Appraisal states: The Shǐ[jì] and Hàn[shū] recorded the Cháoxiǎn, two Yuè, the Eastern Capital [Hàn records] compiled and recorded the Western Qiāng. In Wèi’s age the Xiōngnú then declined, and again there were the Wūhuán and Xiānbēi, thus reaching the Eastern Yí, sending translators to timely connect, recording and narrating following affairs, how constant it is!
(1) Wèilüè‘s Xī Róng Zhuàn “Biographies of the Western Peoples” states:
The Dī have Kings, and their coming was long ago. Since Hàn opened Yì Province, establishing Wǔdū prefecture, they arranged their kinds of people, dividing and banishing them into mountains and valleys, some at Fúlù, some at Qiān’s and Lǒng’s left and right. Their kinds are not one, and called Pánhù’s descendants. Some are called blue-green Dī, some called white Dī, some called boa Dī, these overall were like the sorts of lower animals residing in the central states, people then by their clothing color named them. They call themselves Hézhì, each have Kings and Marquis, many received the central states fiefs and honors. Recently since Jiàn’ān [196-220], Xīngguó’s Dī King Āguì and Bàixiàng’s Dī King Qiānwàn each each had tribes of over ten thousand, reaching the Sixteenth Year , they followed Mǎ Chāo in creating chaos. After [Mǎ] Chāo was defeated, Āguì was by Xiàhóu Yuān attacked and destroyed, Qiānwàn went southwest to enter Shǔ, his tribes could not go, and all surrendered. The state divided and relocated those that were beginning to end double dealers, installing them in Fúfēng and Měiyáng, and those the present Ānyí and Fǔyí two division Protectors of the Army manage are these. Those that originally held to goodness, were divided and left in Tiānshuǐ’s and Nán’ān’s border, and those the present Guǎngwèi administrates are these. Their customs and language are not with the central states the same, and with the Qiāng and various Hú are the same, each personally have a surname, surnames like the central state’s surnames. Their clothes esteem blue-green and purple-red. By custom they can weave cloth, are good at farming and planting, for livestock they raise swine, oxen, horses, donkeys, and mules. Their women at marriage time wear outside lapel, their hem decoration systems have resemblance to the Qiāng, their outside lapels have resemblance to the central states’ gowns. All weave their hair. Many know the central states’ language, because they with the central states interact and live. When they return to their kind and tribes, then they use Dī language. Their marriages have resemblance to the Qiāng. These overall then were in the past those called Xīróng at Jiē, Jì, and Yuándào. Now although all are united in prefectures and states, however they still have Kings and Marquis in their empty tribes. Also in former Wǔdū territory to Yīnpíngjiē’s left and right, also were over ten thousand tribes.
Zīlǔ were originally Xiōngnú, the Xiōngnú call their slaves Zī. Beginning from Jiànwǔ time [25-55], the Xiōngnú declined, and divided and sent away their slaves, fleeing and hiding in Jīnchéng, Wǔwēi, Jiǔquán, north to Hēi river’s and the western Hé’s east and west, raising livestock and following water and grass, plundering and robbing Liáng province, their tribes gradually grew many, and there are several tens of thousands. They are not with the eastern Xiānbēi the same. Their kinds are not one, there are Dàhú, there are Dīnglíng, some side areas have Qiāng mixed among them. This is because they were originally fled slaves. Reaching the time of Hàn and Wèi, their chieftain was Tánzhè, after he died, his branch chieftains went south near Guǎngwèi’s and Língjū’s border, there was Tūguī who came and repeatedly rebelled, and was by Liáng Province killed. Now there is Shàotí, some surrender and come, some flee and go, and always for the western provinces’ roads are a worry.
In Dùnhuáng’s and the Western Regions’ Nánshān, from the Chuò ‘Recalcitrant’ Qiāng west to Cōnglǐng of several thousand lǐ, there are Yuèzhī’s remaining kinds of Cōngzǐ Qiāng, Báimǎ ‘White Horse’ and Huángniú ‘Yellow Ox’ Qiāng, each have chief heroes, to the north they with various states border, it is unknown the expanse of their roads and villages. Rumor is that the Huángniú Qiāng each have their kinds, after pregnancy of six moons are born, and to the south they with the Báimǎ Qiāng neighbor.
