(14.5) Jiǎng Jì 蔣濟 [Zǐtōng 子通]

Jiǎng Jì appellation Zǐtōng was a Chǔguó Píng’ā man. He served as commandery computation official, and provincial Aide-de-camp. Jiàn’ān thirteenth year [208], Sūn Quán commanded armies to besiege Héféi. At the time the main army was on campaign in Jīngzhōu, suffered an epidemic, and only sent Zhāng Xǐ alone to command a thousand cavalry, along the way taking command of Rǔnán troops to relieve the siege, and again suffered epidemics. Jì therefore secretly told the Inspector to fake receiving [Zhāng] Xǐ’s letter, saying that infantry and cavalry of forty thousand had already arrived at Yúlóu, and send the Registrar to welcome [Zhāng] Xǐ. Three envoys presented letter to tell the defending commanders inside the city, one was able to enter the city, two were captured by the rebels. [Sūn] Quán believed it, and quickly burned his encirclement and fled, and the city was saved.

蔣濟字子通,楚國平阿人也。仕郡計吏、州別駕。建安十三年,孫權率眾圍合肥。時大軍征荊州,遇疾疫,唯遣將軍張喜單將千騎,過領汝南兵以解圍,頗復疾疫。濟乃密白刺史偽得喜書,云步騎四萬已到雩婁,遣主簿迎喜。三部使齎書語城中守將,一部得入城,二部為賊所得。權信之,遽燒圍走,城用得全。

Next year he was sent to Qiáo, and Tàizǔ asked Jì: “In the past I opposed Yuán [Shào] Běnchū at Guāndù, relocated Yān’s and Báimǎ’s people, the people could not flee, and the enemy also did not dare plunder. Now I wish to relocate the people south of the Huái. How about it?”

明年使於譙,太祖問濟曰:「昔孤與袁本初對官渡,徙燕、白馬民,民不得走,賊亦不敢鈔。今欲徙淮南民,何如?」

Jì answered: “At the time the troops were weak and the enemy strong, and to not relocate was to certainly lose them. Since defeating Yuán Shào, to the north capturing Liǔchéng, to the south facing the Jiāng and Hàn, linking arms with Jīngzhōu, authority shaking the realm Under Heaven, the people have no other intentions. However the common people are attached to the land, and truly would not be happy to relocate, and one fears they will certainly not be at ease.”

濟對曰:「是時兵弱賊彊,不徙必失之。自破袁紹,北拔柳城,南向江、漢,荊州交臂,威震天下,民無他志。然百姓懷土,實不樂徙,懼必不安。」

Tàizǔ did not agree, and between the Jiāng and Huái over a hundred thousand people were all alarmed and fled to Wú. Later Jì was sent to visit Yè, Tàizǔ welcomed and met him and greatly laughed and said: “Originally I only wished to have them evade the enemy, but instead drove them all to them.” He appointed Jì as Administrator of Dānyáng.

太祖不從,而江、淮間十餘萬眾,皆驚走吳。後濟使詣鄴,太祖迎見大笑曰:「本但欲使避賊,乃更驅盡之。」拜濟丹陽太守。

The main army campaigned south and returned, appointed Wēn Huī as Inspector of Yángzhōu, and Jì became Aide-de-Camp. The Order said: “Jìzǐ became a subject, Wú appropriately had a ruler. Now that you are returning to the province, I have no worries.”

大軍南征還,以溫恢為揚州刺史,濟為別駕。令曰:「季子為臣,吳宜有君。今君還州,吾無憂矣。」

Among commoners someone falsely accused Jì of being a leader of plotting rebellion, Tàizǔ heard this, pointed to the previous Order to General of the Left Yú Jīn and Chancellor of Pèi Fēng Rén and others saying: “Jiǎng Jì would have such plots! To have such plots would mean I do not understand people. This is certainly ignorant commoners enjoying chaos, absurdly accusing and that is all.” He hurriedly had the case dismissed. He was recruited to Chancellor’s Registrar West Department Associate. The Order said: “Shùn raised Gāo Táo, the not benevolent were distant; distinguishing good and bad, hopes are to the worthy entrusted.”

