(21.5) Fù Gǔ 傅嘏 [Lánshí 蘭石]

Translator’s Note: I use Gǔ over Jiǎ. I still have not been able to find a convincing argument for preferring one pronunciation over the other, but I still had to pick one, so I did. As far as I know, Jiǎ is also valid.

Fù Gǔ appellation Lánshí was a Běidì Níyáng man, Fù Jièzǐ’s descendant. His father’s elder brother [Fù] Xùn, during Huángchū [220-226] was Attendant Internal Secretariat Documenter. (1) Gǔ when capped was well known, (2) Excellency of Works Chén Qún recruited him as an Official.

傅嘏字蘭石,北地泥陽人,傅介子之後也。伯父巽,黃初中為侍中尚書。〔一〕嘏弱冠知名,〔二〕司空陳群辟為掾。

  • (1) Fù-zǐ states: Gǔ’s grandfather Ruì was Dài prefecture Administrator. His father Yǔn was Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet.

〔一〕 傅子曰:嘏祖父睿,代郡太守。父允,黃門侍郎。

  • (2) Fù-zǐ states: At the time Hé Yàn for talent in debate was prominent among the noble in-laws, Dèng Yáng was good at changing to circumstance, gathered followers and associates, sold reputation in the streets, and Xiàhóu Xuán as a noble minister’s son from youth had heavy reputation, becoming his clan leader, and sought friendship with Gǔ but was not accepted. Gǔ’s friend Xún Càn, had pure knowledge and far-seeing heart, however he was yet bewildered by this, and said to Gǔ: “Xiàhóu Tàichū is the whole time’s outstanding figure, and with humble heart seeks friendship with you, to accept then is good accomplishment, to not accept then blame will arrive. Two worthies not getting along, is not to the state’s benefit. This is why Lìn Xiāngrú deferred to Lián Pó.” Gǔ replied to him saying: “Tàichū’s ambition is larger than his capacity, able to gather empty reputation but without true talent. Hé Píngshū speaks of the far-reaching but his feelings are limited, enjoys debate but is without sincerity, what is called a man of sharp mouth to overturn the country. Dèng Xuánmào has action but is without completion, outside wanting fame and profit, inside without gate key, values the agreeing and hates the disagreeing, has many words but envies the advanced; many words is many quarrels, envying the advanced is to be without intimacy. By my observation of these three men, all ruin virtue. Staying distant from them yet [I] fear disaster will reach, so all the more drawing close to them!”

  〔二〕 傅子曰:是時何晏以材辯顯於貴戚之間,鄧颺好變通,合徒黨,鬻聲名於閭閻,而夏侯玄以貴臣子少有重名,為之宗主,求交於嘏而不納也。嘏友人荀粲,有清識遠心,然猶怪之。謂嘏曰:「夏侯泰初一時之傑,虛心交子,合則好成,不合則怨至。二賢不睦,非國之利,此藺相如所以下廉頗也。」嘏答之曰:「泰初志大其量,能合虛聲而無實才。何平叔言遠而情近,好辯而無誠,所謂利口覆邦國之人也。鄧玄茂有為而無終,外要名利,內無關鑰,貴同惡異,多言而妒前;多言多釁,妒前無親。以吾觀此三人者,皆敗德也。遠之猶恐禍及,況昵之乎?」

