(34.2) Lady Wú 先主穆皇后

Elder brother Yī 吳壹


Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi’s] Mù Huánghòu “Solemn Empress” was a Chénliú woman. Her elder brother Wú Yī, when young was orphaned, Yī’s father previously with Liú Yān had old relations, and therefore led the family to follow [Liú] Yān to enter Shǔ. [Liú] Yān had ulterior ambitions, and heard someone good at physiognomy had appraised that the Empress would attain great nobility. [Liú] Yān at the time had his son [Liú] Mào accompanying him, and therefore had [Liú] Mào accept the Empress [as concubine]. [Liú] Mào died, and the Empress as a widow lived.

先主穆皇后,陳留人也。兄吳壹,少孤,壹父素與劉焉有舊,是以舉家隨焉入蜀。焉有異志,而聞善相者相后當大貴。焉時將子瑁自隨,遂為瑁納后。瑁死,后寡居。

Xiānzhǔ settled Yì Province, but lady Sūn returned to Wú, (1) the various subordinates urged Xiānzhǔ to betroth with the Empress, Xiānzhǔ was doubtful due to being with [Liú] Mào of the same clan, Fǎ Zhèng advanced and said: “Discussing this closeness and distance of relation, how is it but like Jìn [Duke] Wén to Zǐyǔ?” Therefore he accepted the Empress as a consort. (2) Jiàn’ān Twenty-fourth Year [219], established as Queen of Hànzhōng. Zhāngwǔ Inaugural Year [221] summer Fifth Moon, the order said: “I carry on Heaven’s Mandate, serve as the utmost honored, overlooking all states. Now appoint the Queen as Empress, sending Envoy Wielding Staff the Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng to award the seal and ribbon, carry on the Ancestral Temple, mother the realm Under Heaven, may the Empress thus respect this!”

先主既定益州,而孫夫人還吳〔一〕,群下勸先主聘后,先主疑與瑁同族,法正進曰:「論其親疏,何與晉文之於子圉乎?」於是納后為夫人。〔二〕建安二十四年,立為漢中王后。章武元年夏五月,策曰:「朕承天命,奉至尊,臨萬國。今以后為皇后,遣使持節丞相亮授璽綬,承宗廟,母天下,皇后其敬之哉!」

Jiànxīng Inaugural Year [223] Fifth Moon, Hòuzhǔ [Liú Shàn] succeeded the throne, honoring the Empress as Dowager-Empress, called as Chánglè Palace. [Wú] Yī’s office reached General of Chariots and Cavalry, fief as a county Marquis. Yánxī Eight Year [245], the Empress died, together buried [with Liú Bèi] at Huìlìng “Kind Tomb.” (3)

建興元年五月,後主即位,尊后為皇太后,稱長樂宮。壹官至車騎將軍,封縣侯。延熙八年,后薨,合葬惠陵。〔三〕

  • (1) Hàn-Jìn Chūnqiū says: Xiānzhǔ entered Yì province, Wú sent someone to welcome lady Sūn. The lady wished to take the Heir-Apparent [Liú Shàn] to return to Wú, Zhūgě Liàng sent Zhào Yún to lead troops to cut off the Jiāng to keep the Heir-Apparent, and therefore was able to stop it.

〔一〕 漢晉春秋云:先主入益州,吳遣迎孫夫人。夫人欲將太子歸吳,諸葛亮使趙雲勒兵斷江留太子,乃得止。

  • (2) Xí Zuòchǐ states: Marriage, is the beginning of human relations, the foundation of the ruler’s influence, a common fellow yet cannot be without ritual, so all the more for a ruler of men! Jìn [Duke] Wén overthrew ritual to act with experience, to rescue his enterprise, and therefore Zǐfàn said: “If seeking from a man, you must first follow him, if about to seize their state, how can you have his wife?” This is to not without reason yet violate ritual teachings. Now Xiānzhǔ was without pressure to be expedient in matters, but citing a previous fault to be an example, this was not to guide the ruler by the way of Yáo and Shùn. Xiānzhǔ in following it, was mistaken.

  〔二〕 習鑿齒曰:夫婚姻,人倫之始,王化之本,匹夫猶不可以無禮,而況人君乎?晉文廢禮行權,以濟其業,故子犯曰,有求于人,必先從之,將奪其國,何有於妻,非無故而違禮教者也。今先主無權事之偪,而引前失以為譬,非導其君以堯、舜之道者。先主從之,過矣。

  • (3) Sūn Shèng’s Shǔ Shìpǔ states: Yī’s grandson Qiáo, was taken by Lǐ Xióng for thirty years, but would not to [Lǐ] Xióng submit.

  〔三〕 孫盛蜀世譜曰:壹孫喬,沒李雄中三十年,不為雄屈也。

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