民有誣告濟為謀叛主率者,太祖聞之,指前令與左將軍于禁、沛相封仁等曰:「蔣濟寧有此事!有此事,吾為不知人也。此必愚民樂亂,妄引之耳。」促理出之。辟為丞相主簿西曹屬。令曰:「舜舉皋陶,不仁者遠;臧否得中,望于賢屬矣。」

Guān Yǔ besieged Fán and Xiāngyáng. Tàizǔ as the Hàn Emperor was at Xǔ and near the rebels, wished to move the capital. Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng and Jì said to Tàizǔ: “Yú Jìn and the rest were by water drowned, it was not a battle loss, and for the state’s great plans is not sufficient to have harm. Liú Bèi and Sūn Quán outside are close but inside distant, Guān Yǔ obtaining his will, is what [Sūn] Quán certainly cannot accept. You can send someone to encourage him to follow after their rear, agreeing to divide to Jiāng’s south to give fief on [Sūn] Quán, then Fán’s siege will itself resolve.” Tàizǔ followed this advice. [Sūn] Quán heard it, and then led troops west to attack Gōng’ān and Jiānglíng. [Guān] Yǔ therefore was taken.

關羽圍樊、襄陽。太祖以漢帝在許,近賊,欲徙都。司馬宣王及濟說太祖曰:「于禁等為水所沒,非戰攻之失,於國家大計未足有損。劉備、孫權,外親內疏,關羽得志,權必不願也。可遣人勸躡其後,許割江南以封權,則樊圍自解。」太祖如其言。權聞之,即引兵西襲公安、江陵。羽遂見禽。


When Wén-dì succeeded as King [220], he was transferred to State Chancellor’s Chief Clerk. Reaching the ascension [as Emperor], he was sent out as East Internal Cadet-General. Jì asked to stay. Imperial Order said: “Gāozǔ’s son said: ‘How can one obtain fierce soldiers to defend the Four Quarters?’ The realm Under Heaven is not yet pacified, and must wait have good ministers to defend the borders. If there are no problems, and still there are sounds of jade, it would not be late.” Jì sent up Wànjī lùn, and the Emperor praised it. He entered as Cavalier Regular Attendant.

文帝即王位,轉為相國長史。及踐阼,出為東中郎將。濟請留,詔曰:「高祖歌曰『安得猛士守四方』!天下未寧,要須良臣以鎮邊境。如其無事,乃還鳴玉,未為後也。」濟上萬機論,帝善之。入為散騎常侍。

At the time there was Imperial Order, Imperial Order on Campaigning South General Xiàhóu Shàng that said: “You are a belly and heart important officer, and specially are appointed and employed. The favor bestowed is enough to die for, kindness and love preserved. Making power making fortune, killing people saving [lives of] people.” [Xiàhóu] Shàng with this showed to Jì.

時有詔,詔征南將軍夏侯尚曰:「卿腹心重將,特當任使。恩施足死,惠愛可懷。作威作福,殺人活人。」尚以示濟。

When Jì arrived, the Emperor asked: “What you have seen and heard of the realm Under Heaven’s manners and teachings, how is it?”

濟既至,帝問曰;「卿所聞見天下風教何如?」

Jì replied: “It is not yet good, I have only seen speech of a destroyed state and that is all.”

濟對曰:「未有他善,但見亡國之語耳。」

The Emperor was furious and changed color and asked his reasoning, and Jì provided an answer, therefore saying: “The saying ‘making power making fortune,’ is the Shū‘s enlightened warning. ‘Heaven’s Son is without joking words,’ the ancients thus cautioned. May Your Majesty investigate it!” Therefore the Emperor’s thoughts were resolved, and he sent pursuers to fetch back the previous Imperial Order.

帝忿然作色而問其故,濟具以答,因曰:「夫『作威作福』,書之明誡。『天子無戲言』,古人所慎。惟陛下察之!」於是帝意解,遣追取前詔。

Huángchū Third Year [222], he with Marshal-in-Chief Cáo Rén campaigned against Wú, Jì separately attacked Xiànxī. [Cáo] Rén wished to attack Rúxū’s islets, Jì said: “The rebels occupy the west bank, lining up ships upstream, and troops entering the islet, is to throw themselves inside a land prison, it is a path to danger and destruction.” [Cáo] Rén did not agree, and indeed was defeated. [Cáo] Rén died, and again Jì became East Internal Cadet General, succeeding command of his troops. Imperial Order said: “You wield both civil and martial ability, will and integrity fervent and fierce, always with ambition to cross the rivers and lacks to seize Wú and Kuài[jī], and therefore again receive a commander’s appointment.” Shortly after this, he was summoned to the Secretariat Documents.

