(28.1) Wáng Líng 王淩 [Yànyún 彥雲]

Línghú Yú 令狐愚

Wáng Líng appellation Yànyún was a Tàiyuán Qí man. His father’s younger brother [Wáng] Yǔn was a Hàn Excellency over the Masses, and executed Dǒng Zhuó. [Dǒng] Zhuó’s officers Lǐ Jué, Guō Sì and others for [Dǒng] Zhuó took revenge, entered Cháng’ān, killed [Wáng] Yǔn, and completely harmed his family. Líng and his elder brother [Wáng] Chén, at the time in years were both young, went over the city walls to escape, and fled into exile back to their hometown. Líng was nominated as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate, became Fāgān Chief, (1) and soon was promoted to Zhōngshān Administrator, wherever he was he achieved governance, and Tàizǔ recruited him to the Chancellor’s officials and associates.


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Líng became a Chief, encountered a matter, and was shaved and punished with five years [penal labor], sent on the roads to sweep and clean. At the time Tàizǔ‘s carriage passed, he asked who it was, and those around him explained the situation in answer. Tàizǔ said: “This is [Wáng Yǔn] Zǐshī’s elder brother’s son, his involvement is also public and that is all.” Therefore the manager selected him as Valiant Cavalry [General’s] Registrar.

〔一〕 魏略曰:淩為長,遇事,髡刑五歲,當道掃除。時太祖車過,問此何徒,左右以狀對。太祖曰;「此子師兄子也,所坐亦公耳。」于是主者選為驍騎主簿。

Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] ascended the throne [220], and appointed him Cavalier Regular Attendant, sent him out as Yǎn Province Inspector, and he with Zhāng Liáo and others reached Guǎnglíng to suppress Sūn Quán. They reached the Jiāng, in the night was great wind, and Wú General Lǚ Fàn and others’ boats floated to the north bank. Líng with the various officers opposed and struck, capturing and beheading the caitiffs, seizing their boats, had achievement, and was given fief as Yíchéng precinct Marquis, added Establishing Martial General, and transferred to Qīng Province.


At the time from since the sea side had been in tragic chaos afterward, the law was not yet orderly. Líng announced government and enacted teaching, rewarding the good and punishing the bad, deeply obtained law and order, and the common people praised him, unable to contain their mouths. Later he followed Cáo Xiū on campaign against Wú, with the bandits met at Jiāshí, [Cáo] Xiū’s army lost advantage, Líng fiercely battled to break the encirclement, and [Cáo] Xiū was able to escape. Afterward he was moved to Yáng and Yù Province Inspector, and always obtained the army’s and people’s pleased hearts. When he first reached Yù Province, he made manifest the descendants of previous worthies, sought after not yet prominent scholars, and always spread teachings, his intentions and righteousness deeply good. Previously, Líng with Sīmǎ Lǎng and Jiǎ Kuí were friendly, and when he oversaw Yǎn and Yù Provinces, he continued their reputations and legacies.


At Zhèngshǐ’s beginning [240], he became General Campaigning East, with Acting Staff as Regional Commander over Yáng Province’s various Military Affairs. Second Year [241], Wú Chief General Quán Cóng with an army of several tens of thousands plundered Quèpí, Líng led the various armies to oppose and suppress, with the bandits contested the dykes, fiercely battling for continuous days, and the bandits retreated and fled. He was advanced in fief to Marquis of Nánxiāng, with fief of 1350 households, and promoted to General of Chariots and Cavalry, with Ceremony equal to the Three Excellencies.


At the time, Líng’s sister’s son Línghú Yú for his talent and ability became Yǎn Province Inspector, garrisoning Píng’ā. Maternal uncle and sister’s son together managed troops, concentrating Huáinán’s power. Líng also was promoted to Excellency of Works. When Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng executed Cáo Shuǎng, he advanced Líng to Excellency Commandant, with Acting Staff and Battle-ax. Líng and Yú secretly joined plans, saying that the King of Qí [Cáo Fāng] could not be entrusted with the Heavenly Throne, the King of Chǔ [Cáo] Biāo was grown and talented, and they wished to invite and establish [Cáo] Biāo with capital at Xǔchāng.