At the time Cavalier Regular Attendant Liú Shào composed Kǎo kè fǎ “Examinations and Differentiation Methods,” the matter was sent down to the Three Offices. Gǔ criticized [Liú] Shào’s discussing saying: “Overall one hears an Emperor’s Regulations are magnificent and deep, the Sage’s Way obscure and remote, if there is not this capacity, then the Way is not from nothing enacted, divinity and enlightening it, is stored in this person. If the ruler’s outlines are deficient and declining and neglect conveying of unification, profound words are lost, the Six Books are lost and blemished. Why is this? The Way is grand and stretches far but of the masses’ talents none can reach. Citing [Liú] Shào’s Kǎo Kè lùn “Examinations and Differentiation Discussion,” although it wishes to seek the previous ages’ writings on dismissing and promoting, however these regulation systems overall are deficient and lost. Of Rituals that survive, there are only Zhōu’s standards, outside establishing marquis and earls, vassal screens in nine regions, inside setting ranked managers, charged with the Six Offices, lands have fixed tribute, officials have settled standards, the hundred duties uniformly present, the four peoples [elites, farmers, artisans, merchants] different enterprises, and therefore examining achievements could be reasonable and dismissing and promoting easily attained. Great Wèi continues the Hundred King’s end, carrying on Qín and Hàn’s exploits, the legacies of regulation standards, are not cultivated and gathered. From Jiàn’ān [196-220] onward, reaching to Qīnglóng [233-237], divine warfare suppressed chaos, beginning foundations of Imperial blessings, sweeping away the vicious and rebellious, cutting and razing the remaining bandits, banners and flags rolling and unfolding, daily without rest. Reaching to ruling state and governing warfare, authority and law are both used, the hundred officials and various managers, military and state enacted appointments, are by the times and appropriateness, in order to answer government opportunities. Using the ancient to endow the present, the matters are mixed and the meanings different, difficult to obtain and enact. The reason why is that regulations should rule the far-reaching, which might not be very close, laws answering the time’s affairs, are not worthy passing down to posterity. The establishing of offices and setting of duties, purifying and reasoning of people and things, is how to set foundations; abiding by names and examining facts, investigating and revising established rules, is how to govern ends. Foundation principles not yet raised and yet composing regulations not yet presented, state outlines not complete and yet examining differentiation is first, one fears it is not sufficient to determine the separation of worthy and foolish. In the past the former kings in selecting talents, were certain to begin conduct in provincial gates, lecturing in schools, conduct provided and called it worthy, the way cultivated and then called it able. Village elders proffered the worthy and able to kings, the kings respected and received them, raising their worthy, sending out to lead them, levying their able, entering to govern them, this is the meaning of former kings receiving talents. Right now the nine provinces’ people, reaching to the capital city, do not have the six villages’ raising, the duty of selecting talents, is solely given to the Selections Department. Citing character conditions then true talent is not necessarily managed, appointing frivolous boasts then virtue and conduct are not narrated, in this way then the palace hall’s utmost distinguishing, is not exhaustive in human talent. Narrating and gathering the ruling judgment, spreading and supporting the state’s patterns, form deep and righteousness wide, it is difficult to obtain and detail.”

時散騎常侍劉劭作考課法,事下三府。嘏難劭論曰:「蓋聞帝制宏深,聖道奧遠,苟非其才,則道不虛行,神而明之,存乎其人。暨乎王略虧頹而曠載罔綴,微言既沒,六籍泯玷。何則?道弘致遠而眾才莫晞也。案劭考課論,雖欲尋前代黜陟之文,然其制度略以闕亡。禮之存者,惟有周典,外建侯伯,藩屏九服,內立列司,筦齊六職,土有恆貢,官有定則,百揆均在,四民殊業,故考績可理而黜陟易通也。大魏繼百王之末,承秦、漢之烈,制度之流,靡所脩采。自建安以來,至于青龍,神武撥亂,肇基皇祚,掃除凶逆,芟夷遺寇,旌旗卷舒,日不暇給。及經邦治戎,權法並用,百官群司,軍國通任,隨時之宜,以應政機。以古施今,事雜義殊,難得而通也。所以然者,制宜經遠,或不切近,法應時務,不足垂後。夫建官均職,清理民物,所以立本也;循名考實,糾勵成規,所以治末也。本綱末舉而造制未呈,國略不崇而考課是先,懼不足以料賢愚之分,精幽明之理也。昔先王之擇才,必本行於州閭,講道於庠序,行具而謂之賢,道脩則謂之能。鄉老獻賢能于王,王拜受之,舉其賢者,出使長之,科其能者,入使治之,此先王收才之義也。方今九州之民,爰及京城,未有六鄉之舉,其選才之職,專任吏部。案品狀則實才未必當,任薄伐則德行未為敘,如此則殿最之課,未盡人才。述綜王度,敷贊國式,體深義廣,難得而詳也。」


Zhèngshǐ’s beginning [240], appointed Secretariat Documents Cadet, promoted to Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet. At the time Cáo Shuǎng controlled the government, Hé Yàn was Selections Department Secretariat Documenter, Gǔ said to [Cáo] Shuǎng’s younger brother Xī: “Hé Píngshū outside is calm but inside is sharply opportunistic, enjoys profits, and does not attend to foundations. I fear he will certainly first confuse you and yoru brothers, benevolent men will become distant, and the Court government will be overthrown.” [Hé] Yàn and the rest therefore with Gǔ were not at peace, and therefore for a minuscule matter dismissed Gǔ from office. At his home he was appointed Xíngyáng Administrator, did not go. Grand Tutor Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng invited him as Accompanying Matters Internal Cadet.

正始初,除尚書郎,遷黃門侍郎。時曹爽秉政,何晏為吏部尚書,嘏謂爽弟羲曰:「何平叔外靜而內銛巧,好利,不念務本。吾恐必先惑子兄弟,仁人將遠,而朝政廢矣。」晏等遂與嘏不平,因微事以免嘏官。起家拜滎陽太守,不行。太傅司馬宣王請為從事中郎。

Cáo Shuǎng was executed [249]. Became Hénán Intendant, (1) promoted to Secretariat Documenter. Gǔ always believed: “Qín Shǐ in abolishing marquis and installing administrators, arranging officials and dividing duties, was not with the ancients the same. Hàn and Wèi continued this, reaching to the present. However classicist scholars all wish to restore the rituals of the Three Dynasties. Rituals grand and reaching far, do not answer the times’ affairs, matters with regulations oppose, names and reality are not yet attached, and therefore for successive ages yet it has not reached governance, overall because of this. One wishes to greatly reform and settle official regulations, comply with the ancients and rectify the foundations, [but] now encountering an Emperor’s House with many troubles, one cannot yet reform and change.”