黃初三年,與大司馬曹仁征吳,濟別襲羨谿。仁欲攻濡須洲中,濟曰:「賊據西岸,列船上流,而兵入洲中,是為自內地獄,危亡之道也。」仁不從,果敗。仁薨,復以濟為東中郎將,代領其兵。詔曰:「卿兼資文武,志節慷慨,常有超越江湖吞吳會之志,故復授將率之任。」頃之,徵為尚書。

The Imperial Carriage visited Guǎnglíng, Jì memorialized that the water route was difficult to traverse, and also sent up Sānzhōu lùn to warn the Emperor. The Emperor did not follow, and therefore war ships of several thousands all were congested and could not move. Commentators wished to leave troops on garrison farms, Jì believed the east was near the lakes, the north overlooking the Huái, and if there were seasonal floods, the rebels would easily plunder, and the could not safely garrison. The Emperor followed this, and the Imperial Carriage then set out. The returned to Jīnghú, the water was slightly exhausted, and all the remaining ships were entrusted to Jì. The ships were originally across several hundred lǐ, Jì again dug earth to make four to five canals, to quickly have the ships assemble; he made dams to cut off the lake water, led all the rear ships, and at once opened the dams to enter into the Huái. The Emperor returned to Luòyáng, and said to Jì: “Matters cannot be not made known. I previously decided and said to divide and burn half the ships at Shānyáng pond, but you in the end delivered them, and almost with me together arrived at Qiáo. Also every time what you explain, truly enters my thoughts. From now on in plans to suppress the rebels, good ideas I will discuss with you.”

車駕幸廣陵,濟表水道難通,又上三州論以諷帝。帝不從,於是戰船數千皆滯不得行。議者欲就留兵屯田,濟以為東近湖,北臨淮,若水盛時,賊易為寇,不可安屯。帝從之,車駕即發。還到精湖,水稍盡,盡留船付濟。船本歷適數百里中,濟更鑿地作四五道,蹴船令聚;豫作土豚遏斷湖水,皆引後船,一時開遏入淮中。帝還洛陽,謂濟曰:「事不可不曉。吾前決謂分半燒船于山陽池中,卿於後致之,略與吾俱至譙。又每得所陳,實入吾意。自今討賊計畫,善思論之。」


Míng-dì succeeded the throne [227], bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes. Marshal-in-Chief Cáo Xiū led armies toward Wǎn, Jì memorialized believing: “Penetrating deeply into caitiff territory, to with [Sūn] Quán’s elite troops face, but Zhū Rán and the rest are upstream, following up on [Cáo] Xiū’s rear, I your servant do not yet see its benefits.” The army reached Wǎn, Wú sent out troops to Ānlù. Jì again sent up memorial that said: “Now the rebels reveal form to the west, certainly wishing to join with troops planning in the east, it is appropriate to urgently send Imperial Order on the various armies to go rescue them.” It happened that [Cáo] Xiū’s army was already defeated, completely abandoning equipment and weapons and heavy supply wagons and retreating back. Wú wished to blockade at Jiāshí, encountered the rescue troops arriving, and therefore the government army was not destroyed. He was promoted to Central Protector of the Army.

明帝即位,賜爵關內侯。大司馬曹休帥軍向皖,濟表以為「深入虜地,與權精兵對,而朱然等在上流,乘休後,臣未見其利也。」軍至皖,吳出兵安陸,濟又上疏曰:「今賊示形於西,必欲并兵圖東,宜急詔諸軍往救之。」會休軍已敗,盡棄器仗輜重退還。吳欲塞夾石,遇救兵至,是以官軍得不沒。遷為中護軍。