The Western Regions’ various states, at Hàn’s beginning opening their roads, at the time there were thirty-six, later divided into over fifty. From Jiànwǔ [25-56] onward, they again conquered and destroyed each other, and to the present there are twenty. The roads from Dùnhuáng’s Yùmén ‘Jade Gate’ Pass entering the Western Regions, formerly had two roads, now have three roads.
From Yùmén Pass going west out, through the Chuò Qiāng turning west, passing Cōnglǐng, through Xiàndù, entering the Dàyuèzhī, is the South Road.
From Yùmén Pass going west out, setting out Dūhùjǐng, returning to Sānlǒngshā’s north head, through Jūlúcāng, from Shāxījǐng turning northwest, passing Lóngduī, reaching former Lóulán, turning west to reach Qiūcí, reaching Cōnglǐng, is the Center Road.
From Yúmén Pass going northwest out, through Héngkēng, avoiding Sānlǒngshā and Lóngduī, going out Wǔchuán north, reaching Chēshī’s border and the Five-Six Colonel’s headquarters Gāochāng, turning west and with the Central Road joining at Qiūcí, is the New Road.
All that the Western Regions produce, have in previous histories already been furnished in detail, now therefore in summary speak.
The South Road westward goes. Qiězhì state, Xiǎowǎn state, Jīngjué state, Lóulán state, all together are subordinate to Shànshàn. Rónglú state, Hànmí state, Qúlè state, Píshān state, all together are subordinate to Yúzhì. Jìbīn state, Dàxià state, Gāofù state, Tiānzhú state (North India), all together are subordinate to Dàyuèzhī.
Lín’ér state, the Fútú (Buddha) Scriptures say this state’s King begat Fútú. Fútú was the Heir-Apparent. His father was called Xiètóuyá (Suddhodana), his mother called Móyá (Maya). Fútú’s bodily clothes were colored yellow, his hair dark like dark silk, his chest had dark hair, and he was red like copper. Initially Mòyá dreamed of a white elephant and became pregnant, at the birth he from his mother’s left side came out, when born he had knot [of hair], falling to the ground he was able to walk seven steps. This state was among Tiānzhú’s cities. Tiānzhú also had a divine man, named Shālǜ. In the past Hàn Āi-dì Yuánshòu Inaugural Year [2 BC], Academic Scholar student Jǐng Lú received the Dàyuèzhī King’s envoy Yīcún’s oral account on the Fútú Scriptures saying the reincarnation was this man. Fútú’s recorded Línpúsāi, Sāngmén, Bówén, Shūwèn, Báishūjiān, Bǐqiū, Chénmén, all were disciple titles. Fútú’s recordings with the central states’ Lǎo-zǐ’s scriptures have similarities and differences, and overall it is believed Lǎo-zǐ went out through the Passes, passed the Western Regions to Tiānzhú, and taught the Hú. Fútú’s disciples’ names, altogether are twenty-nine, but cannot be in detail recorded, and therefore are summarized like this.
Jūlí state also named Lǐwéitè, also named Pèilìwáng, is to Tiānzhú’s southeast by over 3000 lǐ, their land is low, humid, and hot. Their King governs at Shājī city, and there are other cities of several tens. The people are timid and weak, the Yuèzhī and Tiānzhú struck and conquered them. Their land east to west and south to north is several thousand lǐ, their people men and women all are one zhàng eight chǐ [~4.2 m], and ride elephants and camels to battle, now the Yuèzhī conscript and tax them.
Pányuè state also named Hànyuèwáng, is to Tiānzhú’s southeast by several thousand lǐ, and with the Yì [Province] region is close, their people are small with the central states people’s level. Shǔ man Jiǎ Sì reached there.
The South Road at its western extremity turns southeast to its end.
The Center Road westward goes. Wèilí state, Wēixū state, Shānwáng state, all together are subordinate to Yānqí, Gūmò state, Wēnsù state, Wèitóu state, all together are subordinate to Qiūcí. Zhēnzhōng state, Shāchē state, Jiéshí state, Qúqúshā state, Xīyè state, Yīnài state, Mǎnlí state, Yìruò state, Yúlíng state, Sǔndú state, Xiūxiū state, Qín state, all together are subordinate to Shūlè. From there on west, are Dàyuān (Ferghana), Ānxī (Parthia), Tiáozhī, Wūyì, Wūyì also named Páitè. These four states are in sequence to the west, are original states, without increases or decreases.
