(43.3) Lǚ Kǎi 呂凱 [Jìpíng 季平]

Lǚ Kǎi appellation Jìpíng was a Yǒngchāng Bùwéi man. (1) He served the prefecture’s Five Office Official Merit Officer.

呂凱字季平、永昌不韋人也。〔一〕仕郡五官掾功曹。

  • (1) Sūn Shèng’s Shǔ Shìpǔ states: Previously, Qín relocated Lǚ Bùwéi’s junior relatives and clansmen to Shǔ-Hàn. In Hàn Wǔ-dì’s time, he opened the southwestern Yí, installing prefectures and counties, and relocating the Lǚ clan to fill them, and therefore called it Bùwéi county.

〔一〕 孫盛蜀世譜曰:初,秦徙呂不韋子弟宗族於蜀漢。漢武帝時,開西南夷,置郡縣,徙呂氏以充之,因曰不韋縣。

At the time Yōng Kǎi and the rest heard Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi] had died at Yǒng’ān, and their arrogance and craftiness increased in severity. Regional Protector Lǐ Yán with [Yōng] Kǎi wrote letters of six documents, explaining and describing benefits and harms, but [Yōng] Kǎi merely replied with one document stating: “One hears that Heaven does not have two suns, Land does not have two kings, but now the realm Under Heaven is like a tripod set, of Calendar Systems there are three, and therefore the distant men are anxious and confused, and do not know where to submit.” His cruelty and negligence was like this.

時雍闓等聞先主薨於永安,驕黠滋甚。都護李嚴與闓書六紙,解喻利害,闓但答一紙曰:「蓋聞天無二日,土無二王,今天下鼎立,正朔有三,是以遠人惶惑,不知所歸也。」其桀慢如此。

[Yōng] Kǎi also surrendered to Wú, and Wú from afar established [Yōng] Kǎi as Yǒngchāng Administrator. Yǒngchāng was at Yìzhōu prefecture’s west, the roads were blocked, and with Shǔ disconnected, but the prefecture Administrator was changed, and [Lǚ] Kǎi with the Office Deputy Wáng Kàng of Shǔ prefecture commanded strict officials and people, to close the borders to resist [Yōng] Kǎi.

闓又降於吳,吳遙署闓為永昌太守。永昌既在益州郡之西,道路壅塞,與蜀隔絕,而郡太守改易,凱與府丞蜀郡王伉帥厲吏民,閉境拒闓。

[Yōng] Kǎi repeatedly sent dispatches to Yǒngchāng, declaring and talking. [Lǚ] Kǎi’s reply dispatch said: “Heaven sent down tragic disaster, treacherous opportunists took advantage of troubles, the realm Under Heaven gnashed teeth, all states grieve and mourn, of ministers male and female large and small, none do not think of exhausting their tendons and strength, spill guts and brains on the ground, to remove the state’s troubles. In prostration you General for generations received Hàn’s favor, and so you should personally gather associates and armies, to take the lead in beginning action, above to repay the state, below to not fail previous men, to write achievements on bamboo and silk, and leave behind a name for a thousand years. How can you become a servant to Wú and Yuè, and turn back on roots to go to ends? In the past Shùn was industrious in civil affairs, died at Cāngwú, and writings and registers praised him, passing down reputation without end. To fall at Jiāngpǔ, how is that worth lamenting? Wén and Wǔ received the Mandate, Chéng-wáng then pacified. The Former Emperor [Liú Bèi] like a dragon rose, within the seas watched and waited, the leading ministers intelligent and astute, and from Heaven came down prosperity. But you General do not observe the ordering of flourishing and decline, the signs of success and failure, and are like a wild fire in the plains, walking on river ice, fires are extinguished and ice melts, so where will you attach to? In former times you General’s ancestor Marquis Yōng [Chǐ], encountered resentment but was given fief, Dòu Róng knew there would be restoration, and entrusted his will to Shìzǔ [Liú Xiù], all leaving behind name for later periods, generations singing of their greatness. Now Chancellor Zhūgě [Liàng]’s exceptional ability sets out, deeply observes the not yet sprouting, receiving legacy entrusting of the orphan [Liú Shàn], assisting and supporting the new restoration, with the masses has no resentments, recording achievements and forgetting flaws. If you General are able to suddenly and completely change your plots, change your step and again walk, the ancients are not difficult to learn from, rustic lands how are they sufficient to rule? One hears that Chǔ state was not respectful, Qí [Duke] Huán reproached them, Fūchāi usurped title, the Jìn men did not support him, so all the more in serving one who is not a ruler, who would agree to submit to him? I humbly consider ancient principles, that a subject is without communications that cross borders, and therefore from beginning to end there is coming but no going. Again receiving your announcements, we are disturbed as to forget to eat, and therefore outline and explain what we consider, and may you General investigate them.”