At the time the Internal Documents Supervisor and Director [Liú Fàng and Sūn Zī] controlled appointments, Jì sent up memorial that said: “Great ministers too powerful endangers the state, attendants too close isolates the self, this is the ancient’s utmost warning. In the past the great ministers control affairs, outside and inside are shaken. Your Majesty is outstanding in personally reflecting on all matters, and none are not respectful and solemn. It is not that the great ministers are not loyal, however when power is with subordinates, then the multitude of hearts forget the superior, this is a constant of power. Your Majesty already investigates the great ministers, and may you not forget about left and right attendants. The attendants in loyalty and uprightness and distant considerations, are not necessarily more worthy than the great ministers, as for for recruitment and gathering, some are able to be skilled at it. Now what outsiders speak of, is talking about the Internal Documents, and though you have them respectful and cautious and not daring to with the outside communicate, yet this is the reputation, and so confuses customs. Moreover in truly grasping important matters, at the present time, if due to tiredness there is cutting of regulation, the multitude of ministers will see they are able to change the situation, and also will respond to the times and turn to them. As soon as there is this sign, one should therefore then inside establish one’s own preparations, so as to with the masses speak, personally find their interactions, to be inside support. If it is like this, good and bad and destruction and acclaim, will certainly have their rises, and achievement and failure and reward and punishment, will certainly have their changes; of the upright that rise up [to promotion] some are blocked, and the closely attached instead attain it. Therefore quietly entering, following appearances to go out, the intention is to be close with the trusted, and no longer guess and notice. This should be what the sagely and wise early know of, to the outside devote attention, and then form will itself appear. Some fear court ministers are afraid to speak in disagreement and receive the resentment of the close attendants, and these unsuitable situations should be known. I your servant humbly know Your Majesty is of deep spirit and silently thinks, fairly listening and all observing, if in matters there are those not thorough in reasoning and things not complete in use, one must change and correct, distantly with Huáng and Táng meet in achievement, recently shine Wǔ and Wén’s legacy, so close in practice and nothing more! However a ruler of men yet cannot for all matters Under Heaven personally understand, and must delegate. Three offices appointing on one minister, if he is not of the loyalty of Zhōu-gōng Dàn, and also not of the fairness of Guǎn Yíwú, then there will be the detriment of seizing power and ruining government organization. At present though stone pillar subjects are few, there are those praised in the provinces, wise and effective in office, loyal and faithful and devoting lives, each serve their duties, and can be together tasked, to not have the sagely enlightened court have reputation of overly powerful officials.”

時中書監、令號為專任,濟上疏曰:「大臣太重者國危,左右太親者身蔽,古之至戒也。往者大臣秉事,外內扇動。陛下卓然自覽萬機,莫不祗肅。夫大臣非不忠也,然威權在下,則眾心慢上,勢之常也。陛下既已察之於大臣,願無忘於左右。左右忠正遠慮,未必賢於大臣,至於便辟取合,或能工之。今外所言,輒云中書,雖使恭慎不敢外交,但有此名,猶惑世俗。況實握事要,日在目前,儻因疲倦之間有所割制,眾臣見其能推移於事,即亦因時而向之。一有此端,因當內設自完,以此眾語,私招所交,為之內援。若此,臧否毀譽,必有所興,功負賞罰,必有所易;直道而上者或壅,曲附左右者反達。因微而入,緣形而出,意所狎信,不復猜覺。此宜聖智所當早聞,外以經意,則形際自見。或恐朝臣畏言不合而受左右之怨,莫適以聞。臣竊亮陛下潛神默思,公聽並觀,若事有未盡於理而物有未周於用,將改曲易調,遠與黃、唐角功,近昭武、文之跡,豈近習而已哉!然人君猶不可悉天下事以適己明,當有所付。三官任一臣,非周公旦之忠,又非管夷吾之公,則有弄機敗官之弊。當今柱石之士雖少,至于行稱一州,智效一官,忠信竭命,各奉其職,可並驅策,不使聖明之朝有專吏之名也。」

Imperial Order said: “A minister of fish bones [candid criticism], is what a ruler of men relies upon. Jì’s talents are both civil and military, work industrious and exhaustive in integrity, in every military and state great affair, he has memorial and comment, loyalty and sincerity vigorously applied, I am deeply impressed with him.” He was promoted to Protector of the Army General, added Cavalier Regular Attendant. (1)

詔曰:「夫骨鯁之臣,人主之所仗也。濟才兼文武,服勤盡節,每軍國大事,輒有奏議,忠誠奮發,吾甚壯之。」就遷為護軍將軍,加散騎常侍。〔一〕

  • (1) Sīmǎ Biāo’s Zhànlüè states: Tàihé Sixth Year [232], Míng-dì sent Píngzhōu Inspector Tián Yù to cross the sea, Yōuzhōu Inspector Wáng Xióng on land roads, to together attack Liáodōng. Jiǎng Jì remonstrated: “If it is not to conquer the state, not to attack a rebelling minister, it is not appropriate to recklessly campaign. To campaign but not able to control, is to urge on the rebel. Therefore it is said: ‘If tiger and wolf is on the road, do not deal with foxes. First remove the large harms, the small harms will resolve themselves.’ Now the land beyond the sea, for accumulated generations send hostages, every year selects candidates for examination, and does not fail duty to send tribute. I the commentator advance this, that if there is action and then success, obtaining their people would not be enough to benefit the state, obtaining their riches would not be enough to be wealthy; and if it is not as intended, it would arouse resentment and break faith.” The Emperor did not listen, [Tián] Yù went and indeed without success returned.

