(60.1) Hè Qí 賀齊 [Gōngmiáo 公苗]

Hè Qí appellation Gōngmiáo was a Kuàijī Shānyīn man. (1) When young he became a prefecture official, acting as Shàn Chief. County official Sī Cóng was reckless and adventurous and acted treacherously, Qí wished to punish him, the Registrar remonstrated saying: “[Sī] Cóng is of the county’s great clans, one the Shānyuè attach to, if today you punish him, tomorrow bandits will arrive.” Qí heard and was greatly furious, and at once beheaded [Sī] Cóng. [Sī] Cóng’s clan and faction therefore together gathered, a crowd of over a thousand men, raising troops to attack the county. Qí led the officials and people, opening the city gates to suddenly strike, greatly defeated them, his authority shaking the Shānyuè. Later Tàimò’s and Fēngpǔ’s people rebelled, he was transferred to act as Tàimò Chief, punishing the evil and caring for the good, and within a moon it was completely pacified.

賀齊字公苗,會稽山陰人也。〔一〕少為郡吏,守剡長。縣吏斯從輕俠為姦,齊欲治之,主簿諫曰:「從,縣大族,山越所附,今日治之,明日寇至。」齊聞大怒,便立斬從。從族黨遂相糾合,眾千餘人,舉兵攻縣。齊率吏民,開城門突擊,大破之,威震山越。後太末、豐浦民反,轉守太末長,誅惡養善,期月盡平。

  • (1) Yú Yù’s Jìnshū states: The Hè clan was originally surnamed the Qìng clan. Qí’s father’s older brother [Qìng] Chún, was a Classicist scholar with heavy reputation, in Hàn Ān-dì ‘s time was Internal Attendant and Jiāngxià Administrator, left office, and with Jiāngxià’s Huáng Qióng, Guānghàn’s Yáng Hòu together were by Excellency Carriage summoned. To avoid Ān-dì’s father Xiào-Dé Huáng’s taboo name, he was changed to the Hè clan. Qí’s father Fǔ, was Yǒngníng Chief.

〔一〕 虞預晉書曰:賀氏本姓慶氏。齊伯父純,儒學有重名,漢安帝時為侍中、江夏太守,去官,與江夏黃瓊、(漢中)〔廣漢〕楊厚俱公車徵。避安帝父孝德皇(帝)諱,改為賀氏。齊父輔,永寧長。


Jiàn’ān Inaugural Year [196], Sūn Cè oversaw the prefectures, and examined Qí as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate. At the time Wáng Lǎng fled to Dōngyě, and Hòuguān Chief Shāng Shēng for [Wáng] Lǎng raised troops. [Sūn] Cè sent Yǒngníng Chief Hán Yàn to act in office as the Southern Part Commandant, to command troops to suppress [Shāng] Shēng, with Qí as Yǒngníng Chief. [Hán] Hàn was by [Shāng] Shēng] defeated, and Qí also succeeded Yàn as acting office over Commandant affairs. [Shāng] Shēng feared Qí’s authority and reputation, and sent envoy to beg for alliance. Qí therefore informed and described, for them explaining the disasters and fortunes, and [Shāng] Shēng therefore sent up his seal and ribbon, and went out from his residence to ask to surrender. Bandit commanders Zhāng Yǎ, Zhān Qiǎng, and others were unwilling to with [Shāng] Shēng surrender, and rebelled and together killed [Shāng] Shēng, [Zhāng] Yǎ declared himself General Without Superior, [Zhān] Qiǎng declared himself Kuàijī Administrator. The rebels were flourishing and the [government] troops were few, not yet sufficient to suppress them, so Qí stationed the army and rested the troops. [Zhāng] Yǎ with his daughter’s husband Hé Xióng fought for authority, Qí ordered the Yuè peoples to therefore serve in interfering in communications, therefore resulting in suspicion and discord, so their troops against each other plotted. Qí then advanced and suppressed, in one battle greatly defeated [Zhāng] Yǎ, [Zhān] Qiǎng’s faction was shaken and afraid, and he led his armies out to surrender.