Jiāpíng Inaugural Year [249] Ninth Moon, Yú sent his officer Zhāng Shì to Báimǎ, to with [Cáo] Biāo together ask and make dealings. Líng also sent Resident Láo Jīng to visit Luòyáng, to tell his son [Wáng] Guǎng. [Wáng] Guǎng said: “Deposing and enthroning is a Great Affair, avoiding disaster must be first.” (1) That Eleventh Moon, Yú again sent [Zhāng] Shì to visit [Cáo] Biāo, he had not returned, when it happened that Yú fell ill and died. (2)


  • (1) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Líng and Yú plotted, believing the Emperor [Cáo Fāng] was young and controlled by powerful ministers, and could not be the ruler, and the King of Chǔ [Cáo] Biāo was grown and talented, and wished to invite and enthrone him, to flourish the Cáo clan. Líng sent someone to inform [Wáng] Guǎng, and [Wáng] Guǎng said: “In raising Great Affairs, comply with as the foundation the people’s feelings. Now Cáo Shuǎng by his arrogance and extravagance lost the people, Hé [Yàn] Píngshū was empty without governance, Dīng [Mì], Bì [Guǐ], Huán [Fàn], Dèng [Yáng] though together had prestige, all concentrated power in the world. Moreover they changed easily the Court’s regulations, government orders frequently were revised, though what they maintained was lofty yet matters were not below received, the people are accustomed to the old, and of everyone none followed. Therefore although their power overturned the Four Seas, their reputation shook the world Under Heaven, on the same day they were beheaded and killed, famed scholars were reduced by half, but the common people were calmed, and none mourned; losing the people was the cause. Now [Sīmǎ] Yì’s feelings though difficult to judge, his matters cannot yet be opposed, and he selects out and employs the worthy and able, spreading cultivation to bolster himself, repairing the previous Court’s government orders, helping what the hearts of the masses desire. [Cáo] Shuǎng’s reasons for being wrong, were that of others none were not forced to change, morning to night things were not resolved, and sympathizing with the people must be first. [The Sīmǎ] Fathers and sons and brothers, together holding the troops and critical things, are not yet easy to change and remove.” Líng did not listen.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes that words of this sort, all previous histories did not record, and they seem to have come from Xí [Zuòchǐ]. Moreover the style of speech and method of form do not resemble those of the past, and so one suspects it all was by [Xí] Zuòchǐ himself fabricated.
  • [translator’s note: this would explain why Huán Fàn is listed here despite not being a close associate of Cáo Shuǎng]

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:淩、愚謀,以帝幼制於彊臣,不堪為主,楚王彪長而才,欲迎立之,以興曹氏。淩使人告廣,廣曰:「凡舉大事,應本人情。今曹爽以驕奢失民,何平叔虛而不治,丁、畢、桓、鄧雖並有宿望,皆專競于世。加變易朝典,政令數改,所存雖高而事不下接,民習于舊,眾莫之從。故雖勢傾四海,聲震天下,同日斬戮,名士減半,而百姓安之,莫或之哀,失民故也。今懿情雖難量,事未有逆,而擢用賢能,廣樹勝己,修先朝之政令,副眾心之所求。爽之所以為惡者,彼莫不必改,夙夜匪解,以恤民為先。父子兄弟,並握兵要,未易亡也。」淩不從。臣松之以為如此言之類,皆前史所不載,而猶出習氏。且制言法體不似於昔,疑悉鑿齒所自造者也。