〔一〕 司馬彪戰略曰:太和六年,明帝遣平州刺史田豫乘海渡,幽州刺史王雄陸道,并攻遼東。蔣濟諫曰:「凡非相吞之國,不侵叛之臣,不宜輕伐。伐之而不制,是驅使為賊。故曰『虎狼當路,不治狐狸。先除大害,小害自已』。今海表之地,累世委質,歲選計考,不乏職貢。議者先之,正使一舉便克,得其民不足益國,得其財不足為富;儻不如意,是為結怨失信也。」帝不聽,豫行竟無成而還。


During Jǐngchū [237-239], outside there were campaigns and conscription, inside were building palaces and residences, and the complaints and costs were many, and the yearly grain was insufficient. Jì sent up memorial that said: “Your Majesty should recover and esteem previous legacies, enlighten and relieve inherited enterprise, and truly has not yet obtained high security and governance. Now although [we] have twelve provinces, as for people’s counts, it does not surpass one large prefecture in Hàn’s time. The two rebels are not yet punished, lodged troops are on the borders, plowing and battling, complaints and costs accumulated for years. The Ancestral Temples and palaces and residences, hundred matters are roughly begun, agriculture and sericulture is little, [need for] clothes and food are many, the present’s urgency, is only to cease exhausting the common people, to not reach extreme detriment. Detriment and exhausting the people, if there is flood or drought, the masses of millions, will not be of the state’s use. To employ the people one must wait for intervals between farming, and not steal their time. To wish to be a ruler of great flourishing achievement, one must first secure the people’s strength and care for them. Gōujiàn cared for litters for special use, Zhāo-wáng sympathized with illness to wipe away the enemy, and therefore they were able to with a weak Yān defeat a strong Qí, a lean Yuè exterminate a stalwart Wú. Now the two enemies if not attacked will not be destroyed, if not dealt with then they will invade, and if we do not remove them, we will be blamed for a hundred generations. With Your Majesty’s sagely enlightenment and divinely martial strategy, if you abandon postponement, concentrate heart on suppressing the rebels, I your servant believe there is no difficulty. Also indulgences in amusements, is harm on one’s vitality; if spirit is over used then there is exhaustion, if form is overly toiled then there is harm. May you greatly simplify and worthily reduce, to be sufficient to fill ‘hundred these men.’ The miscellaneous not yet organized, and moreover all divided up, attend to quiet and rest.” Imperial Order said: “The profoundness of the Protector of the Army, I have never heard before.”

景初中,外勤征役,內務宮室,怨曠者多,而年穀饑儉。濟上疏曰:「陛下方當恢崇前緒,光濟遺業,誠未得高枕而治也。今雖有十二州,至于民數,不過漢時一大郡。二賊未誅,宿兵邊陲,且耕且戰,怨曠積年。宗廟宮室,百事草創,農桑者少,衣食者多,今其所急,唯當息耗百姓,不至甚弊。弊攰之民,儻有水旱,百萬之眾,不為國用。凡使民必須農隙,不奪其時。夫欲大興功之君,先料其民力而燠休之。句踐養胎以待用,昭王恤病以雪仇,故能以弱燕服彊齊,羸越滅勁吳。今二敵不攻不滅,不事即侵,當身不除,百世之責也。以陛下聖明神武之略,舍其緩者,專心討賊,臣以為無難矣。又歡娛之耽,害于精爽;神太用則竭,形太勞則弊。願大簡賢妙,足以充『百斯男』者。其冗散未齒,且悉分出,務在清靜。」詔曰:「微護軍,吾弗聞斯言也。」〔一〕

  • (1) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Gōngsūn Yuān heard Wèi officers had come to suppress, and again declared himself subject to Sūn Quán, begging for troops to rescue. The Emperor asked Jì: “Will Sūn Quán rescue Liáodōng?” Jì said: “They know our government’s preparations are firm, that benefits cannot be obtained, if [seeking to] deeply penetrate then their strength is not capable of it, if shallowly penetrating then they will toil without gains; even if [Sūn] Quán’s junior relatives were in danger, yet he would not move, so all the more for a man of a different land, and even more one who formerly insulted him. Now the reason he outwardly raises up announcement, is to deceive travelers to confuse us, if we cannot overcome, they hope to settle latter matters themselves and that is all. However between many islands, we from [Gōngsūn] Yuān are still distant, of the main army is locked together, the matter not quickly resolved, then [Sūn] Quán will have small plans, and might be able to have light troops surprise attack, it cannot yet be judged.”