建安元年,孫策臨郡,察齊孝廉。時王朗奔東冶,候官長商升為朗起兵。策遣永寧長韓晏領南部都尉,將兵討升,以齊為永寧長。晏為升所敗,齊又代晏領都尉事。升畏齊威名,遣使乞盟。齊因告喻,為陳禍福,升遂送上印綬,出舍求降。賊帥張雅、詹彊等不願升降,反共殺升,雅稱無上將軍,彊稱會稽太守。賊盛兵少,未足以討,齊住軍息兵。雅與女婿何雄爭勢兩乖,齊令越人因事交構,遂致疑隙,阻兵相圖。齊乃進討,一戰大破雅,彊黨震懼,率眾出降。


Hòuguān was pacified, but Jiàn’ān, Hànxīng, Nánpíng again was in chaos, Qí advanced troops to Jiàn’ān, established a Commandant Office, that year was the Eighth Year [203]. The prefecture sent out from its subordinate counties five thousand troops, each sending their own county Chief to command them, and all accepted Qí’s authority and judgement. The bandits Hóng Míng, Hóng Jìn, Yuàn Yù, Wú Miǎn, Huà Dāng and others five men, each commanding ten thousand households, linked garrisons at Hànxīng, Wú Wǔ’s six thousand households separately garrisoned Dàtán, Zōu Lín’s six thouand households separately garrisoned Gězhú, together setting out Yúgàn. The army suppressed Hànxīng, passing through Yúgàn. Qí believed the bandits were numerous and the troops few, penetrating deeply would be without connection, feared they would be cut off, and ordered Sōngyáng Chief Dīng Fán to remain and ready Yúgàn. [Dīng] Fán originally with Qí were of neighboring cities, and was shamed to be his subordinate division, and refused and would not agree to remain. Qí thus beheaded [Dīng] Fán, and therefore inside the army was shaken and fearful, and none did not follow orders. Therefore he divided troops to remain and prepare, advanced to suppress [Hóng] Míng and the rest, and continuously greatly defeated them, in front of the battle lines beheaded [Hóng] Míng, so [Wú] Miǎn, [Huà] Dāng, [Hóng] Jìn, [Yuàn] Yù all surrendered. He turned to strike Gězhú, the army headed to Dàtán, and the two commanders also surrendered. Altogether he suppressed and punished and beheaded on the order of six thousand, the famed commanders were completely taken, he again established counties and cities, altogether sending out troops of ten thousand men, and was appointed Pacifying East Colonel. Tenth Year [205], he transferred to suppress Shàngráo, dividing it to form Jiànpíng county.

候官既平,而建安、漢興、南平復亂,齊進兵建安,立都尉府,是歲八年也。郡發屬縣五千兵,各使本縣長將之,皆受齊節度。賊洪明、洪進、苑御、吳免、華當等五人,率各萬戶,連屯漢興,吳五六千戶別屯大潭,鄒臨六千戶別屯蓋竹,(大潭)同出餘汗。音干。軍討漢興,經餘汗。齊以為賊眾兵少,深入無繼,恐為所斷,令松陽長丁蕃留備餘汗。蕃本與齊鄰城,恥見部伍,辭不肯留。齊乃斬蕃,於是軍中震慄,無不用命。遂分兵留備,進討明等,連大破之。臨陳斬明,其免、當、進、御皆降。轉擊蓋竹,軍向大潭,(三)〔二〕將又降。凡討治斬首六千級,名帥盡禽,復立縣邑,料出兵萬人,拜為平東校尉。十年,轉討上饒,分以為建平縣。


