(30.14) Appraisal and the Xī Róng 西戎

Appraisal states: The Shǐ[] and Hàn[shū] recorded the Cháoxiǎn, two Yuè, the Eastern Capital [Hàn records] compiled and recorded the Western Qiāng. In Wèi’s age the Xiōngnú then declined, and again there were the Wūhuán and Xiānbēi, thus reaching the Eastern Yí, sending translators to timely connect, recording and narrating following affairs, how constant it is!

評曰:史、漢著朝鮮、兩越,東京撰錄西羌。魏世匈奴遂衰,更有烏丸、鮮卑,爰及東夷,使譯時通,記述隨事,豈常也哉!〔一〕

(1) Wèilüè‘s Xī Róng Zhuàn “Biographies of the Western Peoples” states:

〔一〕 魏略西戎傳曰:

The Dī have Kings, and their coming was long ago. Since Hàn opened Yì Province, establishing Wǔdū prefecture, they arranged their kinds of people, dividing and banishing them into mountains and valleys, some at Fúlù, some at Qiān’s and Lǒng’s left and right. Their kinds are not one, and called Pánhù’s descendants. Some are called blue-green Dī, some called white Dī, some called boa Dī, these overall were like the sorts of lower animals residing in the central states, people then by their clothing color named them. They call themselves Hézhì, each have Kings and Marquis, many received the central states fiefs and honors. Recently since Jiàn’ān [196-220], Xīngguó’s Dī King Āguì and Bàixiàng’s Dī King Qiānwàn each each had tribes of over ten thousand, reaching the Sixteenth Year [211], they followed Mǎ Chāo in creating chaos. After [Mǎ] Chāo was defeated, Āguì was by Xiàhóu Yuān attacked and destroyed, Qiānwàn went southwest to enter Shǔ, his tribes could not go, and all surrendered. The state divided and relocated those that were beginning to end double dealers, installing them in Fúfēng and Měiyáng, and those the present Ānyí and Fǔyí two division Protectors of the Army manage are these. Those that originally held to goodness, were divided and left in Tiānshuǐ’s and Nán’ān’s border, and those the present Guǎngwèi administrates are these. Their customs and language are not with the central states the same, and with the Qiāng and various Hú are the same, each personally have a surname, surnames like the central state’s surnames. Their clothes esteem blue-green and purple-red. By custom they can weave cloth, are good at farming and planting, for livestock they raise swine, oxen, horses, donkeys, and mules. Their women at marriage time wear outside lapel, their hem decoration systems have resemblance to the Qiāng, their outside lapels have resemblance to the central states’ gowns. All weave their hair. Many know the central states’ language, because they with the central states interact and live. When they return to their kind and tribes, then they use Dī language. Their marriages have resemblance to the Qiāng. These overall then were in the past those called Xīróng at Jiē, Jì, and Yuándào. Now although all are united in prefectures and states, however they still have Kings and Marquis in their empty tribes. Also in former Wǔdū territory to Yīnpíngjiē’s left and right, also were over ten thousand tribes.

氐人有王,所從來久矣。自漢開益州,置武都郡,排其種人,分竄山谷間,或在福祿,或在汧、隴左右。其種非一,稱槃瓠之後,或號青氐,或號白氐,或號蚺氐,此蓋蟲之類而處中國,人即其服色而名之也。其自相號曰盍稚,各有王侯,多受中國封拜。近去建安中,興國氐王阿貴、白項氐王千萬各有部落萬餘,至十六年,從馬超為亂。超破之後,阿貴為夏侯淵所攻滅,千萬西南入蜀,其部落不能去,皆降。國家分徙其前後兩端者,置扶風、美陽,今之安夷、撫夷二部護軍所典是也。其(太)〔本〕守善,分留天水、南安界,今之(廣平魏郡)〔廣魏郡〕所守是也。其俗,語不與中國同,及羌雜胡同,各自有姓,姓如中國之姓矣。其衣服尚青絳。俗能織布,善田種,畜養豕牛馬驢騾。其婦人嫁時著衽露,其緣飾之制有似羌,衽露有似中國袍。皆編髮。多知中國語,由與中國錯居故也。其自還種落間,則自氐語。其嫁娶有似於羌,此蓋乃昔所謂西戎在于街、冀、豲道者也。今雖都統於郡國,然故自有王侯在其虛落間。又故武都地陰平街左右,亦有萬餘落。