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:公孫淵聞魏將來討,復稱臣于孫權,乞兵自救。帝問濟:「孫權其救遼東乎?」濟曰:「彼知官備以固,利不可得,深入則非力所能,淺入則勞而無獲;權雖子弟在危,猶將不動,況異域之人,兼以往者之辱乎!今所以外揚此聲者,譎其行人疑於我,我之不克,冀折後事已耳。然沓渚之間,去淵尚遠,若大軍相持,事不速決,則權之淺規,或能輕兵掩襲,未可測也。」


The King of Qí succeeded the throne, he was transferred to Managing the Army General, advanced in noble rank to Marquis of Chānglíng precinct, (1) promoted to Grand Commandant. Previously, Attendant Internal Gāotáng Lóng discussed Suburb Sacrifices matters, believing that Wèi was Shùn’s descendant, and should sacrifice to Shùn to accompany those to Heaven. Jì believed Shùn was originally surnamed Guī, its descendants called Tián, and not the Cáo’s ancestors, and wrote to posthumously criticize [Gāotáng] Lóng. (2)

齊王即位,徙為領軍將軍,進爵昌陵亭侯,〔一〕遷太尉。初,侍中高堂隆論郊祀事,以魏為舜後,推舜配天。濟以為舜本姓媯,其苗曰田,非曹之先,著文以追詰隆。〔二〕

  • (1) Lièyì Zhuàn states: Jì became Manager of the Army, his wife dreamed of seeing their deceased son weeping and saying: “Death and life are different roads, when I was living I was a minister’s descendant, now below the ground I am Tàishān’s five-man-squad captain, haggard and disgraced, and cannot again speak. Now to the Grand Temple’s west is a singer Sūn Ē, now will be summoned to be Tàishān Magistrate, may mother inform white-haired father, to have Magistrate [Sūn] Ē transfer me to happier position.” The speech finished, and the mother suddenly in alarm awoke, and the next day told Jì. Jì said: “It was a only a dream, not worth being bothered about.” The next day evening, again dream said: “I came to welcome the new master, stopping below the Temple. In the time before he sets out, I can temporarily come return. The new master tomorrow at noon will set out, and about to set out will have many concerns, and I will no longer be able to return, and forever take leave like this. Father’s will is strong, difficult to be moved, and therefore I tell to mother, may you again inform father, why begrudge not once testing it?” Therefore he described [Sūn] Ē’s appearance, speaking in extreme detail. The next day, the mother again informed him: “Though you say dreams are not worth being bothered by, why is it too coincidental? Coincidental and also why begrudge not once testing it?” Jì therefore sent someone to visit below the Grand Temple, asked after Sūn Ē, and indeed obtained him, his appearance verified completely like the son had said. Jì wept and said: “I almost turned back on my son!” Therefore he then met Sūn Ē, and told him the situation. [Sūn] Ē was not afraid that he was about to die, but was pleased he would be Tàishān Magistrate, only fearing Jì’s words could not be trusted. He said: “If it is as you said, it is I Ē’s hope. Do you know what office your worthy son wishes for?” Jì said: “To be with those below the ground that are happy.” [Sūn] Ē said: “Then I will serve your directions.” Therefore [Jiǎng Jì] generously rewarded him, their speech finished and sent him back. Jì wished to quickly know of the test, and from the Manager of the Army’s gates to below the temple, every ten bù placed one man, to transmit news of [Sūn] Ē. In early morning they reported that [Sūn] Ē had heart pains, in late morning they reported that [Sūn] Ē’s situation was severe, and at noon they reported [Sūn] Ē had died. Jì wept and said: “Though saddened by my son’s misfortune, yet I am happy the deceased have awareness.” After over a moon, the son again came to say to the mother: “I have already obtained transfer to record-keeping matters.”