Previous ages erroneously believed Tiáozhī was to Dàqín’s west, now in fact it is to the east. Previous ages also erroneously believed it was stronger than Ānxī, now it further serves and is subordinate to them, and called as Ānxī’s western border. Previous ages also erroneously believed the Ruò river was at Tiáozhī’s west, now the Ruò river is at Dàqín’s west. Previous ages also erroneously believed from Tiáozhī west traveling over 200 days, is near where the sun sets, now from Dàqín’s west is near where the sun sets.
Dàqín state [Rome] is also called Líjiān [Alexandria?], is at Ānxī’s, Tiáozhīxī great sea’s west, from Ānxī’s border Āngǔ city riding boat, straight through the sea west, if encountering favorable winds in two months arriving, if winds are slow maybe one year, if no wind maybe three years. Their state is at the sea’s west, therefore commonly they are called Hǎixī [“sea’s west”, Egypt?]. There is a river [Nile?] going out of the state, west also there is a great sea [Mediterranean?]. Hǎixī has [Wū]chísǎn [Alexandria?] city, from the state down directly north to Wūdān city, southwest again crossing a river, riding boat one day then crossing. Southwest again crossing a river, one day then passing. Altogether there are great capitals of three. However from Āngǔ city on land road directly north traveling to the sea’s north, again directly west going to the sea’s west, again directly south going to Wūchísǎn city, crossing one river, riding boat one day then passing. Circling back around the sea, altogether then crossing the great sea for six days then arriving at their state.
The state has small cities and towns altogether of over four hundred, east west south north it extends several thousand lǐ. Their King’s capital is on the shore beside the [Tiber] river and [Mediterranean] sea, with stone making the city wall. Their lands have pine, cedar, sophora, catalpa, bamboo, reed, poplar, willow, parasol tree, all kinds of plants. The people customarily farm and plant the five crops [millet, bean, sesame, barley, rice], raise and ride horses, mules, donkeys, camels, silkworms. Their customs have many unusual performances, mouth breathing fire, self binding and self releasing, juggling twelve balls with ingenuity.
Their state has no constant ruler, if in the state there is unusual disaster, then they change and establish a worthy man as the King, and release alive their former King, and the King also does not dare complain. Their common people when grown up are fair and upright, resembling the central state peoples but with Hú clothing. They say they were originally with the central states united but separated, and always wished to connect with envoys to the central states, but Ānxī plotted to take advantage, and they could not obtain passage. Their customs can in Hú write. Their government and public and private palaces and households have multiple floors, flying banners and beating drums, white canopy small chariots, and postal relay stations are installed like the central states.
From Ānxī around the sea’s north to this state, the people are affiliated with each other, in ten lǐ is one precinct, thirty lǐ one installation, to the end there are no bandits, but there are fierce tigers and lions as harm, and if traveling on the road without a group then one cannot pass.
Their state installs Lesser Kings of several tens, their King’s governing city’s circumference is over a hundred lǐ, and has government office departments of writing and documents. The King has five palaces, each palace from the other the distance is ten lǐ, their King at dawn goes to one palace to listen to affairs, reaching sunset and one night, and the next day he again goes to one palace, five days one cycle. They install thirty six officers, at each discussion of matters, if one officer does not arrive then they do not discuss. When the Kings goes out traveling, he always has accompanying men carry one soft leather sack and follow him, and those with reports, he receives their writings cast into the sack, returning to the palace then he examines and decides and reasons.
Using glass the make palace pillars and utensils. They make bows and arrows. Their separate branches are given fief of small states, called Zésǎn King, called Lǘfēn King, called Qiělán King, called Xiándū King, called Sìfù King, called Yúluó King,. The remaining small King states are very many, and cannot be one by one given in detail.