闓數移檄永昌,稱說云云。凱答檄曰:「天降喪亂,奸雄乘釁,天下切齒,萬國悲悼,臣妾大小,莫不思竭筋力,肝腦塗地,以除國難。伏惟將軍世受漢恩,以為當躬聚黨眾,率先啟行,上以報國家,下不負先人,書功竹帛,遺名千載。何期臣僕吳越,背本就末乎?昔舜勤民事,隕于蒼梧,書籍嘉之,流聲無窮。崩于江浦,何足可悲!文、武受命,成王乃平。先帝龍興,海內望風,宰臣聰睿,自天降康。而將軍不睹盛衰之紀,成敗之符,譬如野火在原,蹈履河冰,火滅冰泮,將何所依附?曩者將軍先君雍侯,造怨而封,竇融知興,歸志世祖,皆流名後葉,世歌其美。今諸葛丞相英才挺出,深睹未萌,受遺託孤,翊贊季興,與眾無忌,錄功忘瑕。將軍若能翻然改圖,易跡更步,古人不難追,鄙土何足宰哉!蓋聞楚國不恭,齊桓是責,夫差僭號,晉人不長,況臣於非主,誰肯歸之邪?竊惟古義,臣無越境之交,是以前後有來無往。重承告示,發憤忘食,故略陳所懷,惟將軍察焉。」

[Lǚ] Kǎi’s prestige and grace was internally prominent, and he was by those inside the prefecture trusted, and therefore was able to secure his integrity.

凱威恩內著,為郡中所信,故能全其節。


When Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng campaigned south to suppress, he set out and was on the road, but [Yōng] Kǎi was already by Gāodìng’s guard retainers killed. [Zhūgě] Liàng reached the south, and sent up memorial that said: “Yǒngchāng prefecture official Lǚ Kǎi, Official Deputy Wáng Kàng and others, held to loyalty in cut off territory, for over ten years, Yōng Kǎi and Gāodìng pressured their northeast, but [Lǚ] Kǎi and the rest held to righteousness and did not with them join. I your servant was unprepared for Yǒngchāng’s customs of kindness and uprightness like this!” Appointed [Lǚ] Kǎi as Yúnnán Adminsitrator, fief as Yángqiān precinct Marquis. It happened that he was by rebelling Yí harmed, his son Xiáng succeeded. And Wáng Kàng also was given fief as a precinct Marquis, and became Yǒngchāng Administrator. (1)

及丞相亮南征討闓,既發在道,而闓已為高定部曲所殺。亮至南,上表曰:「永昌郡吏呂凱、府丞王伉等,執忠絕域,十有餘年,雍闓、高定偪其東北,而凱等守義不與交通。臣不意永昌風俗敦直乃爾!」以凱為雲南太守,封陽遷亭侯。會為叛夷所害,子祥嗣。而王伉亦封亭侯,為永昌太守。〔一〕

  • (1) Shǔ Shìpǔ states: Lǚ Xiáng later became Jìn’s Southern Yí Colonel, Xiáng’s son and grandson for generations were Yǒngchāng Adminsitrators. When Lǐ Xióng defeated Níngzhōu, the various Lǚ would not agree to join him, and raised the prefecture to firmly defend. Wáng Kàng and the rest also held to upright integrity.

〔一〕 蜀世譜曰:呂祥後為晉南夷校尉,祥子及孫世為永昌太守。李雄破寧州,諸呂不肯附,舉郡固守。王伉等亦守正節。

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