Zīlǔ were originally Xiōngnú, the Xiōngnú call their slaves Zī. Beginning from Jiànwǔ time [25-55], the Xiōngnú declined, and divided and sent away their slaves, fleeing and hiding in Jīnchéng, Wǔwēi, Jiǔquán, north to Hēi river’s and the western Hé’s east and west, raising livestock and following water and grass, plundering and robbing Liáng province, their tribes gradually grew many, and there are several tens of thousands. They are not with the eastern Xiānbēi the same. Their kinds are not one, there are Dàhú, there are Dīnglíng, some side areas have Qiāng mixed among them. This is because they were originally fled slaves. Reaching the time of Hàn and Wèi, their chieftain was Tánzhè, after he died, his branch chieftains went south near Guǎngwèi’s and Língjū’s border, there was Tūguī who came and repeatedly rebelled, and was by Liáng Province killed. Now there is Shàotí, some surrender and come, some flee and go, and always for the western provinces’ roads are a worry.

貲虜,本匈奴也,匈奴名奴婢為貲。始建武時,匈奴衰,分去其奴婢,亡匿在金城、武威、酒泉北黑水、西河東西,畜牧逐水草,鈔盜涼州,部落稍多,有數萬,不與東部鮮卑同也。其種非一,有大胡,有丁令,或頗有羌雜處,由本亡奴婢故也。當漢、魏之際,其大人有檀柘,死後,其枝大人南近在廣魏、令居界,有禿瑰來數反,為涼州所殺。今有劭提,或降來,或遁去,常為西州道路患也。

In Dùnhuáng’s and the Western Regions’ Nánshān, from the Chuò ‘Recalcitrant’ Qiāng west to Cōnglǐng of several thousand lǐ, there are Yuèzhī’s remaining kinds of Cōngzǐ Qiāng, Báimǎ ‘White Horse’ and Huángniú ‘Yellow Ox’ Qiāng, each have chief heroes, to the north they with various states border, it is unknown the expanse of their roads and villages. Rumor is that the Huángniú Qiāng each have their kinds, after pregnancy of six moons are born, and to the south they with the Báimǎ Qiāng neighbor.

燉煌西域之南山中,從婼羌西至蔥領數千里,有月氏餘種蔥茈羌、白馬、黃牛羌,各有酋豪,北與諸國接,不知其道里廣狹。傳聞黃牛羌各有種類,孕身六月生,南與白馬羌鄰。

The Western Regions’ various states, at Hàn’s beginning opening their roads, at the time there were thirty-six, later divided into over fifty. From Jiànwǔ [25-56] onward, they again conquered and destroyed each other, and to the present there are twenty. The roads from Dùnhuáng’s Yùmén ‘Jade Gate’ Pass entering the Western Regions, formerly had two roads, now have three roads.

西域諸國,漢初開其道,時有三十六,後分為五十餘。從建武以來,更相吞滅,于今有二十道。從燉煌玉門關入西域,前有二道,今有三道。

From Yùmén Pass going west out, through the Chuò Qiāng turning west, passing Cōnglǐng, through Xiàndù, entering the Dàyuèzhī, is the South Road.

從玉門關西出,經婼羌轉西,越蔥領,經縣度,入大月氏,為南道。

From Yùmén Pass going west out, setting out Dūhùjǐng, returning to Sānlǒngshā’s north head, through Jūlúcāng, from Shāxījǐng turning northwest, passing Lóngduī, reaching former Lóulán, turning west to reach Qiūcí, reaching Cōnglǐng, is the Center Road.

從玉門關西出,發都護井,回三隴沙北頭,經居盧倉,從沙西井轉西北,過龍堆,到故樓蘭,轉西詣龜茲,至蔥領,為中道。

From Yúmén Pass going northwest out, through Héngkēng, avoiding Sānlǒngshā and Lóngduī, going out Wǔchuán north, reaching Chēshī’s border and the Five-Six Colonel’s headquarters Gāochāng, turning west and with the Central Road joining at Qiūcí, is the New Road.

