(59.5) Sūn Fèn 孫奮 [Zǐyáng 子揚]

Sūn Fèn appellation Zǐyáng, was [Sūn] Bà’s younger brother, his mother called lady Zhòng. Tàiyuán Second Year [252] he was enthroned as King of Qí, residing at Wǔchāng. [Sūn] Quán died, and Grand Tutor Zhūgě Kè did not wish for the various Kings occupy the Jiāng’s bank soldier and horse territory, and relocated Fèn to Yùzhāng. Fèn was angry, did not obey the order, and also repeatedly violated law.

孫奮字子揚,霸弟也,母曰仲姬。太元二年,立為齊王,居武昌。權薨,太傅諸葛恪不欲諸王處江濱兵馬之地,徙奮於豫章。奮怒,不從命,又數越法度。

[Zhūgě] Kè sent up letter remonstrating: “The honor of Emperors and Kings, with Heaven is equal ranked, and therefore take as family the realm Under Heaven, as servants fathers and elder brothers, and within the Four Seas, all are their servants and subjects. When enemies have goodness, they cannot but be nominated; when relatives have evils, they cannot but be punished; therefore carrying on Heaven and managing things, first the state and afterward self, this is how the sagely man establishes regulation, a principle not to change in a hundred ages. In the past at Hàn’s first rise, many Kings were made of sons and younger brothers so that they were too powerful, and then became disobedient, above then almost endangering the State Altars, below then close kin slaughtered each other, and afterward this was warning, to be greatly shunned. From Guāng-Wǔ onward, the various Kings were regulated, only able to amuse themselves within the Palace, unable to oversee people, participate in government affairs, connect with communications, all were heavily forbidden, and therefore they secured peace, and each protected their fortune and reign. This then was the previous age’s proof of gains and losses. Recently Yuán Shào and Liú Biǎo each had states and land, their territory was not narrow, their men and armies were not weak, but their successor and non-successor sons were not distinguished, and therefore exterminated their clan sacrifices. This then the realm Under Heaven’s foolish and wise, all for this sigh in sorrow. The Greatly Departed Imperial Emperor [Sūn Quán] considered the ancients as warnings for the present, guarding against buds and restraining sprouts, pondering a thousand ages. Therefore on the day of lying in illness, he divided and sent the various Kings, each early to return to their states, his Imperial Order tally thoroughly attentive, system of restriction strict and severe, so that it ordered warning, with nothing not utmost, sincerely wishing to above secure the Ancestral Temples, below protect the various Kings, to have succession for a hundred ages, with no regret of destroying state and harming family. You Great King should above consider the will of Tàibó obeying his father, middle study Héjiān King Xiàn[Liú Dé]’s and Dōnghǎi King [Liú] Qiáng’s deferential integrity, and below reduce arrogance and lack of restraint to be alert. Yet one hears since reaching Wǔchāng onward, you repeatedly violate Imperial Order, not confining within regulations, without authority deploying the various officers and troops to manage and protect your Palace and Residences. Your regular attendants and followers have crimes, and should be memorialized report, handed over to managers, but you without authority personally kill, so that matters are not understood and clear. Marshal-in-Chief Lǚ Dài personally received the Late Emperor’s Imperial Order, to support and guide you Great King, but you do not carry on and employ his advice, so that he harbors worry and fear. Huà Qí was the Late Emperor’s close minister, loyal and upright, and his explanations of principle, you should accept and use them, but one hears you are angry at [Huà] Qí, and there is word of his arrest and binding. Also Internal Documents Yáng Róng, personally received Imperial Order, and should be given respect, but you say: ‘I will not listen to restrictions, what can you do to me?’ On the day of hearing this, large and small were startled, and none did not have cold heart. The Lǐyù states: ‘Bright mirror thus shines form, ancient matters thus knows the present.’ You Great King should deeply take the King of Lǔ [Sūn Bà] as warning, change your conduct, with fear and trepidation, thoroughly respect the Court, and by this then  no request will be unsuccessful. If you discard and forget the Former Emperor’s laws and teachings, harboring irreverent heart, the ministers and subordinates would rather turn back on you Great King, and not dare turn back on the Former Emperor’s posthumous Imperial Order, would rather be by you Great King blamed and hated, how would they dare forget the honored ruler’s authority, and allow Imperial Order to not be enacted to the vassal state’s ministers? This is ancient and present correct righteousness, and you Great King must know this. Fortune coming has reason, disaster coming is gradual, gradually appearing but not worrying, then one cannot be regretful. If the King of Lǔ [Sūn Bà] had earlier accepted loyal and upright advice, harbored alarmed consideration, he would have enjoyed blessings without exhaustion, how would there have been disaster of destruction? Good medicine is bitter in the mouth, only the ill can sweetly swallow it. Loyal words opposes the ear, only the enlightened are able to accept it. Presently I [Zhūgě] Kè and others respectfully wish for you Great King to remove the sprouts of danger, expand the foundations of good fortune, and therefore do not know if our words have reached, and hope you may reconsider.”