The state produces fine linen. It makes gold and silver coins, gold coins of one equal to silver coins of ten. They have weaving to make fine cloth, said to use river sheep hair, named as Hǎixī cloth. This state’s six domestic animals all come from water. Some say they do not only use sheep wool, and also use tree bark or wild cocoon silk, waving into woolen rugs, coarse mats, curtains and their sort all good. Their colors also are also brighter than what the sea’s east’s various states make. Also they always profit from obtaining the central states’ silk, unravel it to make Hú damask, and therefore repeatedly with Ānxī’s various states trade and market across the sea. The sea’s water is bitter and cannot be consumed, and therefore travelers hope to arrive in their states.
The mountains produce nine colors of less-than-jade stones, first is blue-green, second is scarlet, third is yellow, fourth is white, fifth is black, sixth is green, seventh is purple, eighth is red, ninth is violet. Now in Yīwú mountains there are nine colors of stones, that is of this sort. In Yángjiā Third Year’s time,  the Shūlè King Chén Pán presented Hǎixī’s blue-green stone and gold girdle one of each. Also the present Xīyù Jiùtú [‘Western Regions Old Map’] says Jìbīn and Tiáozhī various states produce valuable stones, which are less-than-jade stones.
Dàqín has much gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, tin, divine tortoises, white horses, red manes, startling fowl rhinoceros, turtle shells, black bears, red immature dragons, avoiding poison rats, large cowries, tridacinae, cornelian, southern metal, agate, feather quills, elephant tusks, marked colored jade, bright moon pearl, luminescent pearls, true white pearls, tiger amber, coral; scarlet, white, black, green, yellow, blue-green, purple, misty, red, violet, ten kinds of circulating rarities; sparkling gems, white gems, water crystals, rose flowers, realgar, orpiment, green jade, five-colored jade; yellow, white, black, green, violet, red, purple-red, purple, golden yellow, misty preserved yellow, ten kinds of woolen rugs; five colored coarse carpet, five colored nine colored head lower coarse carpet, gold threat embroidery, various colored damask, gold scrawled cloth, purple chí cloth, fālù cloth, purple chíqú cloth, fire resistant cloth, āluódé cloth, bāzé cloth, dùdài cloth, Wēnsù cloth, five-colored peach cloth, purple-red earth gold woven canopy, five-colored dòu canopy, yīwēi wood, èrsūhé, dítí, mímí, dōunà, white aconite, xūnlù, yùjīn, glue rubber, fragrant vegetation of twelve kinds of perfumes.
Dàqín by road from the sea’s north on land can be connected, also by the sea and going south, with Jiāozhǐ’s seven prefectures the outer foreigners comparable, also there is water route connected to Yì Province and Yǒngchāng, and therefore Yǒngchāng produces rare things. Previous ages only discussed water routes, and did not know there were land routes, now they are summarized like this, their people and households are many and cannot be given in detail. From Cōnglǐng west, this state is most large, the installed various lesser Kings are very many, and therefore one records their dependents that are large.
Zésǎn King is subordinate to Dàqín, its capital is in the sea’s center, to the north reaches Lǘfēn, by water going is half a year, if wind is swift the time is one month to arrive, its extremes with Ānxī’s Āngǔ city are close to each other, southwest visiting Dàqín’s capital it is unknown the number of lǐ.
Lǘfēn King is subordinate to Dàqín, its capital from Dàqín’s capital is 2000 lǐ. From Lǘfēn city west to Dàqín crossing the sea, flying bridge long 230 lǐ, crossing the sea on road southwest going, around the sea directly west going.
Qiělán King is subordinate to Dàqín. From Sītáo state directly south crossing the river, then directly west going to Qiělán is 3000 lǐ. The road goes out Hénán, then west going, from Qiělán again directly west going to Sìfù state 600 lǐ. The South Road meets Sìfù, then southwest to Xiándū state. Qiělán and Sìfù directly south, then there is Jīshí, Jīshí south then there is the great sea, producing coral and pearls. Qiělán, Sìfù, Sībīn, Āmán north there is a mountain range, east and west going. Dàqín and Hǎixī east each there is a mountain range, both north and south going.
Xiándū King is subordinate to Dàqín, its capital northeast from Sìfù is 600 lǐ.