Thirteenth Year [208], he was promoted to Authoritative Martial Internal Cadet General, suppressed Dānyáng’s Yī and Shè [counties]. At the time Wǔqiǎng, Yèxiāng, Dōngyáng, Fēngpǔ, four villages first surrendered, Qí memorialized saying to make Yèxiāng into Shǐxīn county. But Shè bandit commander Jīn Qí’s ten thousand households garrisoned Ānlè mountain, Máo Gān’s ten thousand households garrisoned Wūliáo mountain, Yī commanders Chén Pú, Zǔ Shān and others of twenty thousand households garrisoned Línlì mountain. Línlì mountain’s four sides were like cliffs, several tens of zhàng high, the routes were dangerous and narrow, and could not fit a saber horizontally, the rebels overlooked high and shot down stones, and they could not attack. The army stationed through several days, the officers and officials were worried about this. Qí personally went out about and walked, observing and inspecting the situation, secretly gathered light and agile soldiers, had them make iron barbs, secretly in the dark and rugged areas where the bandits were not prepared, used the barbs to dig out a ditch to be a road, in the night ordered them to secretly ascend, and then frequently to the counties announced to send people to help, obtaining a hundred some men to ascend, the four sides spread out, altogether shouting and drumming, and Qí reigned in troops to wait for them. The bandits in the night heard the drums and sounds on four sides, said the main army had all already ascended, and were alarmed and in chaos, not knowing what was happening, and those defending the roads and rugged terrain, all fled back to join the masses. The main army therefore was able to ascend, greatly defeated [Chén] Pú and the rest, and the remainder all surrendered, altogether beheading seven thousand. (1) Qí again memorialized to divide Shè [county] to form Xīndìng, Líyáng, Xiūyáng [counties], and together with Yī and Shè were altogether six counties, and [Sūn] Quán therefore set them apart to be Xīndū prefecture, with Qí as its Administrator, establishing office at Shǐxīn, and added office as Assistant General.

十三年,遷威武中郎將,討丹陽黟、歙。時武彊、葉鄉、東陽、豐浦四鄉先降,齊表言以葉鄉為始新縣。而歙賊帥金奇萬戶屯安勒山,毛甘萬戶屯烏聊山,黟帥陳僕、祖山等二萬戶屯林歷山。林歷山四面壁立,高數十丈,徑路危狹,不容刀楯,賊臨高下石,不可得攻。軍住經日,將吏患之。齊身出周行,觀視形便,陰募輕捷士,為作鐵弋,密於隱險賊所不備處,以弋拓(斬山)〔塹〕為緣道,夜令潛上,乃多縣布以援下人,得上百數人,四面流布,俱鳴鼓角,齊勒兵待之。賊夜聞鼓聲四合,謂大軍悉已得上,驚懼惑亂,不知所為,守路備險者,皆走還依眾。大軍因是得上,大破僕等,其餘皆降,凡斬首七千。〔一〕齊復表分歙為新定、黎陽、休陽。并黟、歙,凡六縣,權遂割為新都郡,齊為太守,立府於始新,加偏將軍。

  • (1) Bàopǔzǐ states: In the past Wú sent General Hè to suppress mountain bandits, among the bandits were those good at Restrictions, at every meeting of battle, the government army’s sabers and swords could not be drawn, the bows and crossbows shot arrows all returned in reverse direction, always so that they were unsuccessful. General Hè always worried about this, and thus said: “I have heard metal edges can be Restricted, vermin venom can be Restricted, but those things without edges, and vermin without venom, then cannot be Restricted. They certainly are able to Restrict our weapons, but certainly are unable to Restrict our edgeless things.” Therefore he made many strong wood white clubs, chose out strong and elite soldiers of five thousand to be the first to ascend, all clutching clubs. The mountain bandits relied on those good at Restrictions, and in the end did not rigorously prepare. Therefore the government army with white clubs struck them, and their Restrictors indeed were no longer in effect, and those they struck and killed were in the tens of thousands.

〔一〕 抱朴子曰:昔吳遣賀將軍討山賊,賊中有善禁者,每當交戰,官軍刀劍不得拔,弓弩射矢皆還自向,輒致不利。賀將軍長情有思,乃曰:「吾聞金有刃者可禁,蟲有毒者可禁,其無刃之物,無毒之蟲,則不可禁。彼必是能禁吾兵者也,必不能禁無刃物矣。」乃多作勁木白棓,選有力精卒五千人為先登,盡捉棓。彼山賊恃其有善禁者,了不嚴備。於是官軍以白棓擊之,彼禁者果不復行,所擊殺者萬計。


Sixteenth Year [211], Wú prefecture’s Yúháng’s commoner Láng Zhì gathered clansmen and rose as bandits, again several thousand men, Qí went out to suppress them, at once again defeating [Láng] Zhì, memorialized word to divide Yúháng to form Línshuǐ county. (1) He was ordered to visit where [Sūn Quán] was, and when about to return to the prefecture, [Sūn] Quán sent him out on the ancestral rode, with music and dancers. (2) He bestowed on Qí curtained carriages and fine horses, rose from seat to set up harness, sending Qí to board the carriage. Qí declined and did not dare, [Sūn] Quán sent those around him to carry Qí aboard the carriage, ordering the escorting officials and soldiers and riders, by the prefecture’s ceremonies. [Sūn] Quán watched him and laughed saying: “Men should make an effort, if not amassing actions and accumulating diligence, this cannot be obtained.” [Only] after [escorting Hè Qí] over a hundred bù did he return.