恪上牋諫曰:「帝王之尊,與天同位,是以家天下,臣父兄,四海之內,皆為臣妾。仇讎有善,不得不舉,親戚有惡,不得不誅,所以承天理物,先國後身,蓋聖人立制,百代不易之道也。昔漢初興,多王子弟至於太彊,輒為不軌,上則幾危社稷,下則骨肉相殘,其後懲戒,以為大諱。自光武以來,諸王有制,惟得自娛於宮內,不得臨民,干與政事,其與交通,皆有重禁,遂以全安,各保福祚。此則前世得失之驗也。近袁紹、劉表各有國土,土地非狹,人眾非弱,以適庶不分,遂滅其宗祀。此乃天下愚智,所共嗟痛。大行皇帝覽古戒今,防芽遏萌,慮於千載。是以寢疾之日,分遣諸王,各早就國,詔策殷勤,科禁嚴峻,其所戒敕,無所不至,誠欲上安宗廟,下全諸王,使百世相承,無凶國害家之悔也。大王宜上惟太伯順父之志,中念河間獻王、東海王彊恭敬之節,下當裁抑驕恣荒亂以為警戒。而聞頃至武昌以來,多違詔敕,不拘制度,擅發諸將兵治護宮室。又左右常從有罪過者,當以表聞,公付有司,而擅私殺,事不明白。大司馬呂岱親受先帝詔敕,輔導大王,既不承用其言,令懷憂怖。華錡先帝近臣,忠良正直,其所陳道,當納用之,而聞怒錡,有收縛之語。又中書楊融,親受詔敕,所當恭肅,云『正自不聽禁,當如我何』?聞此之日,大小驚怪,莫不寒心。里語曰:『明鏡所以照形,古事所以知今。』大王宜深以魯王為戒,改易其行,戰戰兢兢,盡敬朝廷,如此則無求不得。若棄忘先帝法教,懷輕慢之心,臣下寧負大王,不敢負先帝遺詔,寧為大王所怨疾,豈敢忘尊主之威,而令詔敕不行於藩臣邪?此古今正義,大王所照知也。夫福來有由,禍來有漸,漸生不憂,將不可悔。向使魯王早納忠直之言,懷驚懼之慮,享祚無窮,豈有滅亡之禍哉?夫良藥苦口,惟疾者能甘之。忠言逆耳,惟達者能受之。今者恪等慺慺欲為大王除危殆於萌芽,廣福慶之基原,是以不自知言至,願蒙三思。」


Fèn obtained the letter and was afraid, and therefore moved to Nánchāng, thoroughly immersing in traveling and hunting, and his subordinate officials could not bear his orders. When [Zhūgě] Kè was executed, Fèn was sent down to reside at Wúhú, and wished to go to Jiànyè to observe for changes. Tutor and Chancellor Xiè Cí and others remonstrated Fèn, and Fèn killed them. (1) Because of this he was deposed to commoner, and moved to Zhāng’ān county. Tàipíng Third Year [258], he was given fief as Marquis of Zhāng’ān. (2)

奮得牋懼,遂移南昌,游獵彌甚,官屬不堪命。及恪誅,奮下住蕪湖,欲至建業觀變。傅相謝慈等諫奮,奮殺之。〔一〕坐廢為庶人,徙章安縣。太平三年,封為章安侯。〔二〕

  • (1) [Xiè] Cí appellation Xiàozōng was a Péngchéng man. See Lǐlùn. His compiled Sāngfútú and Biànchú passed through the ages.