Sìfù King is subordinate to Dàqín, its capital northeast from Yúluó is 340 lǐ crossing the sea. Yúluó is subordinate to Dàqín, its capital is at Sìfù’s northeast, crossing river, from Yúluó northeast again crossing river, Sīluó northeast again crossing river. Sīluó state is subordinate to Ānxī, with Dàqín joins.
Dàqín’s west has sea water, sea water’s west has river waters, river water’s southwest going north there is a large mountain, west there is Chì river, Chì river’s west there is Báiyù mountain, Báiyù mountain has Xīwángmǔ, Xīwángmǔ’s west has Xiū Liúshā, liúshā’s west is Dàxià state, Jiānshā state, Shǔyáo state, Yuèzhī state, the four states’ west has Hēi river, which is rumored to be the west’s utmost.
North New Road west going, reaching East Qiěmí state, West Qiěmí state, Shànhuán state. Bìlù state, Pùlù state, Wūtān state, all together are subordinate to to Chēshī Rear Position King. The King has capital at Lài city, Wèi bestowed on their King Yīduōzá as Defender of Wèi Attendant Internal, title Chief Commandant, and received from Wèi King’s Seal. Turning northwest then is Wūsūn, Kāngjū, the original states have no increases or decreases.
North Wūyī separate state is at Kāngjū’s north, also there is Liǔ state, also there is Yán state, also there is Yǎncài state also named Ālán, all with Kāngjū have the same customs. West with Dàqín and southeast with Kāngjū it joins. These states have many famed sables, raise animals and follow water and vegetation, overlooking large pool, and therefore at the time they were subordinate to Kāngjū, now they are not subordinate.
Hūdé state is at Cōnglíng’s north, Wūsūn’s northwest, Kāngjū’s northeast, and has superior soldiers of over ten thousand men, follow raised animals, produce good horses, and have sables. Jiānkūn state is at Kāngjū’s northwest, have superior soldiers of thirty thousand men, follow raised animals, also many sables, and has good horses. Dīnglíng state is at Kāngjū’s north, superior soldiers of sixty thousand men, follow raised animals, produce famed rat pelts, white kūnzǐ and blue-green kūnzǐ pelts. Of these above three states, Jiānkūn is the center, all from the Xiōngnú Chányú’s Court at Ānxí river by seven thousand lǐ, south from Chēshī six states by five thousand lǐ, southwest from Kāngjū’s border by three thousand lǐ, west from Kāngjū King’s capital by eight thousand lǐ.
Some believe this Dīnglíng are the Xiōngnú’s north’s Dīnglíng, but the north’s Dīnglíng is at Wūsūn’s west, and it seems their sorts are different. Also the Xiōngnú’s north has Húnyǔ state, has Qūshè state, has Dīnglíng state, has Gékūn state, has Xīnlí state, and it is clear from the north sea’s south again there is Dīnglíng, and this is not the Wūsūn’s west’s Dīnglíng. Wūsūn’s elders say the northern Dīnglíng has Mǎjìng [‘horse leg’] state, their people’s sound and speech resemble geese rushing, from the knees above body and head are men, from the knees on down grow fur, with horse leg and horse hoof, they do not ride horse but run as quickly as horses, they as men are brave and strong and dare battle.
Duǎnrén [‘short men’] state is at Kāngjū’s northwest, men and women all are three chǐ tall, the people are very many, and from Yǎncài’s various states are very far away. Kāngjū’s elders have rumor there are merchants reaching this state, and from Kāngjū it could be over ten thousand lǐ.
Yú Huàn comments: It is popularly believed the camp courtyard’s fish do not know the Jiāng’s and sea’s large size, the floating things [mayflies?] do not know the four seasons’ weather, why is this? It is where they are is small and their life is short. I now lightly examine the foreign peoples’ and Dàqín’s various states, yet it seems neglectful like issuing mist, so all the more for what Zōu Yǎn produced, what the Dàyì and Tàixuán conjectured! My tread is limited to ox hoof’s range, also without Péng Zǔ’s years, without opportunity to entrust in majestic wind to quickly travel, ride incredible horse to distantly observe, and can only toil and distantly gaze at the three lights [sun, moon, stars], but flying thoughts to the eight wildernesses and that is all.