從玉門關西北出,經橫坑,辟三隴沙及龍堆,出五船北,到車師界戊己校尉所治高昌,轉西與中道合龜茲,為新道。

All that the Western Regions produce, have in previous histories already been furnished in detail, now therefore in summary speak.

凡西域所出,有前史已具詳,今故略說。

The South Road westward goes. Qiězhì state, Xiǎowǎn state, Jīngjué state, Lóulán state, all together are subordinate to Shànshàn. Rónglú state, Hànmí state, Qúlè state, Píshān state, all together are subordinate to Yúzhì. Jìbīn state, Dàxià state, Gāofù state, Tiānzhú state (North India), all together are subordinate to Dàyuèzhī.

南道西行,且志國、小宛國、精絕國、樓蘭國皆并屬鄯善也。戎盧國、扞彌國、渠勒國、(穴山國)〔皮山國〕皆并屬于寘。罽賓國、大夏國、高附國、天竺國皆并屬大月氏。

Lín’ér state, the Fútú (Buddha) Scriptures say this state’s King begat Fútú. Fútú was the Heir-Apparent. His father was called Xiètóuyá (Suddhodana), his mother called Móyá (Maya). Fútú’s bodily clothes were colored yellow, his hair dark like dark silk, his chest had dark hair, and he was red like copper. Initially Mòyá dreamed of a white elephant and became pregnant, at the birth he from his mother’s left side came out, when born he had knot [of hair], falling to the ground he was able to walk seven steps. This state was among Tiānzhú’s cities. Tiānzhú also had a divine man, named Shālǜ. In the past Hàn Āi-dì Yuánshòu Inaugural Year [2 BC], Academic Scholar student Jǐng Lú received the Dàyuèzhī King’s envoy Yīcún’s oral account on the Fútú Scriptures saying the reincarnation was this man. Fútú’s recorded Línpúsāi, Sāngmén, Bówén, Shūwèn, Báishūjiān, Bǐqiū, Chénmén, all were disciple titles. Fútú’s recordings with the central states’ Lǎo-zǐ’s scriptures have similarities and differences, and overall it is believed Lǎo-zǐ went out through the Passes, passed the Western Regions to Tiānzhú, and taught the Hú. Fútú’s disciples’ names, altogether are twenty-nine, but cannot be in detail recorded, and therefore are summarized like this.

臨兒國,浮屠經云其國王生浮屠。浮屠,太子也。父曰屑頭邪,母云莫邪。浮屠身服色黃,髮青如青絲,乳青毛,蛉赤如銅。始莫邪夢白象而孕,及生,從母左脅出,生而有結,墮地能行七步。此國在天竺城中。天竺又有神人,名沙律。昔漢哀帝元壽元年,博士弟子景盧受大月氏王使伊存口受浮屠經曰復立者其人也。浮屠所載臨蒲塞、桑門、伯聞、疏問、白疏閒、比丘、晨門,皆弟子號也。浮屠所載與中國老子經相出入,蓋以為老子西出關,過西域之天竺、教胡。浮屠屬弟子別號,合有二十九,不能詳載,故略之如此。

Jūlí state also named Lǐwéitè, also named Pèilìwáng, is to Tiānzhú’s southeast by over 3000 lǐ, their land is low, humid, and hot. Their King governs at Shājī city, and there are other cities of several tens. The people are timid and weak, the Yuèzhī and Tiānzhú struck and conquered them. Their land east to west and south to north is several thousand lǐ, their people men and women all are one zhàng eight chǐ [~4.2 m], and ride elephants and camels to battle, now the Yuèzhī conscript and tax them.

車離國一名禮惟特,一名沛隸王,在天竺東南三千餘里,其地卑溼暑熱。其王治沙奇城,有別城數十,人民怯弱,月氏、天竺擊服之。其地東西南北數千里,人民男女皆長一丈八尺,乘象、橐駝以戰,今月氏役稅之。

Pányuè state also named Hànyuèwáng, is to Tiānzhú’s southeast by several thousand lǐ, and with the Yì [Province] region is close, their people are small with the central states people’s level. Shǔ man Jiǎ Sì reached there.

盤越國一名漢越王,在天竺東南數千里,與益部相近,其人小與中國人等,蜀人賈似至焉。

The South Road at its western extremity turns southeast to its end.