〔一〕 慈字孝宗,彭城人,見禮論,撰喪服圖及變除行於世。

  • (2) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn records [Sūn] Liàng’s Imperial Order: “King of Qí Fèn for killing officials, was deposed to commoner, repeatedly there were amnesty orders, but he alone was not forgiven, and even if it is not yet appropriate to restore him to King, why not as Marquis? Also the various Sūn clan brothers serve as Generals, lined up along the Jiāng’s bank, why is my elder brother alone like this?” Managers memorialized it could be, and so he was appointed a Marquis.

  〔二〕 江表傳載亮詔曰:「齊王奮前坐殺吏,廢為庶人,連有赦令,獨不見原,縱未宜復王,何以不侯?又諸孫兄弟作將,列在江渚,孤有兄獨爾云何?」有司奏可,就拜為侯。


Jiànéng Second Year [270], Sūn Hào’s Left consort Wáng died. [Sūn] Hào’s sorrow and mourning was excessive, morning and night he wept, and for several moons did not go out, and because of this among the people some said [Sūn] Hào had died, and wrongly said Fèn or Marquis of Shàngyú [Sūn] Fèng would be enthroned, Fèn’s mother lady Zhòng’s tomb was in Yùzhāng, Yùzhāng Administrator Zhāng Jùn suspected this [enthronement of Sūn Fèn] was probable, and cleaned the graves. [Sūn] Hào heard this, and with chariots tore apart [Zhāng] Jùn, exterminating his clan to the third degree, and executed Fèn and his five sons, state abolished. (1)

建衡二年,孫皓左夫人王氏卒。皓哀念過甚,朝夕哭臨,數月不出,由是民間或謂皓死,訛言奮與上虞侯奉當有立者。奮母仲姬墓在豫章,豫章太守張俊疑其或然,掃除墳塋。皓聞之,車裂俊,夷三族,誅奮及其五子,國除。〔一〕

  • (1) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: Yùzhāng officials of ten men begged to die in place of [Zhāng] Jùn, but [Sūn] Hào would not listen. Fèn because of this met with suspicion, he was originally at Zhāng’ān, was moved back to Wúchéng and imprisoned, and his sons and daughters were not allowed to marry, and some were thirty to forty and could not marry. Fèn sent up memorial begging reprieve, comparing himself to a beast, saying he would have his sons and daughters marry each other. [Sūn] Hào was greatly furious, and sent Battle Inspector to present drugs to bestow on Fèn [to commit suicide], Fèn would not accept the drugs, and bowed head a thousand times saying: “I your old servant only wished for my sons to begat children and manage households, have no care for state affairs, and beg for my remaining years.” [Sūn] Hào would not listen, and father and sons all drank drugs and died.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: Jiànhéng Second Year reaching Fén’s death, Sūn Hào’s succession to the throne, was not yet for a long time. If Fèn were not yet suspected before, his sons and daughters would be around twenty, and reaching Fèn’s time of death, they could not be thirty to forty. If previously they were already grown, then at the time if they were not yet married, it could not be because of [Sūn] Hào’s prohibition. This was wishing to increase [Sūn] Hào’s evils, but it cannot be true.

〔一〕 江表傳曰:豫章吏十人乞代俊死,皓不聽。奮以此見疑,本在章安,徙還吳城禁錮,使男女不得通婚,或年三十四十不得嫁娶。奮上表乞自比禽獸,使男女自相配偶。皓大怒,遣察戰齎藥賜奮,奮不受藥,叩頭千下,曰:「老臣自將兒子治生求治,無豫國事,乞丐餘年。」皓不聽,父子皆飲藥死。臣松之案:建衡二年至奮之死,孫皓即位,尚猶未久。若奮未被疑之前,兒女年二十左右,至奮死時,不得年三十四十也。若先已長大,自失時未婚娶,則不由皓之禁錮矣。此雖欲增皓之惡,然非實理。

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