  • (2) Wèishū states: [Línghú] Yú appellation Gōngzhì, originally named Jùn. During Huángchū [220-226], he became Héróng Protector of the Army. Wūhuán Colonel Tián Yù suppressed the Hú and had achievement, but had a small violation of regulation, and Yú used the law to bind him. The Emperor was furious, arrested and shackled Yú, dismissing him from office and punishing his crime, Imperial Order said: “How is Jùn this stupid [yú]!” Therefore he was named this [changed from Jùn to Yú]. During Zhèngshǐ [240-249], he became Cáo Shuǎng’s Chief Clerk, later sent out as Yǎn Province Inspector.
  • Wèilüè states: Yú heard the King of Chǔ [Cáo] Biāo had wisdom and valor. Previously Dōng prefecture had false words saying “Báimǎ [‘white horse’] river produced a magic horse, in the night it passed by the government offices with livestock and cried out, the crowds of horses all answered, the next day observing its footprints, they were as large as a hú [~20L vessel], went on for several lǐ, returning to enter the river.” There was also a rumor: “The white horse was always restrained to the southwest [but now] gallops, and who rides it is the Zhūhǔ [‘vermillion tiger’] rider.” The King of Chǔ [Cáo] Biāo’s childhood appellation was Zhūhǔ, and therefore Yú with Wáng Líng secretly plotted to enthrone the King of Chǔ. Therefore he first sent messenger to communicate his intentions with the King, saying: “we your gentleman apologize to you King, the matters of the realm Under Heaven cannot be know, may you King care for yourself!” [Cáo] Biāo also secretly knew their intentions, and answered: “Apologies to you gentlemen, I know your generous intentions.”

〔二〕 魏書曰:愚字公治,本名浚,黃初中,為和戎護軍。烏丸校尉田豫討胡有功,小違節度,愚以法繩之。帝怒,械繫愚,免官治罪,詔曰「浚何愚」!遂以名之。正始中,為曹爽長史,後出為兗州刺史。魏略曰:愚聞楚王彪有智勇。初東郡有訛言云:「白馬河出妖馬,夜過官牧邊鳴呼,眾馬皆應,明日見其跡,大如斛,行數里,還入河中。」又有謠言:「白馬素羈西南馳,其誰乘者朱虎騎。」楚王小字朱虎,故愚與王淩陰謀立楚王。乃先使人通意於王,言「使君謝王,天下事不可知,願王自愛」!彪亦陰知其意,答言「謝使君,知厚意也。」

Second Year [250], Yínghuò [Mars] defended the Nándǒu [south dipper constellation], and Líng said: “In the dǒu are stars, and there will be a sudden nobility.” (3)


  • (3) Wèilüè states: Líng heard that Dōngpíng commoner Hào Xiáng knew stars, and called and asked [Hào] Xiáng. [Hào] Xiáng suspected Líng was threatening, and wished to please his thoughts, and did not say that Wú would have a death and mourning, but said it was Huáinán and Chǔ dividing, and now Wú and Chǔ had the same divination, and there would be a ruler flourish. Therefore Líng’s plans were then settled.

〔三〕 魏略曰:淩聞東平民浩詳知星,呼問詳。詳疑淩有所挾,欲悅其意,不言吳當有死喪,而言淮南楚分也,今吳、楚同占,當有王者興。故淩計遂定。

Third Year [251] Spring, Wú bandits blocked the Tú river. Líng wished to because of this set out, greatly organized the various armies, and memorialized request to suppress the bandits; Imperial Order in answer would not agree. Líng’s secret plot was growing extreme, and he sent General Yáng Hóng to announce the deposing and enthroning matter to Yǎn Province Inspector Huáng Huà. [Huáng] Huà and [Yáng] Hóng joined names in reporting to Grand Tutor Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng commanded the Central Army to ride the rivers to suppress Líng, first sending down pardon for Líng’s crime, and also sent Secretariat [Wáng] Guǎng east as envoy with letter to inform Líng, that the main army would soon reach Bǎichǐ to pressure Líng. Líng himself knew his power was exhausted, and therefore rode boat alone out to welcome [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng, sending his official Wáng Yù to apologize for his crime, and send his Seal and Ribbon and Staff and Battle-Ax. The army reached Qiūtóu, Líng with [dirtied] face and bound was beside the river. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng carried Imperial Order to send the Registrar to release the bonds and return clothes, met Líng, comforted him, returned the Seal and Ribbon and Staff and Battle-Ax, sending infantry and cavalry of 600 men to escort him back to the capital. Líng reached Xiàng, drank a drug and died. (4) [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng then reached Shòuchūn. Zhāng Shì and the rest all gave themselves up, and therefore completely managed the matter. [Cáo] Biāo was ordered to suicide, and those connected were all clan exterminated to the third degree. (5)