曹爽誅,為河南尹,〔一〕遷尚書。嘏常以為「秦始罷侯置守,設官分職,不與古同。漢、魏因循,以至于今。然儒生學士,咸欲錯綜以三代之禮,禮弘致遠,不應時務,事與制違,名實未附,故歷代而不至於治者,蓋由是也。欲大改定官制,依古正本,今遇帝室多難,未能革易」。

  • (1) Fù-zǐ states: Hénán Intendant inside handled the Emperor’s capital, outside presided over the capital territories, simultaneously the ancient six villages [area within 100 lǐ of the capital] and six proceedings’ [area within 200 lǐ of the capital] elites. Its peoples from different regions mixed together in residence, many were of powerful families and great clans, merchants and traders and Hú and Mò [tribal peoples], Under Heaven four gatherings, profiting from the assembling together, and yet treachery from this was produced. The previous Intendant Sīmǎ Zhī, raised his gatherings but was too simple, the next Intendant Liú Jìng joined his eyes but was too secretive, the later Intendant Lǐ Shèng destroyed standard laws to collect a time’s reputation. Gǔ established sir Sīmǎ’s gathering presiding, reduced sir Liú’s gathering eyes to weave it, what sir Lǐ destroyed he gradually restored it. The prefecture had 700 officials, half were not long serving. Hénán’s vulgar factions, Five Office officials, Merit Officers, managed selected duties, all were awarded to his home country men, without using of other country men, Gǔ in every case raised their best and rightly employed them, officials and departments divided duties, and afterwards in succession examined and evaluated them. His governance took virtue and teaching as foundation, however in wielding law it had permanence, simple and could not be violated, saw reason and noted feeling, prison litigation without adding torture yet obtained the facts. Without acting for petty kindnesses, if there were recommended attainments reaching great benefits for people’s affairs, all were secretive in his origins and vestiges, as if it did not from himself come out. Therefore at the time he was without dazzling reputation, the officials and people for a long time afterward were secured by this.

〔一〕 傅子曰:河南尹內掌帝都,外統京畿,兼古六鄉六遂之士。其民異方雜居,多豪門大族,商賈胡貊,天下四(方)會,利之所聚,而姦之所生。前尹司馬芝,舉其綱而太簡,次尹劉靜,綜其目而太密,後尹李勝,毀常法以收一時之聲。嘏立司馬氏之綱統,裁劉氏之綱目以經緯之,李氏所毀以漸補之。郡有七百吏,半非舊也。河南俗黨五官掾功曹典選職,皆授其本國人,無用異邦人者,嘏各舉其良而對用之,官曹分職,而後以次考核之。其治以德教為本,然持法有恆,簡而不可犯,見理識情,獄訟不加檟楚而得其實。不為小惠,有所薦達及大有益於民事,皆隱其端跡,若不由己出。故當時無赫赫之名,吏民久而後安之。


