo Zhōu who once asked his thinking, and Qióng answered: “Wishing to understand these methods is very difficult, and must be personally observed, to note its form and appearance, it cannot trust in others. Morning and night painstakingly working, afterward knowing it, yet worrying of leaks. It is not as good as not knowing, and therefore I do not again investigate.”


[Qiáo] Zhōu therefore asked: “In the past Zhōu Zhǐjūn believed on the street’s high was Wèi. What is its meaning?” Qióng answered: “Wèi is a word for watchtower, it is on the street but high, sages take this sort and speak and that is all.”


Also he asked [Qiáo] Zhōu: “Do you have other bewildering things?” [Qiáo] Zhōu said: “I do not yet know.”


Qióng also said: “The ancients in the naming of official positions did not speak of Departments [Cáo]; it began from Hàn onward. Naming officials completely speaking of Departments [Cáo], causing officials to speak of belonging to Departments [Cáo], soldiers speaking of serving Departments [Cáo]; this probably was Heaven’s Will.”


Qióng at over eighty years, Yánxī Thirteenth Year [250] died.


He wrote Hán Shī Zhāngjù of over a hundred thousand words, did not teach it to his students, and his inner studies had no one to pass on his work. [Qiáo] Zhōu went along with Qióng’s words, and therefore gathered up this sort and spread it saying: “The Chūnqiū Zhuàn writes Jìn Mù-hóu named his Heir-Apparent as Qiú, and [Qiú’s] younger brother as Chéngshī. Shī Fú said: ‘How strangely you have named your son! A happy match is called consort [Fēi], an unhappy match called spouse [Qiú]. Now you name your Heir-Apparent as Qiū, and his younger brother as Chéngshī, this is a first omen of chaos. Will the elder brother be replaced?’ After this indeed it was as [Shī] Fú said. When Hàn Líng-dì [Liú Hóng] named his two sons as Lord Shǐ and Lord Dǒng, they were enthroned as Emperor, and later both were dismissed to vassal Lords, this with Shī Fú’s words resemble. Xiānzhǔ’s name was Bèi, this meaning to prepare. Hòuzhǔ’s name was Shàn, this meaning to give. By these words the Liú was already prepared, to give to another. The meaning is more extreme than Mù-hóu and Líng-dì naming their sons.”


Later the eunuch Huáng Hào controlled power inside, Jǐngyào Fifth Year [262], inside the Palace a large tree without reason itself broke, [Qiáo] Zhōu was deeply worried by this, had no one to speak with, and therefore wrote on a pillar: “Masses and big, phases at meeting, preparing and giving, how can there be restoration?” This was saying Departments [Cáo] were masses, Watchtowers [Wèi] were big, and masses and big, was the realm Under Heaven by them meeting. Prepare and give, how could there again be another established? When Shǔ was destroyed, all believed [Qiáo] Zhōu’s words were proven. Zhōu said: “Although this was what I personally examined, yet the reasoning for it, was by taking sir Dù [Qíong]’s words and expanding them and that is all. It was completely without any uniqueness of divine thought independently arriving.”


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