南道而西極轉東南盡矣。

The Center Road westward goes. Wèilí state, Wēixū state, Shānwáng state, all together are subordinate to Yānqí, Gūmò state, Wēnsù state, Wèitóu state, all together are subordinate to Qiūcí. Zhēnzhōng state, Shāchē state, Jiéshí state, Qúqúshā state, Xīyè state, Yīnài state, Mǎnlí state, Yìruò state, Yúlíng state, Sǔndú state, Xiūxiū state, Qín state, all together are subordinate to Shūlè. From there on west, are Dàyuān (Ferghana), Ānxī (Parthia), Tiáozhī, Wūyì, Wūyì also named Páitè. These four states are in sequence to the west, are original states, without increases or decreases.

中道西行尉梨國、危須國、山王國皆并屬焉耆,姑墨國、溫宿國、尉頭國皆并屬龜茲也。楨中國、莎車國、竭石國、渠沙國、西夜國、依耐國、滿犁國、億若國、榆令國、損毒國、休脩國、琴國皆并屬疏勒。自是以西,大宛、安息、條支、烏弋。烏弋一名排特,此四國次在西,本國也,無增損。

Previous ages erroneously believed Tiáozhī was to Dàqín’s west, now in fact it is to the east. Previous ages also erroneously believed it was stronger than Ānxī, now it further serves and is subordinate to them, and called as Ānxī’s western border. Previous ages also erroneously believed the Ruò river was at Tiáozhī’s west, now the Ruò river is at Dàqín’s west. Previous ages also erroneously believed from Tiáozhī west traveling over 200 days, is near where the sun sets, now from Dàqín’s west is near where the sun sets.

前世謬以為條支在大秦西,今其實在東。前世又謬以為彊於安息,今更役屬之,號為安息西界。前世又謬以為弱水在條支西,今弱水在大秦西。前世又謬以為從條支西行二百餘日,近日所入,今從大秦西近日所入。

Dàqín state [Rome] is also called Líjiān [Alexandria?], is at Ānxī’s, Tiáozhīxī great sea’s west, from Ānxī’s border Āngǔ city riding boat, straight through the sea west, if encountering favorable winds in two months arriving, if winds are slow maybe one year, if no wind maybe three years. Their state is at the sea’s west, therefore commonly they are called Hǎixī [“sea’s west”, Egypt?]. There is a river [Nile?] going out of the state, west also there is a great sea [Mediterranean?]. Hǎixī has [Wū]chísǎn [Alexandria?] city, from the state down directly north to Wūdān city, southwest again crossing a river, riding boat one day then crossing. Southwest again crossing a river, one day then passing. Altogether there are great capitals of three. However from Āngǔ city on land road directly north traveling to the sea’s north, again directly west going to the sea’s west, again directly south going to Wūchísǎn city, crossing one river, riding boat one day then passing. Circling back around the sea, altogether then crossing the great sea for six days then arriving at their state.

大秦國一號犁靬,在安息、條支西大海之西,從安息界安谷城乘船,直截海西,遇風利二月到,風遲或一歲,無風或三歲。其國在海西,故俗謂之海西。有河出其國,西又有大海。海西有遲散城,從國下直北至烏丹城,西南又渡一河,乘船一日乃過。西南又渡一河,一日乃過。凡有大都三,卻從安谷城陸道直北行之海北,復直西行之海西,復直南行經之烏遲散城,渡一河,乘船一日乃過。周迴繞海,凡當渡大海六日乃到其國。

The state has small cities and towns altogether of over four hundred, east west south north it extends several thousand lǐ. Their King’s capital is on the shore beside the [Tiber] river and [Mediterranean] sea, with stone making the city wall. Their lands have pine, cedar, sophora, catalpa, bamboo, reed, poplar, willow, parasol tree, all kinds of plants. The people customarily farm and plant the five crops [millet, bean, sesame, barley, rice], raise and ride horses, mules, donkeys, camels, silkworms. Their customs have many unusual performances, mouth breathing fire, self binding and self releasing, juggling twelve balls with ingenuity.

