(20.13) Cáo Biāo 曹彪 [Zhūhǔ 朱虎]

King of Chǔ [Cáo] Biāo appellation Zhūhǔ. Jiàn’ān Twenty-first Year [216], given fief as Marquis of Shòuchūn. Huángchū Second Year [221], advanced in noble rank, moved fief to Duke of Rǔyáng. Third Year [222], given fief as King of Yìyáng. That year moved fief to King of Wú. Fifth year [224], changed fief to Shòuchún county. Seventh Year [226], moved fief to Báimǎ. Tàihé Fifth Year [231] Winter, attended Court in the capital. Sixth Year [232], changed fief to Chǔ. Previously, Biāo came to Court, violated prohibitions, Qīnglóng Inaugural Year [233], this was by managers memorialized, Imperial Order removed [from his fief] counties of three, households of 1500. Second Year, Great Amnesty, restored the removed counties. Jǐngchū Third Year [239], increased households by 500, adding with the previous to 3000 households.


Jiāpíng Inaugural Year [249], Inspector of Yǎnzhōu Línghú Yú with Grand Commandant Wáng Líng plotted to invite Biāo to set capital at Xǔchāng. The story is in Líng’s Biography. Therefore sent Tutor [Sīmǎ Yì] and Attendant Censor to the state to investigate the case, arresting and punishing all those connected. The Minister of Justice requested to summon Biāo to be punished for his crime. Therefore citing the precedent of Hàn’s King of Yān [Liú] Dān, sent simultaneously acting Minister of Justice the Minister Herald Wielding Staff to bestow on Biāo Imperial Sealed letter reprimanding him, to have him deal with himself. (1) Biāo therefore killed himself. His consorts and various sons were all reduced to commoners, moved to Píngyuán. Biāo’s officials and dependents on down and Supervisor of State Visitors, in connection to knowing the situation but not giving guidance, all were executed. The state was abolished to become Huáinán prefecture.


  • (1) Kǒng Yǎn’s Hàn Wèi Chūnqiū records the Imperial Sealed Letter stating: “The former kings in enacting rewards did not omit those they resented, in using executions did not distinguish kinship, this was the principle of utmost impartiality. Therefore Zhōu-gōng shedding tears decided the two Shū’s punishment, Xiào-Wǔ in grief judged Zhāopíng’s imprisonment, this is the ancients to now’s constant standard. You King, are the state’s utmost kin, serve as vassal outside, but could not respectfully uphold a King’s measures, serving as example to the Imperial Clan, but plotted in treason and evil, and thus with Grand Commandant Wáng Líng and Inspector of Yǎnzhōu Línghú Yú connected in rebellious plots, scheming to endanger the State Altars, having perverse heart, without loyal and filial intentions. If the Ancestral Temple has spirits, you King with what face will meet the former Emperor? I am deeply pained that you King entrapped yourself in guilt and crime, and obtaining you King’s situation, and deeply disappointed. Managers memorialize that you King should be sent to the Minister Judge, I consider the meaning of the Gōngzú Diànshī, and cannot bear to display you King in the market and at Court, and therefore send envoy to bestow letter. You King yourself created sin, not due to others, [the King of] Yān’s perverse situation [of plotting to rebel against Hàn and being bestowed with suicide], should be sufficient to observe. You King deal with yourself!”

〔一〕 孔衍漢魏春秋載璽書曰:「夫先王行賞不遺仇讎,用戮不違親戚,至公之義也。故周公流涕而決二叔之罪,孝武傷懷而斷昭平之獄,古今常典也。惟王,國之至親,作藩于外,不能祗奉王度,表率宗室,而謀於姦邪,乃與太尉王淩、兗州刺史令狐愚構通逆謀,圖危社稷,有悖忒之心,無忠孝之意。宗廟有靈,王其何面目以見先帝?朕深痛王自陷罪辜,既得王情,深用憮然。有司奏王當就大理,朕惟公族甸師之義,不忍肆王市朝,故遣使者賜書。王自作孽,匪由於他,燕剌之事,宜足以觀。王其自圖之!」

Zhèngyuán Inaugural Year [254], Imperial Order said: “Former King of Chǔ Biāo, turned back on state to embrace treason, himself died and his succession removed, though he brought this on himself, yet one feels sorry for this. Swallowing disgrace and concealing enmity, is the way of kinship to kin. Thus give fief on Biāo’s successor son Jiā as King of Zhēndìng in Chángshān.” Jǐngyuán Inaugural Year [260], increased fief, adding to the previous to 2500 households. (2)


  • (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: [Cáo] Jiā entered Jìn, given fief as Duke of Gāoyì. During Yuánkāng [291-299], he with Shí Chóng both were Guó-zǐ Academic Scholars. Jiā later became Administrator of Dōngguǎn, [Shí] Chóng became General Campaigning against Caitiffs, supervising Qīng’s and Xú’s military affairs, garrison at Xiàpī, Jiā with a poem left to [Shi] Chóng that said: [70 character poem, not translated here]. [Shí] Chóng replied: [80 character poem, not translated here].
  • Wáng Yǐn’s Jìnshū records Official Appointments Cadet Lǐ Chóngqǐ as saying: “The Wèi Dynasty’s Imperial Clan are slow to be promoted, each what the sagely and kind store. Dōngguǎn Adminsitrator Cáo Jiā’s ability and scholarship does not match [Cáo] Zhì and [Cáo] Xī, but his good character is cultivated and clean, his nature and industry surpassing them; also he has already served in two prefectures. I your servant believe as a worthy of the former dynasty’s descendants, Jiā can be Personnel Outer Cavalier Attendant Cadet.”

  〔二〕 臣松之案:嘉入晉,封高邑公。元康中,與石崇俱為國子博士。嘉後為東莞太守,崇為征虜將軍,監青、徐軍事,屯於下邳,嘉以詩遺崇曰:「文武應時用,兼才在明哲。嗟嗟我石生,為國之俊傑。入侍於皇闥,出則登九列。威檢肅青、徐,風發宜吳裔。疇昔謬同位,情至過魯、衛。分離踰十載,思遠心增結。願子鑒斯誠,寒暑不踰契。」崇答曰:「昔常接羽儀,俱游青雲中,敦道訓冑子,儒化渙以融,同聲無異響,故使恩愛隆。豈惟敦初好,款分在令終。孔不陋九夷,老氏適西戎。逍遙滄海隅,可以保王躬。世事非所務,周公不足夢。玄寂令神王,是以守至沖。」王隱晉書載吏部郎李重啟云:「魏氏宗室屈滯,每聖恩所存。東莞太守曹嘉,才幹學義,不及志、翕,而良素脩潔,性業踰之;又已歷二郡。臣以為優先代之後,可以嘉為員外散騎侍郎。」

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