十六年,吳郡餘杭民郎稚合宗起賊,復數千人,齊出討之,即復破稚,表言分餘杭為臨水縣。〔一〕被命詣所在,及當還郡,權出祖道,作樂舞象。〔二〕賜齊軿車駿馬,罷坐住駕,使齊就車。齊辭不敢,權使左右扶齊上車,令導吏卒兵騎,如在郡儀。權望之笑曰:「人當努力,非積行累勤,此不可得。」去百餘步乃旋。

  • (1) Wúlù states: Jìn changed to Lín’ān.

〔一〕 吳錄曰:晉改為臨安。

  • (2) Wúshū states: [Sūn] Quán said to Qí: “Now settling the realm Under Heaven, all the central states, delivering unique custom tribute and treasures, crafty beasts in the end dancing, if not you than for whom?” Qí said: “Your Highness with divine military ability answers the times, opening up the Ruler’s Enterprise, I your servant by good fortune encountered opportunity, was able to drive on below windblown dust, to assist and help minor activities, to be able to receive a hawk’s and hound’s use, is I your servant’s hope. If it is unique custom tribute and treasures, crafty beasts made to dance, it should be with the sagely virtuous, not what I your servant can accept.”

  〔二〕 吳書曰:權謂齊曰:「今定天下,都中國,使殊俗貢珍,狡獸卒舞,非君誰與?」齊曰:「殿下以神武應期,廓開王業,臣幸遭際會,得驅馳風塵之下,佐助末行,效鷹犬之用,臣之願也。若殊俗貢珍,狡獸率舞,宜在聖德,非臣所能。」


Eighteenth Year [213], Yùzhāng Eastern Part commoners Péng Cái, Lǐ Yù, Wáng Hǎi and others rose as bandits in chaos, a horde of over ten thousand men. Qí suppressed and pacified them, executing their leaders in evil, and the rest all surrendered and yielded. He chose out their elite and strong to be troops, and the next to be county households. He was promoted to Exerting Martial General.

十八年,豫章東部民彭材、李玉、王海等起為賊亂,眾萬餘人。齊討平之,誅其首惡,餘皆降服。揀其精健為兵,次為縣戶。遷奮武將軍。


Twentieth Year [215], he accompanied [Sūn] Quán in campaigning against Héféi. At the time those in the city came out to battle, Xú Shèng was wounded and lost his lance, Qí among the troops resisted and struck, and found what [Xú] Shèng had lost. (1)

二十年,從權征合肥。時城中出戰,徐盛被創失矛,齊中兵拒擊,得盛所失。〔一〕

  • (1) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: [Sūn] Quán campaigned against Héféi, was by Zhāng Liáo surprised attacked at the ford’s north, and almost was in grave danger. Qí at the time led three thousand troops at the ford’s south to welcome [Sūn] Quán. When [Sūn] Quán entered the main boat, he met with the various officers in a drinking party, Qí was below the seating mat shedding tears and said: “The Utmost Honored Ruler of Men, must always be prudent and cautious. In today’s affairs, there was almost disaster and destruction, the various subordinates were shaken and afraid, as if without Heaven and Earth, may this be a lifelong warning.” [Sūn] Quán himself went forward to stop his tears saying: “Great shame! This sincerity is carved on my heart, not only written on my belt.”