At the time commentators discussed wishes to attack Wú, the Three Campaign [Generals Wáng Chǎng, Hú Zūn, Guànqiū Jiǎn] presented strategies, and each were not the same. Imperial Order about this asked Gǔ, Gǔ replied saying: “In the past Fūchāi humbled Qí and surpassed Jìn, his authority spreading across the Central States, in the end coming to disaster at Gūsū; Qí Mǐn enveloped territory and expanded borders, developing lands of a thousand lǐ, [but] his body was trampled and overturned. What begins does not necessarily end well, is the ancient’s enlightened example. Sūn Quán from destroying Guān Yǔ and absorbing Jīng Province afterward, his ambitions flourished and his desires filled, vicious treason reaching the utmost, and therefore Marquis Xuān-Wén [Sīmǎ Yì] deeply established a strategy for vast planning and great mobilization. Now [Sūn] Quán is dead, entrusting the orphan to Zhūgě Kè. If he redresses [Sūn] Quán’s severe violence, reduces his oppressive governance, the people escape brutal intensity, steal security and renew kindness, outside and inside evenly considered, there will be the fear of a shared boat, and though they cannot to the end self protect and preserve, yet it is sufficient to delay submission to the Mandate from beyond the deep Jiāng. But of commentators some wish to sail boats and directly cross, rampaging beyond the Jiāng; some wish to on four routes together advance, attacking their fortresses and ramparts; some wish to greatly farm and cultivate the borders, watch for quarrels and move: truly all are standard plans for taking bandits. However from the drilling of troops onward, going out and coming in for three years, it is not an army for a surprise attack. The rebels in plundering, altogether have been sixty years, their ruler and ministers falsely established, good and bad sharing misfortune, and also have lost their primary commander, superiors and subordinates are anxious and endangered, establish and line up boats at vital crossings, firmly fortifying and occupying rugged terrain, the strategy for rampaging, it probably is difficult to succeed. Only advancing the army to greatly farm, is most lacking in security. The soldiers set out and the people enveloped, the bandits plundering cannot invade; sitting and eating amassed grain, does not toil transport troops; taking advantage of quarrels to attack, is without distant toil and expenses: this is the army’s urgent matter. In the past Fán Kuài asked for a hundred thousand army, to rampage against the Xiōngnú, Jì Bù to his face argued its shortcomings. Now wishing to cross the Cháng Jiāng, wade to the caitiff’s court, also is like that time in analogy. It does not match enlightening law and training troops, polish strategies on absolutely secure ground, resonate long-term plans to restrain the enemy’s embers, this is a certain calculation.” (1) Later Wú General-in-Chief Zhūgě Kè newly defeated Dōngguān, following up on victory to spread word of wishing to head into Qīng and Xú, the Court was about to for this prepare. Gǔ commented believing: “The Huái and Hǎi are not roads the rebels can recklessly travel, also in the past Sūn Quán sent troops to enter Hǎi, floating waves submerging, completely lost without survivors. How can Kè dare to overturn roots and exhaust base, to throw life into the vast currents, to by luck decide gain and loss? (2) Kè will not do more than send supporting forces and lesser officers with skilled navy, to ride the Hǎi and sail the Huái, to show movement in Qīng and Xú, Kè personally will gather troops to come toward Huáinán and that is all.” Later Kè indeed planned against Xīnchéng, was unsuccessful and returned.

時論者議欲自伐吳,三征獻策各不同。詔以訪嘏,嘏對曰:「昔夫差陵齊勝晉,威行中國,終禍姑蘇;齊閔兼土拓境,闢地千里,身蹈顛覆。有始不必善終,古之明效也。孫權自破關羽并荊州之後,志盈欲滿,凶宄以極,是以宣文侯深建宏圖大舉之策。今權以死,託孤於諸葛恪。若矯權苛暴,蠲其虐政,民免酷烈,偷安新惠,外內齊慮,有同舟之懼,雖不能終自保完,猶足以延期挺命於深江之外矣。而議者或欲汎舟徑濟,橫行江表;或欲四道並進,攻其城壘;或欲大佃疆埸,觀釁而動:誠皆取賊之常計也。然自治兵以來,出入三載,非掩襲之軍也。賊之為寇,幾六十年矣,君臣偽立,吉凶共患,又喪其元帥,上下憂危,設令列船津要,堅城據險,橫行之計,其殆難捷。惟進軍大佃,最差完牢。(隱)兵出民表,寇鈔不犯;坐食積穀,不煩運士;乘釁討襲,無遠勞費:此軍之急務也。昔樊噲願以十萬之眾,橫行匈奴,季布面折其短。今欲越長江,涉虜庭,亦向時之喻也。未若明法練士,錯計於全勝之地,振長策以禦敵之餘燼,斯必然之數也。」〔一〕後吳大將諸葛恪新破東關,乘勝揚聲欲向青、徐,朝廷將為之備。嘏議以為「淮海非賊輕行之路,又昔孫權遣兵入海,漂浪沉溺,略無孑遺,恪豈敢傾根竭本,寄命洪流,以徼乾沒乎?〔二〕恪不過遣偏率小將素習水軍者,乘海泝淮,示動青、徐,恪自并兵來向淮南耳」。後恪果圖新城,不克而歸。