〔一〕 列異傳曰:濟為領軍,其婦夢見亡兒涕泣曰:「死生異路,我生時為卿相子孫,今在地下為泰山伍伯,憔悴困辱,不可復言。今太廟西謳士孫阿,今見召為泰山令,願母為白侯,屬阿令轉我得樂處。」言訖,母忽然驚寤,明日以白濟。濟曰:「夢為爾耳,不足怪也。」明日暮,復夢曰:「我來迎新君,止在廟下。未發之頃,暫得來歸。新君明日日中當發,臨發多事,不復得歸,永辭於此。侯氣彊,難感悟,故自訴於母,願重啟侯,何惜不一試驗之?」遂道阿之形狀,言甚備悉。天明,母重啟侯:「雖云夢不足怪,此何太適?適亦何惜不一驗之?」濟乃遣人詣太廟下,推問孫阿,果得之,形狀證驗悉如兒言。濟涕泣曰:「幾負吾兒!」於是乃見孫阿,具語其事。阿不懼當死,而喜得為泰山令,惟恐濟言不信也。曰:「若如節下言,阿之願也。不知賢子欲得何職?」濟曰:「隨地下樂者與之。」阿曰:「輒當奉教。」乃厚賞之,言訖遣還。濟欲速知其驗,從領軍門至廟下,十步安一人,以傳阿消息。辰時傳阿心痛,巳時傳阿劇,日中傳阿亡。濟泣曰:「雖哀吾兒之不幸,且喜亡者有知。」後月餘,兒復來語母曰:「已得轉為錄事矣。」

  • (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī cites Jiǎng Jì’s Lì Jiāo yì “Comments on Establishing Suburb Sacrifices” stating that Cáo Téng’s stele inscription says: “The Cáo clan came from Zhū,” and Wèishū narrates that the Cáo clan’s beginnings were also like this. Wèi Wǔ [Cáo Cāo] made a family history, himself saying they were Cáo Shūzhènduó’s descendant. Therefore Chén Sī-wáng [Cáo Zhí] made Wǔ-dì Lěi stating: “Oh reverent Wǔ-huáng, descending from Jì and posterity of Zhōu.” These are not in agreement. Reaching to Jǐngchū, Míng-dì followed Gāotáng Lóng’s comments, saying Wèi was Shùn’s descendant, later Wèi’s abdication to Jìn’s document said: “In the past our august founder Yǒuyú [Shùn],” then these differences are all the more severe. Observing Jì’s criticism of Lóng, and his comings and goings with Secretariat Miào Xí, they all are reasonable, but the writings are many and not recorded. Jì also was not yet able to settle the clan’s origins, but said: “Wèi is not Shùn’s descendant and to unreasonably sacrifice to one not of the clan, is to denigrate and depose Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo], and not match properly to Heaven, all erroneous and absurd.” However at the time indeed none were able to correct it. Jì also criticized: Zhèng Xuán annotated the Jì fǎ “Methods of Sacrifices” saying: “For Yóuyǔ and above esteem virtue, sacrifice to ancestors, matches and employs the virtuous, from Xià on down, reduce to using surname and clan.” Jì said: “The young dragon amazes the otter, the otter sacrifices to its ancestors, but not to the young dragon. The unicorn and white tiger are benevolent to the jackal, the jackal sacrifices to its ancestors, but not to the unicorn or tiger. If going by [Zhèng] Xuán’s sayings, from Yǒuyú and above, were the jackal and otter inferior? I your servant believe what the Jì fǎ says, has been suspected by scholars for a long time, Zhèng Xuán did not investigate and correct his disagreements and only communicated his intentions.” Jì’s jackal and otter example, though appearing to not be serious, yet his intentions and purpose, can be seen.

〔二〕 臣松之案蔣濟立郊議稱曹騰碑文云「曹氏族出自邾」,魏書述曹氏胤緒亦如之。魏武作家傳,自云曹叔振鐸之後。故陳思王作武帝誄曰:「於穆武皇,冑稷胤周。」此其不同者也。及至景初,明帝從高堂隆議,謂魏為舜後,後魏為禪晉文,稱「昔我皇祖有虞」,則其異彌甚。尋濟難隆,及與尚書繆襲往反,並有理據,文多不載。濟亦未能定氏族所出,但謂「魏非舜後而橫祀非族,降黜太祖,不配正天,皆為繆妄」。然于時竟莫能正。濟又難:鄭玄注祭法云「有虞以上尚德,禘郊祖宗,配用有德,自夏已下,稍用其姓氏」。濟曰:「夫虯龍神於獺,獺自祭其先,不祭虯龍也。騏驎白虎仁於豺,豺自祭其先,不祭騏虎也。如玄之說,有虞已上,豺獺之不若邪?臣以為祭法所云,見疑學者久矣,鄭玄不考正其違而就通其義。」濟豺獺之譬,雖似俳諧,然其義旨,有可求焉。

