(18.1) Lǐ Diǎn 李典 [Mànchéng 曼成]

Lǐ Diǎn appellation Mànchéng was a Shānyáng Jùyě man. Diǎn’s cousin’s father [Lǐ] Qián, had imposing aura, and united guest retainers of several thousand families at Chéngshì. During Chūpíng [190-193], he led his army to join Tàizǔ, defeating Yellow Headscarves at Shòuzhāng, also accompanying in striking Yuán Shù, and campaigning against Xú Province. During Lǚ Bù’s chaos, Tàizǔ sent [Lǐ] Qián back to Chéngshì, to comfort the various counties. [Lǚ] Bù’s Aide-de-Camp Xuē Lán and Internal Manager Lǐ Fēng recruited [Lǐ] Qián, wishing to have him join the rebellion, but [Lǐ] Qián would not listen, and therefore they killed [Lǐ] Qián. Tàizǔ sent [Lǐ] Qián’s son [Lǐ] Zhěng to command [Lǐ] Qián’s troops, and with the various officers struck [Xuē] Lán and [Lǐ] Fēng. [Xuē] Lán and [Lǐ] Fēng were defeated, and in accompanying in pacifying Yǎn Province’s various counties he had achievement, gradually promoted to Qīng Province Inspector. [Lǐ] Zhěng died, Diǎn transferred from Yǐngyīn Magistrate, became Internal Cadet General, commanding [Lǐ] Zhěng’s army, (1) and was promoted to Qiānlí Administrator.

李典字曼成,山陽鉅野人也。典從父乾,有雄氣,合賓客數千家在乘氏。初平中,以眾隨太祖,破黃巾於壽張,又從擊袁術,征徐州。呂布之亂,太祖遣乾還乘氏,慰勞諸縣。布別駕薛蘭、治中李封招乾,欲俱叛,乾不聽,遂殺乾。太祖使乾子整將乾兵,與諸將擊蘭、封。蘭、封破,從平兗州諸縣有功,稍遷青州刺史。整卒,典徙潁陰令,為中郎將,將整軍,〔一〕遷離狐太守。

  • (1) Wèishū states: Diǎn when young enjoyed study, did not take pleasure in soldier affairs, and therefore met teacher to study Chūnqiū Zuǒshì Zhuàn, widely ready various books. Tàizǔ praised him, and therefore tested him with governance in ruling people.

〔一〕 魏書曰:典少好學,不樂兵事,乃就師讀春秋左氏傳,博觀群書。太祖善之,故試以治民之政。


At the time Tàizǔ with Yuán Shào were locked together at Guāndù, Diǎn led his clansmen and guard retainers to donate grain and silk to supply the army. [Yuán] Shào was defeated, and Diǎn became Supplemental General, garrisoning Ānmín. Tàizǔ struck [Yuán] Tán and [Yuán] Shàng at Líyáng, sending Diǎn with Chéng Yù and others to on boats transport military provisions.

時太祖與袁紹相拒官渡,典率宗族及部曲輸穀帛供軍。紹破,以典為裨將軍,屯安民。太祖擊譚、尚於黎陽,使典與程昱等以船運軍糧。

It happened that [Yuán] Shàng sent Wèi prefecture Administrator Gāo Fán to command troops to garrison above the Hé, cutting off the water ways, and Tàizǔ ordered Diǎn and [Chéng] Yù: “If the boats cannot cross, dismount and follow land routes.”

會尚遣魏郡太守高蕃將兵屯河上,絕水道,太祖敕典、昱:「若船不得過,下從陸道。」

Diǎn with the various officers discussed: “[Gāo] Fán army has few armored and relies on the river, and have slacking hearts, striking them they are certain to be overcome. The army cannot only manage itself; if it will benefit the state, taking initiative [to disobey these orders] is allowable. It is appropriate to urgently strike them.” [Chéng] Yù also believed this correct.

典與諸將議曰:「蕃軍少甲而恃水,有懈怠之心,擊之必克。軍不內御;苟利國家,專之可也,宜亟擊之。」昱亦以為然。

Therefore they crossed the Hé north, attacked [Gāo] Fán, defeated him, and the water ways could be connected.