  • (1) Sīmǎ Biāo’s Zhànlüè records Gǔ’s this answer in more detail than the base biography, now all record it to complete its meaning. Biāo states: Jiāpíng Fourth Year [252] Fourth Moon, Sūn Quán died. Campaigning South General-in-Chief Wáng Chǎng, Campaigning East General Hú Zūn, Defending South General Guànqiū Jiǎn and others memorialized to request to campaign against Wú. The Court because the three campaign strategies were different, gave Imperial Order to ask Secretariat Documenter Fù Gǔ, Gǔ replied saying:
  • In the past Fūchāi surpassed Qí and humbled Jìn, his authority spreading across the Central States, [but] was not able to escape Gūsū’s disaster; Qí Mǐn expanded territory and enveloped state, opening lands of a thousand lǐ, [but] was not enough to save from toppling defeat: what begins does not necessarily end well, is the ancient’s enlightened example. Sūn Quán from destroying Shǔ and pacifying Jīng Province afterward, his ambitions flourished and his desires filled, he punished and killed the loyal and good, even reaching to his successors, his fundamental evils already utmost. Chancellor of State Marquis Xuān-Wén [Sīmǎ Yì] previously noted the meaning of seeking chaos and inviting destruction, and deeply established a strategy for vast planning and great mobilization. Now [Sūn] Quán is already dead, entrusting the orphan to Zhūgě Kè. If he redresses [Sūn] Quán’s severe violence, reduces his oppressive governance, the people escape brutal intensity, steal security and renew kindness, outside and inside evenly considered, there will be the fear of a shared boat, and though they cannot to the end self protect and preserve, yet it is sufficient to delay submission to the Mandate from beyond the deep Jiāng. Of [Wáng] Chǎng and the rest some wish to sail boats and directly cross, rampaging beyond the Jiāng, capturing people and plundering land, taking provisions from the bandits; some wish to on four routes together advance, overlooking them with warfare, enticing those among them to rebel, and wait for their collapse; some wish to advance army to greatly farm, pressuring their neck, amassing grain and watching for quarrels, to in answer to times move. Altogether these three, are all standard plans for taking bandits. However in acting on opportunity, then achievement is accomplished and name established, if it does not answer season, then certainly there will be later misfortune. From the drilling of troops onward, going out and coming in for three years, it is not an army for a surprise attack. The rebels have lost their primary commander, store advantage in withdrawing and defending, if they gather boats and oars, collecting ships at vital crossings, firmly fortifying clear fields, to oppose troops and attacks, the strategy for rampaging, is probably difficult in certainly carrying out. The rebels in plundering, altogether have been sixty years, their ruler and ministers falsely established, good and bad same in misfortune, if [Zhūgě] Kè removes their detriments, and Heaven removes their sufferings, answering a collapse, cannot in the end be waited for. Now defending the border lands, with the rebels mutually distant, the rebels establish nets, and also hold to heavy confidentialiaity, spies cannot go, ears and eyes are without hearing. Army being without ears and eyes, investigations being unclear, and yet raising great forces to overlook rugged terrain, this is to hope for luck for achievement, first battle and afterward seek victory, not a long-term plan to secure the army. Only advancing army to greatly farm, is most lacking in security. One can give Imperial Order on [Wáng] Chǎng and [Hú] Zūn and the rest to select territory and occupy rugged terrain, investigate their thorough installations, and order the three regions to at the same time ahead defend. Seizing their fertile soil, to have them return to plowing inferior land, is first. Troops going out and people enveloped, the bandits plundering cannot invade, is second. Enveloping nearby roads, the surrendering daily arrive, is third. Nets distantly established, so spies do not come, is fourth. The rebels withdraw to their defenses, their nets certainly slacken, farming and building change them, is fifth. Sitting and eating amassed grain, the troops not transporting, is sixth. Time of quarrel i sheard, suppressing and attacking quickly and decisively, is seventh. Altogether these seven, are military affairs’ urgent matter. Not occupying then the rebels usurp and take resources, occupying them then the benefit returns to the state, it cannot be not investigated. Garrisons and ramparts mutually pressuring, the situation is already met, the wise and valorous obtain plans, the timely and inelegant obtain use, planning for it and then knowing strategies of gains and losses, challenging it and then knowing if having abundance or lacking, the caitiff’s situation and falseness, how can it escape notice? To with the small face the large, then labor is expended and strength is exhausted, to with the poor face the wealthy, then losses are doubled and wealth is emptied. Therefore ‘Enemy at ease is able to toil them, full is able to hunger them,’ this is the saying. Afterward with flourishing armies and severe troops to shake them, sharing kindness and increasing reward to beckong to them, many regions spreading alike to spread doubt in them. Using unexected ways, to reach where they are not prepared. Within three years, left raising and right lifting, the caitiffs certainly will scatter and disintegrate, securely collecting their losses, can be while sitting computed and obtained. In the past the Hàn dynasty for successive generations always suffered from the Xiōngnú, the Court ministers and planning officials in morning held court and at night ceased, the armored and helmeted officers all explained plans for campaigns, the robed gentry sorts all advised marriage alliance, the valor exerting warriors thought of devoting to battle. Therefore Fán Kuài asked for a hundred thousand army, to rampage against the Xiōngnú, Jì Bù to his face argued its shortcomings. Lǐ Xìn asked for two hundred thousand alone to face the Chǔ men, and indeed dishonored the Qín army. Now the various officers have plans to cross the Jiāng and climb rugged terrain, alone striding the caitiff court, this also is like that time’s sort. With Your Majesty’s sagely virtue, the assistant minister [regent]’s loyalty and worthiness, laws enlightened and troops trained, polish strategies on absolutely secure ground, resonate long-term plans to restrain, the caitiffis’ collapse, is a certain calculation. Therefore military manuals state: ‘subduing another’s troops, and yet not battling; capturing another’s cities, and yet not attacking.’ If one abandons a temple plan victory’s certain reasoning, and enacts a ten thousand to one not certainly secure road, it truly is what I your humble servant am anxious of. Therefore I say the plan of greatly farming and pressuring them is the most superior.”
  • At the time did not follow Gǔ’s advice. That year Eleventh Moon, Imperial Order on [Wáng] Chǎng and others to campaign against Wú. Fifth Year Standard Moon, Zhūgě Kè resisted and battled, greatly defeating the armies at Dōngguān.