〔一〕 江表傳曰:權征合肥還,為張遼所掩襲於津北,幾至危殆。齊時率三千兵在津南迎權。權既入大船,會諸將飲宴,齊下席涕泣而言曰:「至尊人主,常當持重。今日之事,幾至禍敗,群下震怖,若無天地,願以此為終身誡。」權自前收其淚曰:「大慚!謹以剋心,非但書諸紳也。」


Twenty-first Year [216], Póyáng commoner Yóu Tū received Excellency Cáo’s seal and ribbon, converting people to be bandits, and Língyáng, Shǐ’ān, Jīng counties all with [Yóu] Tū answered each other. Qí with Lù Xùn suppressed and defeated [Yóu] Tū, beheading several thousand, the rest of the faction was shaken and submited, and Dānyáng’s three counties all surrendered, obtaining elite troops of eight thousand men. He was appointed Securing East General, fief as Shānyīn Marquis, sent out to defend the Jiāng upstream, commanding and supporting the province on up to Wǎn.

二十一年,鄱陽民尤突受曹公印綬,化民為賊,陵陽、始安、涇縣皆與突相應。齊與陸遜討破突,斬首數千,餘黨震服,丹楊三縣皆降,料得精兵八千人。拜安東將軍,封山陰侯,出鎮江上,督扶州以上至皖。


Huángwǔ’s beginning [222], Wèi sent Cáo Xiū to come on campaign, Qí because the road was distant later arrived, and therefore stationed at Xīnshì to resist. It happened that Dòngkǒu’s various armies encountered winds and drownings, and the lost was half, and the officers and soldiers lost color, and as Qí had not yet arrived, only his army alone was preserved, and the various officers depended on his strength.

黃武初,魏使曹休來伐,齊以道遠後至,因住新市為拒。會洞口諸軍遭風流溺,所亡中分,將士失色,賴齊未濟,偏軍獨全,諸將倚以為勢。


Qí by nature was extravagant and elegant, exceptionally enjoyed military affairs, his weapons and armor and instruments were exceedingly elite and good, the ships he rode were engraved with cinnabar carvings, blue-green canopies and purple-red drapes, his shields and oars and spears and lances, were drawn with flowers and melons,his bows and crossbows and bolts and arrows, all used the highest quality timber, his covered charger fighting ships and their sort, looked like mountains. [Cáo] Xiū and the rest were intimidated by this, and therefore led the army back. He was promoted to Rear General, with Acting Staff and office as Xú Province Governor.

齊性奢綺,尤好軍事,兵甲器械極為精好,所乘船雕刻丹鏤,青蓋絳襜,干櫓戈矛,葩瓜文畫,弓弩矢箭,咸取上材,蒙衝鬥艦之屬,望之若山。休等憚之,遂引軍還。遷後將軍,假節領徐州牧。


Previously, Jìn Zōng was Xìkǒu’s commander, with his army rebelled to join Wèi, and returned as Qíchūn Administrator, plotting to attack Ānlè, capturing their hostages. [Sūn] Quán because of this was ashamed and angry, and because the army was newly dismissed, and it was the sixth moon height of summer, so the setting out was not expected, Imperial Order was given on Qí to command Mí Fāng, Xiānyú Dān, and others to attack Qíchūn, and therefore they alive captured [Jìn] Zōng. After four years he died, his son Dá and [Hè Dá’s] younger brother Jǐng both had good reputation, and were fine officers. (1)

初,晉宗為戲口將,以眾叛如魏,還為蘄春太守,圖襲安樂,取其保質。權以為恥忿,因軍初罷,六月盛夏,出其不意,詔齊督麋芳、鮮于丹等襲蘄春,遂生虜宗。後四年卒,子達及弟景皆有令名,為佳將。〔一〕

  • (1) Kuàijī Diǎnlù states: Jǐng became Exterminating Bandits Colonel, commanding armies sternly but with kindness, his weapons were elite and decorated, and at the time were the absolute best, he died young. Dá was inclined to act on impulse, had many violations, and therefore although he had merits in campaigns, yet he did not reach noble rank, however he thought little of wealth and valued righteousness, and his guts and fierceness surpassed others. His son Zhì, rank reached Tiger Fang General.
  • Jǐng’s son Shào has a separate biography.

〔一〕 會稽典錄曰:景為滅賊校尉,御眾嚴而有恩,兵器精飾,為當時冠絕,早卒。達頗任氣,多所犯迕,故雖有征戰之勞,而爵位不至,然輕財貴義,膽烈過人。子質,位至虎牙將軍。景子邵,別有傳。

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