國有小城邑合四百餘,東西南北數千里。其王治濱側河海,以石為城郭。其土地有松、柏、槐、梓、竹、葦、楊柳、梧桐、百草。民俗,田種五穀,畜乘有馬、騾、驢、駱駝。桑蠶。俗多奇幻,口中出火,自縛自解,跳十二丸巧妙。

Their state has no constant ruler, if in the state there is unusual disaster, then they change and establish a worthy man as the King, and release alive their former King, and the King also does not dare complain. Their common people when grown up are fair and upright, resembling the central state peoples but with Hú clothing. They say they were originally with the central states united but separated, and always wished to connect with envoys to the central states, but Ānxī plotted to take advantage, and they could not obtain passage. Their customs can in Hú write. Their government and public and private palaces and households have multiple floors, flying banners and beating drums, white canopy small chariots, and postal relay stations are installed like the central states.

其國無常主,國中有災異,輒更立賢人以為王,而生放其故王,王亦不敢怨。其俗人長大平正,似中國人而胡服。自云本中國一別也,常欲通使於中國,而安息圖其利,不能得過。其俗能胡書。其制度,公私宮室為重屋,旌旗擊鼓,白蓋小車,郵驛亭置如中國。

From Ānxī around the sea’s north to this state, the people are affiliated with each other, in ten lǐ is one precinct, thirty lǐ one installation, to the end there are no bandits, but there are fierce tigers and lions as harm, and if traveling on the road without a group then one cannot pass.

從安息繞海北到其國,人民相屬,十里一亭,三十里一置,終無盜賊。但有猛虎、獅子為害,行道不群則不得過。

Their state installs Lesser Kings of several tens, their King’s governing city’s circumference is over a hundred lǐ, and has government office departments of writing and documents. The King has five palaces, each palace from the other the distance is ten lǐ, their King at dawn goes to one palace to listen to affairs, reaching sunset and one night, and the next day he again goes to one palace, five days one cycle. They install thirty six officers, at each discussion of matters, if one officer does not arrive then they do not discuss. When the Kings goes out traveling, he always has accompanying men carry one soft leather sack and follow him, and those with reports, he receives their writings cast into the sack, returning to the palace then he examines and decides and reasons.

其國置小王數十,其王所治城周回百餘里,有官曹文書。王有五宮,一宮間相去十里,其王平旦之一宮聽事,至日暮一宿,明日復至一宮,五日一周。置三十六將,每議事,一將不至則不議也。王出行,常使從人持一韋囊自隨,有白言者,受其辭投囊中,還宮乃省為決理。

Using glass the make palace pillars and utensils. They make bows and arrows. Their separate branches are given fief of small states, called Zésǎn King, called Lǘfēn King, called Qiělán King, called Xiándū King, called Sìfù King, called Yúluó King,. The remaining small King states are very many, and cannot be one by one given in detail.

以水晶作宮柱及器物。作弓矢。其別枝封小國,曰澤散王,曰驢分王,曰且蘭王,曰賢督王,曰汜復王,曰于羅王,其餘小王國甚多,不能一一詳之也。

The state produces fine linen. It makes gold and silver coins, gold coins of one equal to silver coins of ten. They have weaving to make fine cloth, said to use river sheep hair, named as Hǎixī cloth. This state’s six domestic animals all come from water. Some say they do not only use sheep wool, and also use tree bark or wild cocoon silk, waving into woolen rugs, coarse mats, curtains and their sort all good. Their colors also are also brighter than what the sea’s east’s various states make. Also they always profit from obtaining the central states’ silk, unravel it to make Hú damask, and therefore repeatedly with Ānxī’s various states trade and market across the sea. The sea’s water is bitter and cannot be consumed, and therefore travelers hope to arrive in their states.

國出細絺。作金銀錢,金錢一當銀錢十。有織成細布,言用水羊毳,名曰海西布。此國六畜皆出水,或云非獨用羊毛也,亦用木皮或野繭絲作,織成氍毹、毾〈登毛〉、罽帳之屬皆好,其色又鮮于海東諸國所作也。又常利得中國絲,解以為胡綾,故數與安息諸國交市於海中。海水苦不可食,故往來者希到其國中。

The mountains produce nine colors of less-than-jade stones, first is blue-green, second is scarlet, third is yellow, fourth is white, fifth is black, sixth is green, seventh is purple, eighth is red, ninth is violet. Now in Yīwú mountains there are nine colors of stones, that is of this sort. In Yángjiā Third Year’s time, [134] the Shūlè King Chén Pán presented Hǎixī’s blue-green stone and gold girdle one of each. Also the present Xīyù Jiùtú [‘Western Regions Old Map’] says Jìbīn and Tiáozhī various states produce valuable stones, which are less-than-jade stones.