〔一〕 司馬彪戰略載嘏此對,詳於本傳,今悉載之以盡其意。彪曰:嘉平四年四月,孫權死。征南大將軍王昶、征東將軍胡遵、鎮南將軍毌丘儉等表請征吳。朝廷以三征計異,詔訪尚書傅嘏,嘏對曰:「昔夫差勝齊陵晉,威行中國,不能以免姑蘇之禍;齊閔辟土兼國,開地千里,不足以救顛覆之敗:有始不必善終,古事之明效也。孫權自破蜀兼平荊州之後,志盈欲滿,罪戮忠良,殊及胤嗣,元凶已極。相國宣文侯先識取亂侮亡之義,深建宏圖大舉之策。今權已死,託孤於諸葛恪。若矯權苛暴,蠲其虐政,民免酷烈,偷安新惠,外內齊慮,有同舟之懼,雖不能終自保完,猶足以延期挺命於深江之表矣。昶等或欲汎舟徑渡,橫行江表,收民略地,因糧於寇;或欲四道並進,臨之以武,誘間攜貳,待其崩壞;或欲進軍大佃,偪其項領,積穀觀釁,相時而動:凡此三者,皆取賊之常計也。然施之當機,則功成名立,苟不應節,必貽後患。自治兵已來,出入三載,非掩襲之軍也。賊喪元帥,利存退守,若撰飾舟楫,羅船津要,堅城清野,以防卒攻,橫行之計,殆難必施。賊之為寇,幾六十年,君臣偽立,吉凶同患,若恪蠲其弊,天去其疾,崩潰之應,不可卒待。今邊壤之守,與賊相遠,賊設羅落,又持重密,間諜不行,耳目無聞。夫軍無耳目,校察未詳,而舉大眾以臨巨險,此為希幸徼功,先戰而後求勝,非全軍之長策也。唯有進軍大佃,最差完牢。可詔昶、遵等擇地居險,審所錯置,及令三方一時前守。奪其肥壤,使還耕塉土,一也;兵出民表,寇鈔不犯,二也;招懷近路,降附日至,三也;羅落遠設,閒構不來,四也;賊退其守,羅落必淺,佃作易之,五也;坐食積穀,士不運輸,六也;釁隙時聞,討襲速決,七也:凡此七者,軍事之急務也。不據則賊擅便資,據之則利歸於國,不可不察也。夫屯壘相偪,形勢已交,智勇得陳,巧拙得用,策之而知得失之計,角之而知有餘不足,虜之情偽,將焉所逃?夫以小敵大,則役煩力竭,以貧敵富,則斂重財匱。故『敵逸能勞之,飽能飢之』,此之謂也。然後盛眾厲兵以震之,參惠倍賞以招之,多方廣似以疑之。由不虞之道,以閒其不戒;比及三年,左提右挈,虜必冰散瓦解,安受其弊,可坐算而得也。昔漢氏歷世常患匈奴,朝臣謀士早朝晏罷,介冑之將則陳征伐,搢紳之徒咸言和親,勇奮之士思展搏噬。故樊噲願以十萬之眾橫行匈奴,季布面折其短。李信求以二十萬獨舉楚人,而果辱秦軍。今諸將有陳越江陵險,獨步虜庭,即亦向時之類也。以陛下聖德,輔相忠賢,法明士練,錯計於全勝之地,振長策以禦之,虜之崩潰,必然之數。故兵法曰:『屈人之兵,而非戰也;拔人之城,而非攻也。』若釋廟勝必然之理,而行萬一不必全之路,誠愚臣之所慮也。故謂大佃而偪之計最長。」時不從嘏言。其年十一月,詔昶等征吳。五年正月,諸葛恪拒戰,大破眾軍於東關。

  • (2) Hàn shū Zhāng Tāng zhuàn states: Tāng began as a minor official, gained and lost [gān mò], with Cháng’ān’s wealthy merchants Tián Jiǎ’s and Yú Wēngshū’s sort connected privately.
  • Fú Qián explains: Gained and lost [gān mò], is shooting success or failure.
  • Like Chún states: “Obtaining benefit is gained [gān], losing benefit is lost [mò].”
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes Qián directly says gained and lost as shooting success or failure and does not explain gain and loss’s meaning, its reasoning is still not yet fluent. Chún in using obtaining benefit is gained, also cannot be understood. I humbly say gained in reading it should be like dried out’s [gān] gained. Overall it says it is somewhat by luck shooting, without calculation of dried out [gān] or with liquid wetted [mò] in making it.
  • [Translator’s Note: I humbly admit that I had no idea how to interpret 乾沒 until Péi Sōngzhī explained it. This is why annotations are great.]