  • (4) Wèilüè records Líng with the Grand Tutor’s letter: “Suddenly hearing the divine army secretly set out, already at Bǎichǐ, although I know my life is exhausted, I am slow to meet with you, my body and head are to be separate, but I do not believe it a regret. From beginning to end sending envoys, there are letters not yet with return reply, and planning to go west in expectation, there is nothing as example. yesterday after I sent letter, I then rode boat to come welcome and lodge at Qiūtóu, but setting out to Pǔkǒu, I was given announcement of pardon letter, and also obtained twenty three days or more of accumulated papers and instructions, and hearing orders I am shocked, my five internal organs lost control, and do not know on what land I can myself reside. I long received the Court’s grace, successively serving without result, commanding weapons and horses, directing Qí and the eastern regions, but had matters of wrong and deposing, my central heart violated righteousness, my crimes are 300, my wives and children together with me suffer, without any prayer. I do not plan for the sagely grace of Heaven turning or Earth conveying, and if unexpectedly immersed to see end, it would be to again see the Sun and Moon. My deceased sister’s son Línghú Yú took on words of the confused petty masses, I at the time scolded and restrained, but could not but follow his speech. This Men already know, what the Divine Enlightenment reflects on, this was not a matter to be hidden, and in the end was leaked, and I know this is a beheading and exterminating penalty. Please spare my father and mother, and spare my children.”
  • It also repeated: “My body trapped in punishment and guilt, and do not dare seek pardon and forgiveness. Now I send my official to convey my Seal and Ribbon, and shortly afterward, I will like the Imperial Order letter bind myself to return to submission. Although you wish to privately act for me, the government law is decisive.” When he arrived, it was like in the letter. The Grand Tutor sent someone to release his bonds.
  • Líng then was pardoned, and moreover relied on their old friendship, and no longer suspected himself, and directly rode small boat to personally visit the Grand Tutor. The Grand Tutor sent someone to oppose and stop him, stationing the boat in the middle of the Huái, and they were away from each other by over ten zhàng [~2.4 m]. Líng knew he was viewed as an outsider, and therefore from afar said to the Grand Tutor: “You directly wrote letter to summon me, would I dare not arrive? Yet you then lead army to come!” The Grand Tutor said: “I believed you would not agree to hurry, and that was the reason I wrote letter.” Líng said: “You betrayed me!” The Grand Tutor said: “I would rather betray you than betray the state.” Therefore he sent someone to escort him west. Líng himself knew his crime was heavy, and tested by requesting coffin nails, to observe the Grand Tutor’s intentions. The Grand Tutor gave them. Líng traveled and reached Xiàng, and in the night called his officials and associates to with him suicide, saying: “Going on for eighty years, only for body and name to together be destroyed!” Then he killed himself.
  • Gān Bǎo’s Jìnjì states: Líng arrived at Xiàng, saw Jiǎ Kuí’s shrine at the riverside, and Líng called out: “Jiǎ [Kuí] Liángdào, I Wáng Líng am firmly loyal to Wèi’s State Altars, if you have a spirit, know this.” That year Eighth Moon, the Grand Tutor had illness, dreamed of Ling and Kuí with pestilence, deeply hated it, and therefore died.

〔四〕 魏略載淩與太傅書曰:「卒聞神軍密發,巳在百尺,雖知命窮盡,遲於相見,身首分離,不以為恨,前後遣使,有書未得還報,企踵西望,無物以譬。昨遣書之後,便乘船來相迎宿丘頭,旦發於浦口,奉被露布赦書,又得二十三日況,累紙誨示,聞命驚愕,五內失守,不知何地可以自處?僕久忝朝恩,歷試無效,統御戎馬,董齊東夏,事有闕廢,中心犯義,罪在三百,妻子同縣,無所禱矣。不圖聖恩天覆地載,橫蒙視息,復睹日月。亡甥令狐愚攜惑群小之言,僕即時呵抑,使不得竟其語。既人已知,神明所鑒,夫非事無陰,卒至發露,知此梟夷之罪也。生我者父母,活我者子也。」又重曰:「身陷刑罪,謬蒙赦宥。今遣掾送印綬,頃至,當如詔書自縛歸命。雖足下私之,官法有分。」及到,如書。太傅使人解其縛。淩既蒙赦,加怙舊好,不復自疑,徑乘小船自趣太傅。太傅使人逆止之,住船淮中,相去十餘丈。淩知見外,乃遙謂太傅曰:「卿直以折簡召我,我當敢不至邪?而乃引軍來乎!」太傅曰:「以卿非肯逐折簡者故也。」淩曰:「卿負我!」太傅曰:「我寧負卿,不負國家。」遂使人送來西。淩自知罪重,試索棺釘,以觀太傅意,太傅給之。淩行到項,夜呼掾屬與決曰:「行年八十,身名並滅邪!」遂自殺。干寶晉紀曰:淩到項,見賈逵祠在水側,淩呼曰:「賈梁道,王淩固忠于魏之社稷者,唯爾有神,知之。」其年八月,太傅有疾,夢淩、逵為癘,甚惡之,遂薨。