At that time, Cáo Shǎung controlled the government, Dīng Mì, Dèng Yáng, and others recklessly changed laws and regulations. It happened that there was a solar eclipse, Imperial Order on the various ministers asked them about gains and losses, Jì sent up memorial that said: “In the past Great Shùn aided governance, the warnings were on those around; Zhōu-gōng supported the government, and was cautious in his friendships; the Marquis of Qí asked about [avoiding] disaster, Yàn Yīng replied with spreading kindness; the ruler of Lǔ asked about [avoiding] strangeness, Zāng Sūn answered with avoiding conscription. Answering Heaven and preventing trouble, then truly is human affairs. Now the two rebels are not yet exterminated, the officers and soldiers exposed to dew already for several tens of years, men and women complain of neglect, the common people are in poverty. The laws and regulations for the state, can only come from the world’s great talents, and then can the nets of governance be spread to be passed down to posterity, how can middling and lower officials be appropriate to make amendments? In the end it is of no benefit to governance, and sufficient to harm the people, one hopes to appropriately employ civil and military ministers to each hold to their duties, lead with purity and justice, and then harmony and auspicious signs can be felt and arrive.”

是時,曹爽專政,丁謐、鄧颺等輕改法度。會有日蝕變,詔群臣問其得失,濟上疏曰:「昔大舜佐治,戒在比周;周公輔政,慎于其朋;齊侯問災,晏嬰對以布惠;魯君問異,臧孫答以緩役。應天塞變,乃實人事。今二賊未滅,將士暴露已數十年,男女怨曠,百姓貧苦。夫為國法度,惟命世大才,乃能張其綱維以垂于後,豈中下之吏所宜改易哉?終無益于治,適足傷民,望宜使文武之臣各守其職,率以清平,則和氣祥瑞可感而致也。」

He accompanied Grand Tutor Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng in garrisoning Luò river pontoon bridge [249], executed Cáo Shuǎng and the rest, was advanced in fief to a capital village Marquis, fief of 700 households. Jì sent up memorial that said: “I your servant am shamed to be favored as a high Excellency, and that [Cáo] Shuǎng dared harbor disastrous heart, this is I your servant being without ability. The Grand Tutor alone executed decisive plan, Your Majesty understood his loyal integrity, the guilty were executed, this is the State Altar’s fortune. the giving of fief and rewards, must be on those with achievement. Now if discussing planning then I your servant was without prior awareness, if discussing battle then I your servant was not in command, and if superiors lose their regulations, the subordinates receive their detriments. I your servant act as high official, what the people look toward, and truly fear that the acceptance of reckless rewards will from this rise, and the customs of declining will due to this be abandoned.” He firmly declined, [but] it was not accepted. (3)

以隨太傅司馬宣王屯洛水浮橋,誅曹爽等,進封都鄉侯,邑七百戶。濟上疏曰:「臣忝寵上司,而爽敢苞藏禍心,此臣之無任也。太傅奮獨斷之策,陛下明其忠節,罪人伏誅,社稷之福也。夫封寵慶賞,必加有功。今論謀則臣不先知,語戰則非臣所率,而上失其制,下受其弊。臣備宰司,民所具瞻,誠恐冒賞之漸自此而興,推讓之風由此而廢。」固辭,不許。〔三〕

  • (3) Sūn Shèng states: Jiǎng Jì in declining fief, can be said to not be heartless. There is a saying: “Do not for profit betray, do not for righteousness regret.” Jiǎng Jì was this.

〔三〕 孫盛曰:蔣濟之辭邑,可謂不負心矣。語曰「不為利回,不為義疚」,蔣濟其有焉。

That year he died, posthumous name Jǐng-hóu “Visionary Marquis.” (4) His son Xiù succeeded. Xiù died, his son Kǎi succeeded. During Xiánxī, established the Five Ranks, and for Jì’s achievements for the previous dynasty, changed fief on Kǎi to Viscount of Xiàcài.

是歲薨,諡曰景侯。〔四〕子秀嗣。秀薨,子凱嗣。咸熙中,開建五等,以濟著勳前朝,改封凱為下蔡子。

  • (4) Shìyǔ states: Previously, Jì had accompanied Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng in garrisoning the Luò river pontoon bridge, Jì wrote letter to Cáo Shuǎng, saying that [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng’s intention was “only to dismiss from office and nothing more,” and [Cáo] Shuǎng therefore was executed and exterminated. Jì resented that his words had broken faith, and fell ill and died.

〔四〕 世語曰:初,濟隨司馬宣王屯洛水浮橋,濟書與曹爽,言宣王旨「惟免官而已」,爽遂誅滅。濟病其言之失信,發病卒。

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s