〔二〕 漢書張湯傳曰:湯始為小吏,乾沒,與長安富賈田甲、魚翁叔之屬交私。服虔說曰:「乾沒,射成敗也。」如淳曰:「得利為乾,失利為沒。」臣松之以虔直以乾沒為射成敗,而不說乾沒之義,於理猶為未暢。淳以得利為乾,又不可了。愚謂乾讀宜為乾燥之乾。蓋謂有所徼射,不計乾燥之與沈沒而為之。


Gǔ once discussed whether talent or nature were the same or different, Zhōng Huì compiled and discussed it. (1) At Jiāpíng’s end, bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes. The Duke of Gāoguì village succeeded the honored throne, advanced in fief to Wǔqīng precinct Marquis. Zhèngyuán Second Year Spring, Guànqiū Jiǎn and Wén Qīn created chaos, some believed Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng should not personally go, and could send Excellency Commandant [Sīmǎ] Fú to go, only Gǔ and Wáng Sù encouraged him. [Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng therefore went. (2) Appointed Gǔ as designate Secretariat Documents Deputy Director, accompanying east. In [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and [Wén] Qīn being defeated, Gǔ had plans. When Jǐng-wáng died, Gǔ with Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng directly returned to Luòyáng, Wén-wáng therefore assisted the government. The story is in Zhōng Huì’s biography. (3) Huì because of this had self important appearance, Gǔ admonished him saying: “Your ambition is greater than your capacity, and achievements and enterprise are difficult to enact, can you be not cautious?” Gǔ for his achievements was advanced in fief to Yángxiāng marquis, increased fief by 600 households, adding to the previous to 1200 households. That year he died, at the time his years forty-seven, posthumously titled Minister of Ceremonies, posthumous name Yuán-hóu “Inaugural Marquis.” (4) His son Zhī succeeded. During Xiánxī established the Five Ranks, for Gǔ’s prominent achievements to the previous Court, changed fief of Zhī to Viscount of Jīngyuán. (5)

嘏常論才性同異,鍾會集而論之。〔一〕嘉平末,賜爵關內侯。高貴鄉公即尊位,進封武卿亭侯。正元二年春,毌丘儉、文欽作亂。或以司馬景王不宜自行,可遣太尉孚往,惟嘏及王肅勸之。景王遂行。〔二〕以嘏守尚書僕射,俱東。儉、欽破敗,嘏有謀焉。及景王薨,嘏與司馬文王徑還洛陽,文王遂以輔政。語在鍾會傳。〔三〕會由是有自矜色,嘏戒之曰:「子志大其量,而勳業難為也,可不慎哉!」嘏以功進封陽鄉侯,增邑六百戶,并前千二百戶。是歲薨,時年四十七,追贈太常,諡曰元侯。〔四〕子祗嗣。咸熙中開建五等,以嘏著勳前朝,改封祗涇原子。〔五〕

  • (1) Fù-zǐ states: Gǔ both attained governance and enjoyed uprightness, and yet had pure reasoning and noted essentials, was good at discussing talent and nature, the foundational and profound, he was able to reach it. Colonel Director of Retainers Zhōng Huì’s years were very few, Gǔ by enlightened wisdom befriended [Zhōng] Hùi.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī cites: Fù-zǐ previously says Gǔ understood Xiàhóu [Xuán] would certainly be destroyed, and would not with him befriend, and yet here says he was with Zhōng Huì friendly. [I] humbly believe Xiàhóu Xuán by his heavy name reached misfortune, the quarrel from outside arrived; Zhōng Huì for benefit moved and obtained destruction, the disaster from himself was produced. That being the case Xiàhóu’s omen of danger was difficult to observe, but sir Zhōng’s appearance of destruction was easy to see. If Gǔ understood Xiàhóu was certainly endangered, but did not see Zhōng Huì was about to be destroyed, then his knowledge was incomplete, and difficult to call thorough. If he knew both would not end well, but his feelings differed like this, it was favor and discrimination coming from love and hate, how was it predicting success or destruction? Using love and hate to favor or discriminate, also is ruinous to an elegant form. Fù-zǐ in this discussion, does not benefit Gǔ.