  • (5) Wèilüè records: Shānyáng’s Shàn Gù appellation Gōngxià, as a man had had unique ability. During Zhèngshǐ [240-249], Yǎn Province Inspector Línghú Yú with [Shàn] Gù’s father [Shàn] Bólóng was friendly, recruited [Shàn] Gù, wishing to appoint him Aide-de-Camp. [Shàn] Gù was not happy to be a provincial official, and declined claiming illness. [Línghú] Yú’s courtesy and intentions were generous, but [Shàn] Gù did not wish to answer. [Shàn] Gù’s mother lady Xiàhóu said to [Shàn] Gù: “This Inspector with your father were for a long time friendly, and therefore summons you without end, you also therefore should serve and advance, and yourself can go to him and that is all.” [Shàn] Gù could not help it, and therefore went, and with Internal Manager Attending Official Yáng Kāng both were [Línghú] Yú’s trusted aides. Later [Línghú] Yú with Wáng Líng communicated and plotted, and [Yáng] Kāng and [Shàn] Gù both knew their plans. It happened that [Línghú] Yú became ill, [Yáng] Kāng answered the Excellency over the Masses’s summon to visit Luòyáng, and [Shàn] Gù also due to illness left office. [Yáng] Kāng at the capital revealed their matters, the Grand Tutor therefore went east to capture Wáng Líng, reached Shòuchūn, and [Shàn] Gù met the Grand Tutor. The Grand Tutor asked him: “Do you know the reason I came.” [Shàn] Gù replied: “I do not know.” The Grand Tutor said: “Setting aside recent affairs, let me ask you, did Línghú [Yú] rebel?” [Shàn] Gù again said: “No.” But Yáng Kāng reported, and in matter after matter was with [Shàn] Gù connected. Therefore they arrested and bound [Shàn] Gù and his family and dependents, all sent to the Minister of Justice. Interrogated on the facts ten times, [Shàn] Gù said: “There is none.” The Grand Tutor sent Yáng Kāng, to face [Shàn] Gù and investigate. [Shàn] Gù’s words were exhausted, and therefore he abused [Yáng] Kāng saying: “You old slave betrayed the Inspector, and also exterminated my clan, but you think you will live?” The words were settled, the matter sent up, and waited for reply. The Minister of Justice due to old friendship in all cases listened to and agreed to his requests to with his mother and wife and children meet each other. [Shàn] Gù met his mother, did not look up, and his mother knew he was ashamed, and by his appellation said to him: “Gōngxià, you originally yourself did not wish to answer the province and prefecture, I forced you and that is all. You as a man and official, were because of me and that is all. In this downfall of our family, I have no regrets. You originally intended to with me speak.” [Shàn] Gù to the end did not look up, and also did not speak, even to his death. Previously, Yáng Kāng because he had reported these matters, hoped to obtain fief and rank, but later because his words on the participation were wrong, he also was to together be beheaded. Facing execution, both went out from prison, and [Shàn] Gù again abused [Yáng] Kāng: “Old slave, your death is your own doing and that is all. If those you caused to die have awareness, with what face will you go below the ground?”