山出九色次玉石,一曰青,二曰赤,三曰黃,四曰白,五曰黑,六曰綠,七曰紫,八曰紅,九曰紺。今伊吾山中有九色石,即其類。陽嘉三年時,疏勒王臣槃獻海西青石、金帶各一。又今西域舊圖云罽賓、條支諸國出琦石,即次玉石也。

Dàqín has much gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, tin, divine tortoises, white horses, red manes, startling fowl rhinoceros, turtle shells, black bears, red immature dragons, avoiding poison rats, large cowries, tridacinae, cornelian, southern metal, agate, feather quills, elephant tusks, marked colored jade, bright moon pearl, luminescent pearls, true white pearls, tiger amber, coral; scarlet, white, black, green, yellow, blue-green, purple, misty, red, violet, ten kinds of circulating rarities; sparkling gems, white gems, water crystals, rose flowers, realgar, orpiment, green jade, five-colored jade; yellow, white, black, green, violet, red, purple-red, purple, golden yellow, misty preserved yellow, ten kinds of woolen rugs; five colored coarse carpet, five colored nine colored head lower coarse carpet, gold threat embroidery, various colored damask, gold scrawled cloth, purple chí cloth, fālù cloth, purple chíqú cloth, fire resistant cloth, āluódé cloth, bāzé cloth, dùdài cloth, Wēnsù cloth, five-colored peach cloth, purple-red earth gold woven canopy, five-colored dòu canopy, yīwēi wood, èrsūhé, dítí, mímí, dōunà, white aconite, xūnlù, yùjīn, glue rubber, fragrant vegetation of twelve kinds of perfumes.

大秦多金、銀、銅、鐵、鉛、錫、神龜、白馬、朱髦、駭雞犀、玳瑁、玄熊、赤螭、辟毒鼠、大貝、車渠、瑪瑙、南金、翠爵、羽翮、象牙、符采玉、明月珠、夜光珠、真白珠、虎珀、珊瑚、赤白黑綠黃青紺縹紅紫十種流離、璆琳、琅玕、水精、玫瑰、雄黃、雌黃、碧、五色玉、黃白黑綠紫紅絳紺金黃縹留黃十種氍毹、五色毾〈登毛〉、五色九色首下毾〈登毛〉、金縷繡、雜色綾、金塗布、緋持布、發陸布、緋持渠布、火浣布、阿羅得布、巴則布、度代布、溫宿布、五色桃布、絳地金織帳、五色斗帳、一微木、二蘇合、狄提、迷迷、兜納、白附子、薰陸、鬱金、芸膠、薰草木十二種香。

Dàqín by road from the sea’s north on land can be connected, also by the sea and going south, with Jiāozhǐ’s seven prefectures the outer foreigners comparable, also there is water route connected to Yì Province and Yǒngchāng, and therefore Yǒngchāng produces rare things. Previous ages only discussed water routes, and did not know there were land routes, now they are summarized like this, their people and households are many and cannot be given in detail. From Cōnglǐng west, this state is most large, the installed various lesser Kings are very many, and therefore one records their dependents that are large.

大秦道既從海北陸通,又循海而南,與交趾七郡外夷比,又有水道通益州、永昌、故永昌出異物。前世但論有水道,不知有陸道,今其略如此,其民人戶數不能備詳也。自蔥領西,此國最大,置諸小王甚多,故錄其屬大者矣。

Zésǎn King is subordinate to Dàqín, its capital is in the sea’s center, to the north reaches Lǘfēn, by water going is half a year, if wind is swift the time is one month to arrive, its extremes with Ānxī’s Āngǔ city are close to each other, southwest visiting Dàqín’s capital it is unknown the number of lǐ.