〔一〕 傅子曰:嘏既達治好正,而有清理識要,好論才性,原本精微,尠能及之。司隸校尉鍾會年甚少,嘏以明智交會。臣松之案:傅子前云嘏了夏侯之必敗,不與之交,而此云與鍾會善。愚以為夏侯玄以名重致患,釁由外至;鍾會以利動取敗,禍自己出。然則夏侯之危兆難睹,而鍾氏之敗形易照也。嘏若了夏侯之必危,而不見鍾會之將敗,則為識有所蔽,難以言通;若皆知其不終,而情有彼此,是為厚薄由于愛憎,奚豫於成敗哉?以愛憎為厚薄,又虧於雅體矣。傅子此論,非所以益嘏也。

  • (2) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Gǔ firmly urged Jǐng-wáng to go, Jǐng-wáng had not yet followed. Gǔ again said: “Huái and Chǔ’s troops are stalwart, and Jiǎn and the rest’s carry strength to from afar contend, their advance is not yet easy to withstand. If the various officers battle and have edges blunted, great power entirely lost, then your excellency’s affairs are ruined.” At the time Jǐng-wáng had newly cut out eye tumor, the wound deep, heard Gǔ’s words, stumbled about and rose saying: “I request carriage urgently to go east.”

〔二〕 漢晉春秋曰:嘏固勸景王行,景王未從。嘏重言曰:「淮、楚兵勁,而儉等負力遠鬥,其鋒未易當也。若諸將戰有利鈍,大勢一失,則公事敗矣。」是時景王新割目瘤,創甚,聞嘏言,蹶然而起曰:「我請輿疾而東。」

  • (3) Shìyǔ states: [Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng’s illness was extreme, he entrusted the court and government to Fù Gǔ, Gǔ did not dare accept. When he died, Gǔ secretly did not hold mourning, and with Jǐng-wáng’s orders summoned [Sīmǎ Zhāo] Wén-wáng to Xǔchāng, to manage the army.
  • Sūn Shèng’s Píng states: Jìn Xuān [Sīmǎ Yì], Jǐng [Sīmǎ Shī], Wén [Sīmǎ Zhāo] in controlling Wèi, their power was heavy and mutually carrying on, and was the King’s enterprise’s foundation. How could petty little Fù Gǔ be appropriate to be involved in it? What Shìyǔ says, this is not correct.

〔三〕 世語曰:景王疾甚,以朝政授傅嘏,嘏不敢受。及薨,嘏祕不發喪,以景王命召文王於許昌,領公軍焉。孫盛評曰:晉宣、景、文王之相魏也,權重相承,王業基矣。豈蕞爾傅嘏所宜閒廁?世語所云,斯不然矣。

  • (4) Fù-zǐ states: Previously, Lǐ Fēng with Gǔ were of the same province, when young had prominent reputation, early held great office, inside and outside praised him, Gǔ also was not friendly. He said to his comrades: “Fēng ornaments falsely and has many suspicions, boasts of small failings and conceals power and wealth, if he resides in mediocrity it can be, if assigned critical affairs, encountering the wise he will certainly die.” Fēng later became Internal Documents Director, with Xiàhóu Xuán were both destroyed, in the end as Gǔ said. Gǔ from youth with Jì province Inspector Fěi Huī, and Cavalier Regular Attendant Xún Hán were friendly, Huī and Hán early died. He also with Defending North General Hé Zēng and Excellency of Works Chén Tài, Secretariat Documents Deputy Director Xún Yǐ, Rear General Zhōng Yù were together friendly, mutually shared in handling Court affairs, all became famed ministers.

〔四〕 傅子曰:初,李豐與嘏同州,少有顯名,早歷大官,內外稱之,嘏又不善也。謂同志曰:「豐飾偽而多疑,矜小失而昧於權利,若處庸庸者可也,自任機事,遭明者必死。」豐後為中書令,與夏侯玄俱禍,卒如嘏言。嘏自少與冀州刺史斐徽、散騎常侍荀甝善,徽、甝早亡。又與鎮北將軍何曾、司空陳泰、尚書僕射荀顗、後將軍鍾毓並善,相與綜朝事,俱為名臣。

  • (5) Jìn Zhūgōng zàn states: Zhī appellation Zǐzhuāng, Gǔ’s youngest son. During Jìn Yǒngjiā reached Excellency of Works. Zhī’s son Xuān, appellation Shìhóng. Shìyǔ appraises Xuān as for fairness was famed, rank reached Censorate Central Deputy. Xuān’s younger brother Chàng, appellation Shìdào, Confidential Documents Deputy, died among the Hú. Written in Jìn Zhūgōng zàn and Jìn Gōngqīng Lǐzhì Gùshì.

〔五〕 晉諸公贊曰:祗字子莊,嘏少子也。晉永嘉中至司穴。祗子宣,字世弘。世語稱宣以公正知名,位至御史中丞。宣弟暢,字世道,祕書丞,沒在胡中。著晉諸公贊及晉公卿禮秩故事。

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