〔五〕 魏略載:山陽單固,字恭夏,為人有器實。正始中,兗州刺史令狐愚與固父伯龍善,辟固,欲以為別駕。固不樂為州吏,辭以疾。愚禮意愈厚,固不欲應。固母夏侯氏謂固曰:「使君與汝父久善,故命汝不止,汝亦故當仕進,自可往耳。」固不獲已,遂往,與兼治中從事楊康並為愚腹心。後愚與王淩通謀,康、固皆知其計。會愚病,康應司徒召詣洛陽,固亦以疾解祿。康在京師露其事,太傅乃東取王淩。到壽春,固見太傅,太傅問曰:「卿知其事為邪?」固對不知。太傅曰:「且置近事。問卿,令狐反乎?」固又曰無。而楊康白,事事與固連。遂收捕固及家屬,皆繫廷尉,考實數十,固故云無有。太傅錄楊康,與固對相詰。固辭窮,乃罵康曰:「老庸既負使君,又滅我族,顧汝當活邪!」辭定,事上,須報廷尉,以舊皆聽得與其母妻子相見。固見其母,不仰視,其母知其慚也,字謂之曰:「恭夏,汝本自不欲應州郡也,我強故耳。汝為人吏,自當爾耳。此自門戶衰,我無恨也。汝本意與我語。」固終不仰,又不語,以至於死。初,楊康自以白其事,冀得封拜,後以辭頗參錯,亦并斬。臨刑,俱出獄,固又罵康曰:「老奴,汝死自分耳。若令死者有知,汝何面目以行地下也。」

The Court discussed all believing that by the principles of the Chūnqiū, Qí Cuīzhù and Zhèng Guīshēng both were punished after death, their bodies exposed and their coffins destroyed, and this was recorded as a policy. Líng’s and Yú’s punishments should be like the old standards. Therefore they dug up Líng’s and Yú’s mounds, cut open their coffins, and exposed their corpses in the nearest markets for three days, burned their Seals and Ribbons and Court Dress, and directly with dirt buried them [without coffins]. (6) [Yáng] Hóng and [Huáng] Huà were advanced in noble rank to village Marquis. [Wáng] Guǎng had ambition and esteemed scholarship and conduct, at the time he died he was over forty. (7)


  • (6) Gān Bǎo’s Jìnjì states: Yǎn Province warefare official Dōngpíng’s Mǎ Lóng, was entrusted with [Línghú] Yú’s family and guests, used his personal wealth to re-coffin and rebury him, enacted mourning for three years, and planted tomb trees. The whole province’s scholars were ashamed of this.

〔六〕 干寶晉紀曰:兗州武吏東平馬隆,託為愚家客,以私財更殯葬,行服三年,種植松柏。一州之士愧之。

  • (7) Wèishì Chūnqiū states: [Wáng] Guǎng appellation Gōngyuān. His younger brothers Fēixiāo and Jīnhǔ both had talent and marital ability surpassing others. The Grand Tutor once casually asked Jiǎng Jì. [Jiǎng] Jì said: “Líng’s civil and martial ability are both prepared, and at present none can match. [Wáng] Guǎng and the rest have ambition and strength, and are superior to their father and that is all.” After leaving he regretted this, and told those close to him: “I by these words, destroyed their family and clan.”
  • Wèimòzhuàn states: Líng’s youngest son appellation Míngshān, was the most well known, was good with calligraphy, had many skills, people who obtaining his writing, all used it as their standards. He fled to Tàiyuán, the pursuing army reached him, at the time there were birds gathered on a mulberry tree, and he bent branches to hang high, raised bow to shoot them to at once fall, and the pursuers therefore stopped and no longer advanced. [Wáng] Mīngshān took refuge with his relatives by marriage for food, his relatives by marriage reported to the officials, and therefore they seized him.

〔七〕 魏氏春秋曰:廣字公淵。弟飛梟、金虎,並才武過人。太傅嘗從容問蔣濟,濟曰:「淩文武俱贍,當今無雙。廣等志力,有美於父耳。」退而悔之,告所親曰:「吾此言,滅人門宗矣。」魏末傳曰:淩少子字明山,最知名,善書,多技藝,人得其書,皆以為法。走向太原,追軍及之,時有飛鳥集桑樹,隨枝低卬,舉弓射之即倒,追人乃止不復進。明山投親家食,親家告吏,乃就執之。

1 thought on “(28.1) Wáng Líng 王淩 [Yànyún 彥雲]

  1. Pingback: (20.13) Cáo Biāo 曹彪 [Zhūhǔ 朱虎] – Three States Records

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