澤散王屬大秦,其治在海中央,北至驢分,水行半歲,風疾時一月到,最與安息安谷城相近,西南詣大秦都不知里數。

Lǘfēn King is subordinate to Dàqín, its capital from Dàqín’s capital is 2000 lǐ. From Lǘfēn city west to Dàqín crossing the sea, flying bridge long 230 lǐ, crossing the sea on road southwest going, around the sea directly west going.

驢分王屬大秦,其治去大秦都二千里。從驢分城西之大秦渡海,飛橋長二百三十里,渡海道西南行,繞海直西行。

Qiělán King is subordinate to Dàqín. From Sītáo state directly south crossing the river, then directly west going to Qiělán is 3000 lǐ. The road goes out Hénán, then west going, from Qiělán again directly west going to Sìfù state 600 lǐ. The South Road meets Sìfù, then southwest to Xiándū state. Qiělán and Sìfù directly south, then there is Jīshí, Jīshí south then there is the great sea, producing coral and pearls. Qiělán, Sìfù, Sībīn, Āmán north there is a mountain range, east and west going. Dàqín and Hǎixī east each there is a mountain range, both north and south going.

且蘭王屬大秦。從思陶國直南渡河,乃直西行之且蘭三千里。道出河南,乃西行,從且蘭復直西行之汜復國六百里。南道會汜復,乃西南之賢督國。且蘭、汜復直南,乃有積石,積石南乃有大海,出珊瑚,真珠。且蘭、汜復、斯賓阿蠻北有一山,東西行。大秦、海西東各有一山,皆南北行。

Xiándū King is subordinate to Dàqín, its capital northeast from Sìfù is 600 lǐ.

賢督王屬大秦,其治東北去汜復六百里。

Sìfù King is subordinate to Dàqín, its capital northeast from Yúluó is 340 lǐ crossing the sea. Yúluó is subordinate to Dàqín, its capital is at Sìfù’s northeast, crossing river, from Yúluó northeast again crossing river, Sīluó northeast again crossing river. Sīluó state is subordinate to Ānxī, with Dàqín joins.

汜復王屬大秦,其治東北去于羅三百四十里渡海也。于羅屬大秦,其治在汜復東北,渡河,從于羅東北又渡河,斯羅東北又渡河。斯羅國屬安息,與大秦接也。

Dàqín’s west has sea water, sea water’s west has river waters, river water’s southwest going north there is a large mountain, west there is Chì river, Chì river’s west there is Báiyù mountain, Báiyù mountain has Xīwángmǔ, Xīwángmǔ’s west has Xiū Liúshā, liúshā’s west is Dàxià state, Jiānshā state, Shǔyáo state, Yuèzhī state, the four states’ west has Hēi river, which is rumored to be the west’s utmost.

大秦西有海水,海水西有河水,河水西南北行有大山,西有赤水,赤水西有白王山,白玉山有西王母,西王母西有脩流沙,流沙西有大夏國、堅沙國、屬繇國、月氏國、四國西有黑水,所傳聞西之極矣。

North New Road west going, reaching East Qiěmí state, West Qiěmí state, Shànhuán state. Bìlù state, Pùlù state, Wūtān state, all together are subordinate to to Chēshī Rear Position King. The King has capital at Lài city, Wèi bestowed on their King Yīduōzá as Defender of Wèi Attendant Internal, title Chief Commandant, and received from Wèi King’s Seal. Turning northwest then is Wūsūn, Kāngjū, the original states have no increases or decreases.

北新道西行,至東且彌國、西且彌國、單桓國、畢陸國、蒲陸國、烏貪國,皆并屬車師後部王。王治于賴城,魏賜其王壹多雜守魏侍中,號大都尉,受魏王印。轉西北則烏孫、康居,本國無增損也。

North Wūyī separate state is at Kāngjū’s north, also there is Liǔ state, also there is Yán state, also there is Yǎncài state also named Ālán, all with Kāngjū have the same customs. West with Dàqín and southeast with Kāngjū it joins. These states have many famed sables, raise animals and follow water and vegetation, overlooking large pool, and therefore at the time they were subordinate to Kāngjū, now they are not subordinate.