遂北渡河,攻蕃,破之,水道得通。

Liú Biǎo sent Liú Bèi north to invade, reached Shè, and Tàizǔ sent Diǎn to accompany Xiàhóu Dūn to resist them. [Liú] Bèi in one mourning burned his camp and left, and [Xiàhóu] Dūn led the various armies to pursue and strike them. Diǎn said: “The bandits without reason withdrew, and one suspects there will certainly be ambush. The south road is narrow, grass and trees thick, we cannot pursue.” [Xiàhóu] Dūn did not listen, and with Yú Jīn pursued them, Diǎn remaining to defend.

劉表使劉備北侵,至葉,太祖遣典從夏侯惇拒之。備一旦燒屯去,惇率諸軍追擊之,典曰:「賊無故退,疑必有伏。南道狹窄,草木深,不可追也。」惇不聽,與于禁追之,典留守。

[Xiàhóu] Dūn and the rest indeed entered the bandits’ ambush, battled but was not successful, Diǎn went to rescue, and [Liú] Bèi seeing rescue had arrived, therefore scattered and retreated.

惇等果入賊伏裏,戰不利,典往救,備望見救至,乃散退。

He accompanied the siege of Yè, Yè was settled, and with Yuè Jìn besieged Gāo Gàn at Húguān, striking Guǎn Chéng at Chángguǎng, and defeated them all. He was promoted to Capturing Caitiffs General, with fief as a capital precinct Marquis.

從圍鄴,鄴定,與樂進圍高幹於壺關,擊管承於長廣,皆破之。遷捕虜將軍,封都亭侯。

Diǎn’s clansmen and guard retainers of over 3000 families, resided at Chéngshì, and he himself asked to move them to Wèi prefecture. Tàizǔ laughed and said: “You wish to admire Gěng Chún?” Diǎn apologized and said: “I Diǎn am worn and rustic and my achievements small, but my rank and favor are exceedingly generous, and truly it is appropriate to raise my clan to exert strength; moreover campaigns have not yet ceased, and it is appropriate to fill the suburbs of the interior, to control the Four Quarters, it is not admiring [Gěng] Chún.” Therefore he moved his guard retainers and clansmen of over 13,000 people to reside at Yè. Tàizǔ praised him, and promoted him to Breaking Caitiffs General.

典宗族部曲三千餘家,居乘氏,自請願徙詣魏郡。太祖笑曰:「卿欲慕耿純邪?」典謝曰:「典駑怯功微,而爵寵過厚,誠宜舉宗陳力;加以征伐未息,宜實郊遂之內,以制四方,非慕純也。」遂徙部曲宗族萬三千餘口居鄴。太祖嘉之,遷破虜將軍。

With Zhāng Liáo and Yuè Jìn he garrisoned Héféi. Sūn Quán led armies to besiege them, and [Zhāng] Liáo wished to carry out instructions to go out and battle. [Yuè] Jìn, [Lǐ] Diǎn, and [Zhāng] Liáo all previously did not get along, [Zhāng] Liáo feared they would not agree, but Diǎn sighed and said: “This is the state’s great affair, I only consider what your plan is and that is all. How can I for personal resentments forget the public righteousness?” Therefore he led the armies to with [Zhāng] Liáo defeat and drive away [Sūn] Quán. His fief increased by 100 households, adding to the previous to 300 households.

與張遼、樂進屯合肥,孫權率眾圍之,遼欲奉教出戰。進、典、遼皆素不睦,遼恐其不從,典慨然曰:「此國家大事,顧君計何如耳,吾可以私憾而忘公義乎!」乃率眾與遼破走權。增邑百戶,并前三百戶。


Diǎn enjoyed learning, esteemed the scholarly, and did not with the various officers compete for achievement. He respected worthy scholar officials, sincerely worried he could not compare, and in the army he was praised him as senior. At thirty-six years he died, his son [Lǐ] Zhēn succeeded. When Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] ascended the throne, in memorial of the Héféi achievement, increased [Lǐ] Zhēn’s fief by 100 households, and bestowed on another of Diǎn’s sons rank as Marquis Within the Passes, fief of 100 households; posthumous name was given on Diǎn as Mǐn-hóu “Martyred Marquis,”

典好學問,貴儒雅,不與諸將爭功。敬賢士大夫,恂恂若不及,軍中稱其長者。年三十六薨,子禎嗣。文帝踐阼,追念合肥之功,增禎邑百戶,賜典一子爵關內侯,邑百戶;諡典曰愍侯。

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