北烏伊別國在康居北,又有柳國,又有巖國,又有奄蔡國一名阿蘭,皆與康居同俗。西與大秦東南與康居接。其國多名貂,畜牧逐水草,臨大澤,故時羈屬康居,今不屬也。

Hūdé state is at Cōnglíng’s north, Wūsūn’s northwest, Kāngjū’s northeast, and has superior soldiers of over ten thousand men, follow raised animals, produce good horses, and have sables. Jiānkūn state is at Kāngjū’s northwest, have superior soldiers of thirty thousand men, follow raised animals, also many sables, and has good horses. Dīnglíng state is at Kāngjū’s north, superior soldiers of sixty thousand men, follow raised animals, produce famed rat pelts, white kūnzǐ and blue-green kūnzǐ pelts. Of these above three states, Jiānkūn is the center, all from the Xiōngnú Chányú’s Court at Ānxí river by seven thousand lǐ, south from Chēshī six states by five thousand lǐ, southwest from Kāngjū’s border by three thousand lǐ, west from Kāngjū King’s capital by eight thousand lǐ.

呼得國在蔥嶺北,烏孫西北,康居東北,勝兵萬餘人,隨畜牧,出好馬,有貂。堅昆國在康居西北,勝兵三萬人,隨畜牧,亦多貂,有好馬。丁令國在康居北,勝兵六萬人,隨畜牧,出名鼠皮,白昆子、青昆子皮。此上三國,堅昆中央,俱去匈奴單于庭安習水七千里,南去車師六國五千里,西南去康居界三千里,西去康居王治八千里。

Some believe this Dīnglíng are the Xiōngnú’s north’s Dīnglíng, but the north’s Dīnglíng is at Wūsūn’s west, and it seems their sorts are different. Also the Xiōngnú’s north has Húnyǔ state, has Qūshè state, has Dīnglíng state, has Gékūn state, has Xīnlí state, and it is clear from the north sea’s south again there is Dīnglíng, and this is not the Wūsūn’s west’s Dīnglíng. Wūsūn’s elders say the northern Dīnglíng has Mǎjìng [‘horse leg’] state, their people’s sound and speech resemble geese rushing, from the knees above body and head are men, from the knees on down grow fur, with horse leg and horse hoof, they do not ride horse but run as quickly as horses, they as men are brave and strong and dare battle.

或以為此丁令即匈奴北丁令也,而北丁令在烏孫西,似其種別也。又匈奴北有渾窳國,有屈射國,有丁令國,有隔昆國,有新梨國,明北海之南自復有丁令,非此烏孫之西丁令也。烏孫長老言北丁令有馬脛國,其人音聲似雁騖,從膝以上身頭,人也,膝以下生毛,馬脛馬蹄,不騎馬而走疾馬,其為人勇健敢戰也。

Duǎnrén [‘short men’] state is at Kāngjū’s northwest, men and women all are three chǐ tall, the people are very many, and from Yǎncài’s various states are very far away. Kāngjū’s elders have rumor there are merchants reaching this state, and from Kāngjū it could be over ten thousand lǐ.

短人國在康居西北,男女皆長三尺,人眾甚多,去奄蔡諸國甚遠。康居長老傳聞常有商度此國,去康居可萬餘里。

Yú Huàn comments: It is popularly believed the camp courtyard’s fish do not know the Jiāng’s and sea’s large size, the floating things [mayflies?] do not know the four seasons’ weather, why is this? It is where they are is small and their life is short. I now lightly examine the foreign peoples’ and Dàqín’s various states, yet it seems neglectful like issuing mist, so all the more for what Zōu Yǎn produced, what the Dàyì and Tàixuán conjectured! My tread is limited to ox hoof’s range, also without Péng Zǔ’s years, without opportunity to entrust in majestic wind to quickly travel, ride incredible horse to distantly observe, and can only toil and distantly gaze at the three lights [sun, moon, stars], but flying thoughts to the eight wildernesses and that is all.

魚豢議曰:俗以為營廷之魚不知江海之大,浮游之物不知四時之氣,是何也?以其所在者小與其生之短也。余今氾覽外夷大秦諸國,猶尚曠若發蒙矣,況夫鄒衍之所推出,大易、太玄之所測度乎!徒限處牛蹄之涔,又無彭祖之年,無緣託景風以迅游,載騕褭以遐觀,但勞眺乎三辰,而飛思乎八荒耳。

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